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ON THE ESTABLISHMENT OF NIGHT These watchmen had in some cases horns, and in GUARDS, OR WATCHMEN.

others rattles; the former generally for villages, and In proportion as a town increases in population and the latter for towns. The rattles which the watchwealth, we naturally acknowledge the necessity for men of London carried a few years ago, seem to making some provision for the protection of persons have been of German origin, since a body called the and property, at those hours when the inhabitants are Ratelwache, or rattle-guard, was established at Hamleast able to protect themselves. Consequently, we burg in 1671. find that from the earliest establishment of municipal There appears to have been one species of watchbodies, arrangements, more or less judicious, have men which has never been introduced in England; been made for the establishment of a system of that is, steeple or tower-watchmen. These were men night-guard or watching.

who were posted in church steeples, or on high towers, There are several allusions to watchmen in the and who had to blow their horns at the expiration of Song of Solomon and in the Psalms, which show every hour. The custom prevailed in Germany in that the Jews had such guards in their towns. At the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. At first the Athens, sentinels were posted at different parts during inhabitants themselves had to fill this office by turns; the night; and overlookers went round at intervals, but in process of time, a paid body of men, who to see that they were at their posts : the overlookers were generally the town-pipers, or town-musicians, used to ring a bell, which the sentinels were obliged relieved them from this duty. A police order was to answer. There were at Rome, under the names of made at Berlin in 1580, by which the steeple-watchTriumviri nocturni, Cohortes vigilium, &c., men who men were allowed to attend at weddings with music, guarded the streets during the night, as well to give for the accustomed pay, but only till the hour of alarm in case of fire, as to keep depredators in awe. nine at night, in order that they might then blow

The custom of causing the watchmen to call out their horns on the steeples, and commence their the hours during the night, seems to have sprung up nightly watch. In some German towns the regula. in Germany, after the erection of walled cities and tions were so strict, that the steeple-watchman had a towns, In the feudal and baronial ages, towns were room built for him in or near the steeple of the often surprised by hostile troops in the night; and church, from which he was not permitted to descend. to lessen the liability of being so taken unawares, Most of our readers are familiar with the custom watchmen or sentinels were placed, generally on of Christmas " waits,” playing music and calling out elevated positions. The custom of calling out the the hour on several consecutive nights preceding hour was probably established with the view to fur- Christmas-day. These waits were originally a sort of nish some test, by which the inhabitants might know watchmen in the court-yards of the palaces of the that the watchmen were vigilant and at their posts. nobility, some centuries back; and Rymer gives the With regard to the earlier cities, such as Rome, even following curious account of the pay and privileges if they had watchmen, it was not so easy for them to of the waits in the king's court, in the reign of announce the hours during the night. Clocks and Edward the Fourth. watches were not then invented, and sun-dials could A Wayte, that nightelye from Mychelmas to Shrere only be used during the continuance (and that un- Thorsdaye pipethe the watche within this courte fower clouded) of the sun above the horizon. During the tymes; in the somere nyghtes iij tymes, and maketbe bon day, the inhabitants could know the hour by means

gayte at everie chambere-doare, and office, as well for feare of public clepsydre or water-clocks, which were kept mynstrielles, and takethe lyverey at nyght a loffe

, a galone

of pyckeres and pillers. He eateth in the halle with in open buildings in various parts of Rome. These

of alle, and for somere nightes ij candles pich, a bushel of water-clocks indicated the time by the trickling of coles; and for wintere nightes half a loafe of bread, a galone water through a small orifice; but as they were not of alle, iiij candles piche, a bushel of coles; daylye whilst likely to be visited by the inhabitants during the he is presente in courte for wages in cheque roale allowed night, it does not appear that there was any means

inijd. or else iij by the discresshon of the steuarde and of knowing the hour at those times. When, how

tressorere; and that, aftere his cominge and diseruinge; ever, the walled towns of Germany and the Lowlyke to the wages that he takethe; and he be syke he

also cloathinge with the household yeomen or mynstrielles Countries came into note, the night-watchmen, in taketh twoe loves, ij messe of great meate one galone of addition to their more important duty, announced alle. Also he partethe with the householde of general the hour.

gyfts, and hathe his beddinge carried by the comptrollers A nightly guard was established at Paris so early assyg ment; and under this yeoman to be a groome watere. as the year 595. The citizens were obliged to keep takethe rewarde, clothinge, meate, and all other things

If he can excuse the yeoman in his absence, then he watch in turns, under the command of a Miles Gueti, lyke to other grooms of houshold. Also this yeomanwho was also called Chevalier. From this inconve- wayghte, at the makinge of knightes of the bathe, for his nient duty the inhabitants frequently freed themselves attendence upon them by nyghte tyme in watchinge in the by paying a sum of money; until, at length, a body chapelle, hathe to his fee all the watchinge-clothinge that of night-guards was established.

the knighte shall wear uppon him. A traveller in the East, in the last century, speaks Thus, we find, that these waits were a kind of of a curious mode of night-watching in Japan. The minstrel-watchmen attached to the establishments of watchmen used to have ropes with knots tied in them the great. In later times, when baronial customs at intervals : the rope, when kindled, would burn or were on the decline, the waits emerged from the smoulder away slowly, and when it had burned to a court-yards, and perambulated the streets,–became, knot, the watchman announced the hour, (or what- in fact, tradesmen on their own account, instead of ever other interval of time it might be,) by striking being retainers of great families. At present they two flat boards together.

have entirely lost the character of watchmen, although, Montagne, speaking of the German towns about in the intervals of their tunes, they still continue to the end of the sixteenth century, says,“ The watchmen call the hour. went about the streets in the night time, not so much Permanent watchmen, however, gradually became on account of thieves, as on account of fires and introduced into England. These watchmen, as most other alarms. When the clocks struck, the one was persons will remember, were appointed, paid, and obliged to call out loud to the other, and to ask what regulated, either by the corporation of the town in it was o'clock, and then to wish him a good night." | which they served, or by the authorities of the different parishes in those towns, each parish regulating I wiser workman, prudently placed this sum of money its own watchmen. The old watch-boxes have left in the neighbouring Savings' Bank, he would assure their impression on the mind, as little domiciles in to himself that certain resource for his old age, which the watchmen rested--and perchance slept—at without which he will only fall into misery and regret, intervals between going their rounds. A material and his gray hairs go down with sorrow to the grave. and judicious alteration, the nature of which we need A person who abstains from those useless Monday not particularly describe, has been made, within a few holidays, and carries to the Savings' Bank every week years, in the night-guarding of the public streets, by that sum of money, which otherwise would have the establishment of the Metropolitan Police.

been lost, as before shown, will, at the end of only The regulation of the police in Paris and other seven years, have accumulated no less a sum than French towns, whether for day or night watch, one hundred pounds. savours more of military discipline than anything of May the workmen and mechanics who read this the kind which we have in England : the system of reflect seriously upon what has been stated; and for espionage is, indeed, so strict, that it is doubtful the future, if they have not already, adopt habits of whether it would suit the notions and habits of our regularity and economy, without which it is imposcountrymen. We should be apt to think it an inter- sible for them to continue respected, comfortable, or ference with private rights, if the owner of an hotel happy. May they remember, and avail themselves of had to render up to the police a list of the names, the advantages offered by the Savings' Banks of the professions, &c., of all the persons who might come to kingdom; “for,” to use the words of a well-known take up their abode, even for a single night, in their address, “these banks receive just what each person houses : yet such is the case in Paris.

can spare, and when and as long as he can spare it--a shilling or pound more or less, weekly or

monthly, or quarterly, or now and then, just as it MONDAY'S EXPENSES.

happens." There at all times the fruits of industry In many of our villages, in all our manufacturing may be safely housed, and what is more, while there towns, and more especially in the overgrown metro- they remain, they are certain to be on the increase. polis of London, the grand emporium of the world, a If it please God to spare a person's life, he will great number of workmen, of all descriptions, follow go on increasing his store and his respectability. the baneful habit of making a holiday, as it is falsely in health and in sickness he will have no wants termed, on Monday, for the purpose, not of being but whạt his own funds can supply. Secure surrounded by their wives and families, and assisting from distress himself, he may be able to relieve (as their labours, but of wasting in a public-house those not unfrequently happens) the distress of a relation hours which would have been much better, and or friend; and when he dies, will leave his little promore profitably employed in their workshops. It is perty to his children, or other relatives, and his good even not a rare occurrence to observe those unfortu- example with it. The present great advantages denate beings who take also the Tuesday, nay even in rived from Savings' Banks in this country may be some instances the Wednesday, for the same hateful partially estimated from the fact of considerably occupation. Independent of the habits of idleness more than the enormous sum of twenty millions of and of debauchery which they necessarily contract in money being invested in them. To the manifold such scenes and occupations, they invariably ruin benefits arising from them to families of the labouring their health, enervate their strength, and bring on classes the writer of this can fully testify, having premature old age. Nor do the direful effects stop frequently heard them admitted by the parties, with here; for should a panic happen, or a stagnation of tears of joy in their eyes.

F. I. F. trade arise, from any of those innumerable causes which from time to time agitate the commercial

Religion has been sometimes decried as the passion of world, so as to compel the great manufacturers, or

weak men, women, and children. Woman may blush for wholesale houses, to lower their establishments, those the association which the ridicule involves, but she has no holiday-making workmen would be among the first reason to be ashamed of her propensity. it ever be that would be removed from their situations, and

her distinction! It is the heart which adorns as well as refused employment; and they would have only them

enriches.--Mrs. Jonn SANFORD. selves to accuse for all the misery which they would

Those disasters which break down the spirit of a man, and thus have brought upon themselves and upon their

prostrate him in the dust, seem to call forth all the energies families.

of the softer sex, and give such intrepidity and elevation to But there is another consideration, merely matter their character, that at times it approaches to sublimity: of computation, which ought never to be lost sight Nothing can be more touching than to behold a soft and of. If we estimate the day's work of a mechanic or

tender female, who had been all weakness and dependance, workman at three shillings, and what he spends and alive to every trivial roughness, while treading the during his day's holiday-making every Monday

prosperous paths of life, suddenly rising in mental force to

be the comforter and supporter of her husband under two shillings, which is certainly not exaggerating the misfortune, and abiding, with unshrinking firmness, the facts in the generality of instances, it is clear that he bitterest blasts of adversity. As the vine which has long who only throws away the Monday, will be out of twined its graceful foliage about the oak, and been lified by pocket at the end of the week five shillings, besides it in sunshine, will, when the hardy plant is rified by the what may be lost by other means, or by the rules of thunder-bolt, cling round it with its caressing tendriis, and the establishment to which he belongs. In many Providence, that woman, who is the mere dependant and

bind up its shattered boughs; so is it beautifully ordered by instances must also be added the loss of situation

ornament of man in his happier hours, should be his stay and character, or at any rate the smaller gains of the and solace when smitten with sudden calamity; winding Tuesday, as few men are capable of working properly herself into the rugged recesses of his nature, tenderly the day after a debauch. Now as there are fifty-two supporting the drooping head, and binding up the broken weeks in a year, it follows that such a workman loses heart. I was once congratulating a friend, who had around in the course of the year two hundred and sixty shillings tion. " I can wish you no better lot," said he, with enthu

him a blooming family, knit together in the strongest affecas his mere expenses of the Monday, independent of siasm, “than to have a wife and children: if you are prospethose of his family. If, however, instead of dissi

rous, there they are to share your prosperity; if otherwise, pating the Monday, he, like the more provident and there they are to comfort you." — ?

THE BLACK RAT.

Although the Black Rat is so well known in Europe at the present time, it is the opinion of many authors that the ancients were ignorant of its existence; from this it is inferred that its original country is America, from whence it was imported into Europe by the vessels that trade between the two continents; but when this first occurred is uncertain.

the rural districts of France, where it is a complete scourge to the farmer, from the damage it commits, by gnawing linen, woollen goods, leather, harness, and fat substances of every description; in fact, almost everything that falls in its way. It is particularly fond of hog's-lard, and this substance is frequently employed as a bait in the traps which are set for its destruction.

A method of taking Rats was some years back resorted to with great success; it consisted in employing a simple wooden trap, with a door like a portcullis,

capable of closing one end, the other end being left The Black Rat, although at present nearly extinct, open. At first the door was propped up so as to was originally the common species in this country. prevent its falling, and malt slightly perfumed with oil The Brown Rat, with which we are so well acquainted, of aniseed was spread near to the trap and inside of is said to have made its first appearance in England it, the Rats being attracted by the scent to feed on about the middle of the sixteenth century, but authors the malt; fresh supplies were laid down every morning, are undecided as to the country from which it was till by degrees, becoming more confident, all the Rats brought; since its introduction it has rapidly in. on the premises resorted to the trap to partake of creased, and its black kinsman is rarely met with. their savoury meal. When the animals had acquired

This increase of one, and disappearance of another, perfect confidence, say in a week or ten days, the species, may be partly attributed to the greater size prop supporting the door was removed, and it was so of the Brown Rat, who, in the wars that take place in contrived that it could be let down in an instant; a times of famine, generally comes off victorious. The bag rubbed with the oil of aniseed was also tied on principal haunts of the Black Rat at present are in to the open end, and the Rats coming to their usual old houses, in large cities, such as London and Edin- meal would soon fill the trap; the door was then let burgh, where sometimes considerable numbers exist. down quickly but gently, and the trap with its pri. “It forms its runs between the walls of houses, and soners removed. The Rats it contained were shaken under the stone and brick fooring of cellars, coming into the bag, and a string being drawn round it to forth in the night in search of food."

close its opening, it was detached from the trap and Although (says Mr. Bell) their disposition appears to be the Rats destroyed, taking especial care that not one naturally exceedingly ferocious, there are instances on re-escaped; a fresh bag was then tied to the trap, cord of their evincing considerable attachment, not only to which was replaced in its original position, and each other, but to inankind. Mr. Jesse, in his usually another party of prisoners captured. In this manner, amusing and pleasant style, gives us an anecdote, which the respectable authority from which he derived it forbids if proper precautions are used, nearly all the Rats in us to doubt, exhibiting a degree of tenderness and care the neighbourhood can be taken. towards the disabled and aged members of their community, which were it imitated by Christian men, would either render If we hope to instruct others, we should familiarize our our Poor-laws unnecessary, or remove the disgrace and op- own minds to some fixed and determinate principles of probrium which their mal-administration too often causes to action. The world is a vast labyrinth, in which almost every attach to them. His informant, the Rev. Mr. Ferryman, one is running a different way, and almost every one maniwalking out in some meadows one evening, “observed a festing hatred to those who do not run the same way. A great number of Rats in the act of migrating from one place few indeed stand motionless, and not seeking to lead themto another, which it is known they are in the habit of doing selves or others out of the maze, laugh at the failures of oocasionally. He stood perfectly still, and the whole as- their brethren, yet with little reason; for more grossly than semblage passed close to him. His astonishment, however, the most bewildered wanderer does he err, who never aims was great, when he observed an old blind Rat, which held a

to go right. It is more honourable to the bead, as well as to piece of stick at one end in his mouth, while another Rat the heart

, to be misled by our eagerness in the pursuit of had hold of the other end of it, and thus conducted his truth, than to be safe from blundering by contempt of it. blind companion."

The bappiness of mankind is the end of virtue, and truth The name given to this Rat by the Welsh, signify- is the knowledge of the means ; which he will never seriing “French Mouse," renders it probable that, what- ously attempt to discover who has not habitually interested ever may be its native country, it was introduced himself in the welfare of others. The searcher after truth here from the French coast. From Europe it has

must love and be beloved; for general benevolence is a been sent with the Brown Rat to America, the islands benevolence is begotten and rendered permanent by social

necessary motive to constancy of pursuit; and this general of the Pacific, and many other places, in some of and domestic affections. Let us beware of that proud which it has become already a serious inconvenience. philosophy which affects to inculcate philanthrophy while it

The tail of the Rat is very singular in its formation; denounces every home-born feeling by which it is produced it is covered with the appearance of small scales ard nurtured. The paternal and ilial duties discipline the arranged in rings, between which stiff hairs appear, tensity of private attachments encourages, not prevents,

heart, and prepare it for the love of all mankind.' The inbut too few in number to hide the scales from the universal benevolence. The nearer we approach the sun, eye. The food of the Rat is various, although, when the more intense his heat: yet what corner of the system it can obtain vegetable substances, such as grain and does he not cheer and vivify? --S.T. COLERIDGE. roots, it seems to prefer them to animal nourishment. Habit, however, frequently renders the Rats more

LONDON decidedly carnivorous, and they become greedy de

JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. vourers of putrefied substances, assembling in large POBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTHLY PANTI numbers in drains and slaughter-houses.

Sold by all Booksellers and NewsTenders in the Kingdom

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KYMIN -BUCKSTONE — TRELECK-TROY HOUSE

has been formed to the summit, which is partly PENALT-REDBROOK-BIGSWEIR-ST. BRIAVEL'S

crowned with the very extensive wood called Beau-LLANDOGO-BROCKWEIR.

lieu Grove, from whence there is a view extending The walks in the vicinity of Monmouth, as may be (the topographers say, but this we will not vouch for) supposed, are infinitely varied and delightful. Chip to the amazing circumference of nearly three hunpenham Mead, on which the races are held, is a dred miles. The course of the Wye from New Weir favourite evening resort of the inhabitants ; but the to Monmouth is seen to great advantage, and the prostranger must climb the surrounding eminences. spect is of great magnificence. On the centre of this Perhaps the finest view of the town is obtained from eminence, a monument in the form of an embattled a spot distinguished by a group of trees near the tower has been erected by subscription, to comfoot of the ascent to the Kymin, and not far from memorate the glorious victories of the immortal the entrance to Beaulieu Wood, above the road to Nelson and our other naval heroes. It is fitted up Coleford. If the lights are good, the combination of for the accommodation of visiters, and the frieze the lofty spire, castle, and picturesque buildings of the which surrounds it is ornamented with medallions of town, undisfigured by smoke, the massive bridge the most eminent British admirals, accompanied with thrown into deep shadow above the broad and rapid emblematic and appropriate devices. It is, however, Wye, which sparkles with a life-like effect, with the now going to decay. The tourist must ascend from romantic features of the surrounding scenery, form a this eminence to the Buckstone, which stands on a picture scarcely equalled in its way in the island. hill about 1000 feet high, commanding the finest view From the summit of the hill on the road to Chep- in the lower Wye tour, with the exception of the stow, is another splendid prospect, embracing not Wyndcliff, and, perhaps, Cymon's Yatt. The distance only the adjacent vale and town, but a sublime view from Monmouth by the new road to Coleford, is of the lofty Sugar Loaf, Blorenge, Skyrrid, and about three miles. The Buckstone is a famous Logan Black Mountains, with the mild blue hills of Cambria or rocking-stone of the Druids, and in form reskirting the horizon still further to the north and sembles an irregular pyramid inverted, and standing

The high conical hill called the Kymin, upon its apex; its circumference at the upper part, which rises abruptly from the banks of the river, is about fifty-four feet, but the point where it touches opposite the town, is worth visiting. A pleasant walk the pedestal is not above two feet square. On the VolXIII.

413

far west.”

summit is a rock-basin, supposed to have been used on the right bank of the river, with the curious cross for libations, or other ceremonies connected with the in its pretty church-yard, are worthy attention, if Celtic superstitions. Upon the eastern corner of the time is not an object. The former is situate on the stone is a rude arch, now almost obliterated from the side of a woody eminence. On an extensive common effects of time and the weather, which is supposed behind there is a large oak, with a stone seat at its foot. by Borlase to bave been the sacellum, or chapel, where A singular custom was formerly observed at this spot : the Druid of the stone placed himself during the when a funeral passed by, the corpse was placed on sacred rites of divination, or for the purpose of giving this stone, and the company sang a psalm; being an oracular answers. This hill was no doubt a grand evident continuation of the oak and stones of Druidism, station of the Druids, whence they communicated by and Celtic customs altered into a Christian form. beacons for great distances. In a clear day the Passing by Upper and Lower Redbrook, on the prospect is of immense extent, and sweeps the horizon left bank, the little stream which forms the bounon almost every side. The Monmouthshire and dary between the counties of Monmouth and GlouWelsh mountains as far as the Brecon Beacons, (the cester, here falls into the Wye, turning the wheels of highest point in South Wales,) Herefordshire, the several iron and tin-works. At Whitebrook are Malvern Hills, the wide expanse of the Forest of some paper-mills, which stand on the site of the old Dean, the Treleck mountains, and a graceful view iron-works, and a little below, a lofty eminence, towards Tintern and the Wyndcliff, with glimpses of called Pen-y-van Hill, appears on the right. Between the Cotswolds, and in other counties, are all to be Pen-y-van and the river are the ruins of the ancient seen from this celebrated spot. Immediately below manor-house of Pilstone, which are now partly conis what we may term a sea of wood—one of the verted into a farm. Crossing the Wye over a modern finest parts of Dean Forest. We have visited the and somewhet handsome iron bridge, we come to Buckstone frequently, and always discovered new Bigsweir House, (now we believe untenanted,) beautibeauties. Wood, water, mountain, and precipice, are fully situate amidst hills luxuriantly clothed with grouped and blended together in the " true superb of wood. The house stands on a gentle eminence, which the picturesque.” Another very interesting excursion gradually rises into a lofty hill called Hud-knolls, may be made from Monmouth up the Treleck Hill, on the summit of which, in a bleak uninteresting which commands decidedly the finest views of the country, are the venerable remains of St. Briavel's mountains to the north and west, to the village of Castle. This ancient fortress stands on the confines Treleck, (six miles,) an ancient British station, where of Dean Forest, and was originally founded by Milo, there are some curious Celtic remains. Three huge earl of Hereford, in the reign of Henry the First, stones standing in a field near the church, (which is for the residence of the Lords Warden of the English worth inspection,) are sometimes called Harold's and Welsh marches, and as a check to Cambrian stones. There is also a large tumulus encircled by a incursions. It has been in a state of decay for cenmoat, supposed to be of Druidical origin.

turies, and though "patched and cobbled like a wornReturn we now to the “ very delight of the eyes out shoe," it is still sufficiently in repair to serve the and seat of pleasure," as the poet Gray terms Mon purposes of a prison for debtors and delinquents in mouth, and let us wend our way down the placid the Forest. Wye to the ruins of “Holy Tinterne."

At Bigsweir, an intelligent writer makes the followvailing features as we progress onwards are lofty ing remark:wooded banks, which often hem the stream closely ;

The voyager will lose one interesting feature almost pebut we prefer that portion of the scenery above culiar to the Wye; we allude to the numerous weirs which Monmouth, where the banks of the river are more obstruct its navigation when the tide is out; at high water open, and consequently afford a wider range of land- the tide flows over them and makes the river appear perscape for the eye to dwell upon. Gilpin, in speaking fectly level. of the beauties of river scenery, says,

The river is also straitened in many places by protimes they should come running up to the forejecting rocks and shelves, in some instances extending ground; then hide themselves behind woody preci- nearly across the stream; these produce a constant pices; then again, when we know not what has succession of rapids and eddying falls, which conbecome of them, appear in the distances, forming tinue beyond Bigsweir, where the current is very their meanders along some winding vale.”

strong. Troy House, about a mile to the south-east of From hence a long reach leads us to Llandogo, Monmouth, on the banks of a little trout stream called situated on the right bank of the river about seven the Truthy, from whence it derives its name, is miles from Monmouth. Tiddenham Hill rises promichiefly worthy of notice on account of several antiqui- nently in the foreground of this sweet village, which ties being preserved there. Amongst others may be consists of numerous dwellings studded along the side mentioned the bed which is assigned by tradition of a steep and lofty eminence, mantled with thick as the one in which Henry V. was born; his cradle, and picturesque woods. Nearly in the centre of the and the armour which is said to have worn at hill is a deep ravine, called “Cleddon Shoots," down Agincourt. There is also a curious carved oak chim- which in the Winter there is a beautiful cascade. A ney-piece, brought from Ragland Castle. The house, pretty view of the river, which forms a smooth bay, which was the work of Inigo Jones, contains some with the extensive tract of woodland called Hud. fine apartments, adorned with portraits of the noble knolls nearly opposite, may here be obtained. The house of Beaufort, into whose hands it originally Wye now becomes subject to the influence of the came from the Herbert family. The present Duke of tide, and its hitherto crystal and translucid wave is Beaufort occasionally visits it in the Autumn.

sullied with the turbid waters of the Severn Sea. About half a mile further on, “the Wye,” to use Coedithelweir is a large fall of water beneath Hudthe words of Nicholson, “makes a grand sweep to knolls wood. On the left bank, about half a mile the right, and assumes a new character. Dismissing lower down, is the populous little hamlet of Brockits rocks and precipices, it rolls through lofty sloping weir, where there is a mart for the reception of goods, hills, thickly covered with waving woods. All is chiefly corn, hoops, and fagots, which are brought here solemn, still, and agreeable." Penalt church, down the Wye, and here shipped on board vessels of and the interesting little church at Michel Troy, both from thirty to eighty tons and upwards, for Bristol

The pre

" that some

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