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interior of the cylinder. It is for this purpose that | USES OF SOME OF THE INORGANIC SUBholes are left in the substance of the cylinder, that

STANCES TO MAN. the vacuum within may act upon the pulp which is IF, under the peculiar appointments for man, shelter spread on the wire-cloth on the outside.

has been rendered as imperious a necessity as clothing, All these after-contrivances, such as the vacuum, if substances have been prepared for this purpose, &c., are to facilitate the drying of the pulp. Directly which he has been gifted with ingenuity to apply, after the film of pulp has been thus dried, it is then and if he has been further provided with intellect to taken off by an endless band of felt which passes effect this end in a progressively superior manner, over another cylinder, and is pressed between two which, if had not, he would have been judged less rollers, much in the same way as we described in worthy of his Maker's regard than the beaver and Fourdrinier's method. The water which flows from the bee, we ought to believe that the means were the pulp through the wire-cloth, into the hollow of created for him, even more than the wool of the the first cylinder, is carried off by means of a pipe, sheep, since to all other animals they serve no purwhich acts, as the axis round which the cylinder


It is an inconsiderate or a fanatical judgment, revolves; and as this water frequently contains a which thinks that a Being so great and so powerful small quantity of pulp, arrangements are made for could not have attended to such trifles, or which conveying that pulp back again into the vat.

thinks Him insulted by such a supposition. Com. One of the great advantages of machine-made pared to Himself, what is there worthy of his notice? paper, is the large size which can be given to the He who cares for the minutest insect as for man, sheets. A sheet of paper for a double number of the cannot have judged anything beneath His regard ; Times newspaper, if made by hand, would require a and if He has provided for the wants of even the mould of most unwieldy dimensions, and would be living atom which escapes the microscope, it is our in every respect difficult to work. Paper-hangings duty to believe that He has neglected nothing which have been greatly reduced in price, by being made in could concern our own, infinitely more numerous one piece twelve yards long; whereas small sheets and complicated as they are, even to the production had to be pasted together, under the old system. of a sandstone for building, a limestone for cement,

Such are the modes now adopted for making and a slate for roofing. paper. In some parts of the Continent, the rags Is it that associations like these are deemed imare still reduced to a pulp in the original mode of proper? Let the student of creation accustom himstamping or beating. They have mortars cut in solid self to think otherwise, else will he fail to discover oak, the cavity being two or three feet in diameter, that the hand of God is in all His works, and learn and a hole in the middle of the cavity being left to to neglect Him. Or is it that such attentions are carry away the water. Large hammers with teeth deemed mean, because our own pride, or negligence, act perpendicularly in these cavities, and cut the

or selfishness, prevents us from following those rags to small pieces. This rude method is, however, examples of beneficence which He gives us? His almost exploded at the present day.

ways, indeed, are not as our ways; but were we to

endeavour to make our conduct more like His, if INTEMPERANCE.

only in this, human nature and human life would Fresh is fair beauty's cheek, and bright

present far other aspects than they now do. Instead Within the festive room,

of charging with fanaticism or folly, what may Yet may not brook the morning light,

appear vulgar or fanciful attempts to illustrate His When night has brushed its bloom.

goodness, let us rather labour to do as He has done, And bright is valour's mailed vest,

and equally careless of the ingratitude with which it Yet soiled in nightly jar ; It may not bear with ruffled crest

is received, to persevere in beneficence. Little, To meet the morning star.

indeed, it is that we can effect, but it were well that But more unseemly is the view,

we even desired to do for each other what He has When morning beams are poured

done from the beginning, and is continually doing On signs of revelry, that strew

for us, ever thoughtless and ever ungrateful.
The late carousal board.

Are these superfluities, sources of pure pleasure,
And still unseemlier than the signs,
On that foul board you trace,

luxuries, provided for us in these appointments, as in Are the deep-drawn inveterate lines,

all else? The latter term possesses a vulgar associThat mark the reveller's face,

ation with what is vicious or forbidden, as do even The brow with clammy moisture spreal,

the former, in minds tinged with ascetitism. But he The beating pulse, the languid head,

who would separate pleasures from uses, would require The cheek's pale glow with wrinkles hid,

to think more deeply than is usual on such subjects; The bloodless lip, the heavy lid,

he who condemns luxury has never thought at all ; The reddening eye's unsteady glance,-These are thy marks, Intemperance,

and he, the acetic, forgets that the beneficence of [The Rubi, a Tale of the Sea.]

God has not been limited to the mere supply of

needful wants. It is not from him, at least, that That another state of life there must be for every creature

reason or religion will take the character of the wherein there is the breath of life, he was verily persuaded. Universal Father. To that conclusion the whole tenour of his philosophy led In granite, we find a stone so well calculated for him; and what he entertained as a philosophical opinion, durability, so beautiful and various, and so submisacquired from a religious feeling something like the strength sive to our tools, that it has been selected from the of faith. For if the whole of a brute animal's existence ended earliest periods of civilization, as the material for in this world, then it would follow that there are creatures born into it, for whom it had been better never to have been, those works which record the power and knowledge than to endure the privations, pains, wrongs and cruel- of nations. Often, too, their architecture is the only ties intlicted upon them by human wickedness; and he portion of their history which has descended to us : would not, could not, dare not, believe, that any, even the and if it is important for us to know under what meanest of God's creatures, has been created to undergo forms man has preceded us, what he has thought, more of evil than of good, (where no power of choice was given,) much less to suffer unmingled evil

, during its allotted known and done, what has been his political conterm of existence. Yet this must be if there were no state dition, what his astronomical knowledge, what his for animals after death.-The Doctor.

mechanical attainments, what his progress in the arts of taste, so intimately connected with his general though possessed of the ingredients, and of the mental cultivation, it is here that we must often seek means of analyzing these natural compounds. Every this information, while thus, also, we often attain to one knows how difficult it has proved to rival the know what his religion has been, under the strange porcelains of China, and that the ancient pottery of forms which that has assumed. Can we then believe Greece is hitherto inimitable. that even the luxury of architecture is unimportant Indispensable as this property, and the arts derived in the eye of the Deity ?

from it, are to those countries which are deprived of And if thoughtlessness should condemn the im- stone, which, nevertheless, from this very cause, their mense, and apparently useless labours of ancient alluvial nature, with their consequent fertility, havé Egypt, so are they easily condemned, under the use been the earliest and most crowded seats of civilized of the ever-acceptable term tyranny, the ever-ready man, so is it in those that the substances in question word of him who abuses all the power which he can abound most, as the art of converting them into command. Yet he who would eat must labour : it stone seems coeval with man himself. Still more is the unvarying law, not of God alone, but of human remarkable may it be considered, that in the most society; the bond by which it is held together. The ancient and noted of all inhabited lands, the clay soil of Egypt was the possession of its singular deposited by its great river is convertible into brick government, and the laborr of the people was the by the mere power of the sun, without which pecuonly manner in which they could demand or acquire liar appointment and command Nineveh and Babylon a share of the produce: it was the only mode in would scarcely have been ; while these great cities which they ought to have possessed their portions. occupy a space and a time far too important in the There is reason to believe that the soil had appro- history of man, to permit us to doubt that they were priated all the labour applicable to it; and commer- ordained,—they, and the very means of their erection cial industry, as it then was, had probably done the and existence. On so apparently insignificant a prosame. An artificial invention to occupy labour, be perty in an insignificant earth, the refuse of the came, therefore, imperiously necessary; and through mountains, the produce of apparent casualty, the this was. Egypt peopled, to an extent which seems deposit from a river breaking its seemingly appointed to have been very great. The bearing of this fact on bounds, have been founded the greatest and the most other cases, where, under a general law pervading all powerful, as the most ancient of empires, producing creation, conditions of labour have been attached to all those extraordinary consequences, which, but for possession, must be obvious: and though tyranny this, would never existed. Can the hand of the had been the immediate cause, even thus does the Creator be seen in this? Let the reader

ter conclude for Deity often direct the wickedness of man to his own himself. good ends.

On the variety of arts, the mass of industry, the Sandstone demands no particular remarks; but production of wealth, the uncountable uses consehad the fissility of slate not been known, it would quent on so apparently trivial a substance and simple scarcely have been credited, especially by those who a property, I need not dwell. Yet I must remark, know that it does not occur in consequence of its that to the singular indestructibility of this artificial stratified disposition. That rock was once a solid stone, a property possessed by scarcely any natural mass of clay, deposited horizontally, in slow succes. work, we owe, as we do to architecture, much histosion, and afterwards indurated. It should have sepa- rical knowledge that would otherwise have irreparably rated into leaves, as the shales do, in the same direc- perished. Hence alone, nearly, is it that we can still tion in which it was deposited, if it was to split at all, trace the great Babylon, perhaps the remains of that and there is, therefore, no contingency in the present very tower, whose history forms so remarkable an era very different result. The law is a peculiar one; in that of mankind. To this we long owed the only whether intended for the useful end others may judge: knowledge we had of a 'perished written language, it is not, however, the exception which it has been perhaps of the language used by the earliest races of called. Let no one ever perplex or suppress the To this also we owe much of what has been truth, above all in questions of the present nature. rescued for us in the arts of Greece and Etruria ; The same law acts in other rocks, but nowhere to the and thus bas one of the most apparently frail

, as production of so perfect an effect.

fragile, productions of human art, become the most The contrivances in the preparations for limestone unexpectedly durable of the records of nations. are much more remarkable than even in the case of

[Maccullocu's Proofs and Illustrations of the Attributes of God.] coal, and they are acting daily under our eyes, both for present and future purposes. And if animal life here contributes in more than one mode, thus are, There is something in beauty, whether it dwells in the huultimately, beneficent ends attained, through means

man face, in the pencilled leaves of flowers, the sparkling involving a primary mass of beneficence which defies surface of a fountain, or that aspect which genius breathes

over its statue, that makes us "mourn its ruin. I should not all means of estimate, in the granting of happiness envy that man his feelings who could see a leaf wither of a with life to uncountable myriads of beings, through flower fall,

without some sentiment of regret. This tender ages which we vainly attempt to conjecture. If it is interest in the beauty

and frailty of things around us, is only now superfluous to speak of the uses of this rock in a slight tribute of becoming grief and affection; for Nature

She eren comes more architecture, I may at least note, that they depend on in our adversities never deserts us. a combination of chemical arrangements which we nearly to us in our sorrows, and leading us away from the had no right to expect, and have not long discovered. cesses, allays the anguish of our bleeding hearts, binds up

It has been among the designs of the Creator, pledges of a better hope, and in harmony with a spirit of confer on clay the property of being converted into

to the wounds that have been inflicted, whispers the meek stone by the aid of heat : while under a variety of still holier birth, points to that home where decay and appointments in the constitution of these earths, we

death can never come. - Constantinople. possess all the uses derived from brick upwards to porcelain. If these varieties are such, that we could

LONDON: not have expected them, from the exceeding simplicity JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. of the composition, so is it remarkable that we must PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTULI Parts depend on nature for the greater number of them,

Sold by all Bookgollers and Newsvonders in the Kingdom.



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In the wide void we lose their cheering beams :
Lower and lower still the Pole-star gleams,

Till past the limit, where the car of day
What if the Sun

Rolled o'er our heads, and poured the downward ray,
Be centre to the world, and other stars

We now disprove the faith of ancient lore;
By his attractive virtue and their own

Boötes' shining car appears no more :
Incited, dance about him various rounds ?

For here we saw Calisto's star retire
Their wandering course now high, now low, then hid,

Beneath the waves, unawed by Juno's ire.
Progressive, retrograde, or standing still,

The latter part of this quotation implies, that when the
In six thou seest, and what if seventh to these
The planet Earth, so steadfast though she seem,

navigators had got some way below the tropic of Capricorn, Insensibly three different motions* move?

they lost sight of the constellations Bootes and the Great Milton's Par. Lost, b. viii. Bear.

The Earth, however, like all the other planets, is . not We have now arrived at the third planet in the order of quite of a globular shape; and, before we proceed further, distance,—the Earth, on which we dwell: that habitation it may be desirable to explain why it is that none of the which, though it may appear so vast-so mighty-to our planets are precisely globular, but are somewhat flattened gaze, is but a speck in the great scheme of the universe. at two opposite sides, into a shape which is called an oblate Could we but travel into space, and view the solar system spheroid, but which will be sufficiently comprehended, as a connected whole, how small would our Earth appear,

if we compare it to an orange. and how unworthy of the boastful importance which we are

All the planets, besides revolving round the Sun, have, apt to attach to it! If there be inhabitants on any of the

as we said, a revolution on their own axes; that is, they exterior planets, they see the Earth merely as a small star, spin round like a top. What may have been the original shining by the light which she receives from the Sun, and

cause of this motion has never been discovered. We can which she reflects from her own surface.

only conclude that it was given to those bodies by the That the Earth is round the proofs are many and easy: great Creator, for his own wise purposes, and according to for, in addition to the gradual appearance, from the top his own fixed and inscrutable decree. Hidden as the downwards, of a ship coming into port, and the fact of the cause of this motion is from us, we can, however, trace its world having been sailed round, which amounts to practical effects in many important circumstances; one of which is, conviction, -yet, as this sailing has always been in the the oblateness, or flattening of the revolving bodies. There direction of East and West

, the Earth might be cylindrical, is a kind of force called centrifugal, occasioned whenever and this Eastern and Western circumnavigation still have a spinning round is performed : this force tends to throw taken place; but, in sailing southward, we observe that the body, or anything which rests upon that body, away the fixed stars in the Northern heaven sink down towards from the centre as far as possible, and may be illustrated the horizon, and the Southern stars keep on rising in the in a variety of ways. A pail of water may be suspended sky; the reverse taking place as we return northward. by a rope, and turned rapidly round in a vertical circle This circumstance is beautifully alluded to in the Lusiad without wasting a drop of the water; although in every of Camoëns, a Portuguese poem, relating to the discovery revolution, the pail

, and the water which it contains, strive of India.

to recede from the hand, which is the centre of motion, as O'er the wild waves as southward thus we stray,

far as possible, during the revolution, by virtue of the cen. Our port unknown, unknown the watery way;

trifugal, or centre-flying force, which is imparted to them Fach night we see, impressed with solemn awe,

in proportion to the rapidity of motion. When the pail is Our guiding stars and native skies withdraw:

upside down, the natural tendency of the water is to be The annual, diurnal, and libratory motions, explained in this poured out towards the ground; but this tendency is counpaper.

teracted by the centrifugal force, which tends to drive the VOL. XIII.


water away from the central force which retains it. It the Sun, in passing from a certain fixed star to the same is on a similar principle that a slinger propels a stone to a star again, consists of 365 days, 6 hours, 9 minutes, and great distance: the hand is the centre of motion; and he 12 seconds, and is called the sidereal year; the year as turns the stone rapidly round in order to gain for it a cen- determined by observation of a particular star. This latter trifugal force, which shall carry it to a great distance, as is twenty minutes, twenty-three seconds, longer than the soon as it is released. If we drive a wire through any former; and is owing to a slow, but constant, alteration of round body, and make the surface of this body equally wet the position of the equinoctial points. all over, and then spin it round by means of the wire, the The actual time in which the diurnal revolution of moisture will be collected in greater quantity at those the Earth is completed, is 23 hours, 56 minutes, and 4 parts of the surfaces most removed from the wire; while, seconds; but, owing to the motion of the Earth in her at the parts near the wire, the quantity will be diminished : orbit at the same time, it is twenty-four hours, upon an the centrifugal force urges the fluid away from the central average, throughout the year, before the Sun can pass from part to the part furthest removed from the wire; which the meridian of a place to the same meridian again. This part describes the largest circle in going round.

meridian implies a line drawn from North to South, going Now, the same line of argument will apply to a revolving through any particular place, to which line the Sun planet: the surface of the Earth moves round its axis (an becomes vertical every day at noon. imaginary line, the extremities of which are called its The axis, on which the Earth is supposed to revolve, is poles) with a velocity of 1042} miles per hour, at the inclined to the plane of the Earth's orbit, or ecliptic, at an equator, a line supposed to be drawn all round the globe, angle of about 66 degrees. Now, as the plane of the at an equal distance from the two poles and at right angles equator is perpendicular to the axis of the earth, it follows with the Earth's axis. . It is clear, therefore, that the velo- that the plane of the equator is inclined to the plane of the city of the rotation of any part of the Earth's surface must ecliptic at an angle of about 23. degrees. Very remark. diminish as we recede from the equator and approach the able and important effects result from the rotation of the poles. But, as the equatorial parts especially, acquire such Earth on her axis, and from the obliquity of the equator a vast centrifugal power, the effect of it is, that the Earth with the ecliptic, which effects will occupy our attention bulges out at those parts most removed from the axis of more particularly in the next paper. rotation. The extent, to which this bulging has been We have already seen that the Earth is not now a perfectly carried in the case of the Earth, during the lapse of nearly geometrical globe; and it would strike us that, if there sixty centuries, will be seen from the following dimen- were no other cause to interfere with its due form, the exsions :-ihe smaller diameter of the Earth, measured istence of mountains and valleys on its surface is suficient along the polar axis, is 7899 English miles; and the to disturb the tiny conception we have at first regarding greater diameter, which is the diameter of the equator,

This pendant world, in bigness as a star is 79.26 miles, which, therefore, exceeds the other by about

Of smallest magnitude close by the moon. twenty-seven miles: if we take the average of these two

Milton's Par. Lost, b. ii. diameters, we may say that the Earth's diameter is about

But our conceptions of the extent of the earth's surface, 7912 miles; consequently, the circumference of the Earth which are contracted when we compare the Earth with the amounts to 24,899 miles.

universe, become enlarged by referring it to ourselves. Our planet, when in perihelion, that is, at its nearest point Hence, by instituting an arithmetical comparison between to the Sun, is about ninety-three millions of miles distant the Earth and a globe of eighteen inches diameter, if we from the Sun, and about ninety six millions of miles dis- wished to form at its proper place on the latter, and in its tant therefrom, when in aphelion, that is, the point furthest proper proportion, the very highest mountain in the worid

, removed from the Sun. These two terms will be understoord which is the Chumularee, belonging to the Himalaya) by referring to the ellipse, or oval, which was represented range, in Asia, and 29,000 feet in height, the elevation in our first paper : the Sun is situated, not in the centre, on the artificial globe would be about the one-fiftieth of an but in one focus of the ellipse; and when the Earth is inch. nearest to the Sun's focus, she is said to be in perihelion; It is probable that the Earth serves, only in a more when farthest therefrom, in aphelion. Hence, its average efficient manner, the same purpose to the Moon that the distance from the centre of its annual motion, is about Moon serves to the Earth; undergoing all the changes ninety-five millions of miles.

which we see in the Moon, and appearing nearly thirteen The path, which the Earth describes round the Sun, is, therefore, an orbit of about six hundred millions of miles; appearance to the Moon is represented at the head of this

times larger, and consequently much more brilliant. l. and this enormous distance she traverses at the rate of paper. This representation is, of course, fanciful; and to 68,000 miles an hour, or about nineteen miles in a second, estimate it fairly we must indulge ourselves in the supin 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, and 49 seconds, being position that the lunar inhabitants, if there be any, are, for the period to which we give the name of year. If the the most part, in similar circumstances with ourselves. Earth did not revolve on her axis, we, who inhabit its sur- We have before stated that the diameter of the Sun is face, should see the Sun apparently making revolution

111 times as great as that of the Earth. Now this proporround the Earth in the course of a year : a revolution tion makes the solar globe to be, as a whole, 1,384,47? which, however, would be altogether imaginary, owing to times as large as the globe of the Earth; though the the fallacy of the evidence of our senses. The Earth density of the latter is about four times as great as that moves in her orbit; but we cannot see that it is moving, of the former. The average density of the Earth is 4 because we are on its surface, and are moving in a like times that of water: so that it would seem that the Sun is direction, and with a like velocity. The motion of the composed of matter somewhat more dense, or consistent, Earth is of a smooth, equable, and unimpeded kind; which than water. sort of motion, if we experience anything like it by land or water, our senses may be lulled into a forgetfulness of our

THE MOON. being carried along, while the stationary objects on either side, -the hedges, trees, banks, &c.,—seem endued with

Meanwhile the Moon motion, and glide rapidly past us. If this be the case with

Full orbed, and breaking through the scattered clouds, respect to the annual motion of the Earth round the Sun,

Shows her broad visage in the crimsoned East.

Turned to the Sun direct, her spotted disk, how much more forcible is the application of this analogy Where mountains rise, umbrageous dales descend, to the diurnal motion of the Earth on her axis !


And caverns deep, as optic tube descries, Sun, the planets with their moons, the comets occasionally,

A smaller Earth, gives us his blaze again, and innumerable fixed stars, are placed in an apparent

Void of its flame, and sheds a softer day. hollow sphere around us; and as we come opposite to dif

Now through the passing cloud she seems to stoop, —

Now up the pure cerulean rides sublime.-Thouson. ferent parts of the heavens in succession by our diurnal rotation, it appears to us as if the whole of this concave When the poet wrote these beautiful lines, we can sphere kept on revolving round our Earth.

imagine, from the context, that he was under the influence The term of a year, just spoken of, is the time taken up of those feelings, which are produced in men by the aspect by the Sun in passing, apparently, from a particular point of the quiet, moon-lit scene of nature; when the tumults, of the ecliptic to the same point again: say, the first point excited by day, and the passions roused by intereourse with of Aries, being one of the two points, where the equator fellow-mortals, are becalmed by the clear, cold

, silence, and ecliptic cut each other. This is called the solar, or which pervades the open country ; such as makes melantropical year, the time it takes the Sun to visit the tropics choly have something of a pleasing turn, when we love to and return to the equator; whereas, the time taken up by walk forth

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To behold the wand'ring Moon,

in a particular direction, the shadows being then compared Riding near her highest noon,

with the whole diameter of the Moon. The bright spots Like one that had been led astray Through the heaven's wide pathless way,

are held to be the tops of lofty mountains illumined by sunAnd oft, as if her head she bowed,

shine; two or three of which Dr. Herschel observed to be Stooping through a fleecy cloud.-Milton's Il Penseroso. of a volcanic nature, and to emit flames and smoke. The

best authorities make the highest of these mountains less We will consider chiefly the circumstances which relate than two miles in height. Generally speaking, the dark to the Moon as a celestial body, independant of the Earth. parts are thought to be water, and the bright parts land;

The Moon is about 2060 miles in diameter; that is, her the former absorbing, and the latter reflecting the solar diameter is rather more than a quarter of that of the Earth, rays: while, at the same time, many astronomers think which is about fifty times the size of the Moon. Her mean that there is not much water in the Moon, owing to the distance from the Earth, as calculated from her horizontal usually serene appearance of her disk, which seems free parallax, is almost 240,000 miles; and she moves in her from clouds and undisturbed by fogs and vapours. If course round the Earth at the rate of about 2290 miles per there be little or no water in the Moon, this circumstance hour.

may account for the vast hollows just spoken of'; which The Moon shines by reflecting the Sun's light, as first sort of appearance the Earth might present if the oceans supposed by Thales, the Grecian astronomer. Plato sup- and lakes were suddenly drained off. But, in respect of posed that it was composed of fire; and Aristotle, that it the details of the surface of the lunar globe, there exists shone by its own native light. The Moon's light has been much variety of opinion among astronomers. found, as far as our means of observation extend, to be The Moon is presumed to have no atmosphere, or one quite devoid of heat. This fact has been proved by con- which is of a very thin character, because there have not centrating 306 times the rays of the full Moon, when on yet been observed any effects of refraction, whereby the the meridian, by a powerful burning-glass of three feet in forms of planets, when being occulted, that is, passed over diameter; the focus of which rays has not affected the and hidden by the Moon, would appear distorted just before most delicate thermometer. It has been shown by experi- the act of occultation. This effect would result from the ment, that the light of the Sun is 300,000 times greater star or planet being seen through the Moon's atmosphere. than that of the Moon. Now we will suppose that the But there does not seem an universal opinion among heating power of the Sun, compared with that of the astronomers on this point; as several have recently given Moon, is in the same proportion. The direct rays of the accounts, which, if correct, would lead us to conclude that Sun are capable of elevating the thermometer 237.. The there was a lunar atmosphere; while others say decidedly Moon's beams would therefore raise the thermometer, ac- that there is not : it seems, however, to be agreed that the cording to this calculation, only 11'soth of a degree; and, if atmosphere must be of a very rare character. these moon-beams were concentrated 306 times, the eleva- The Moon revolves in her orbit round the Earth at the tion of the thermometer might be ; of a degree. But, even same time that the Earth itself is revolving about the this calculation is considered to be too favourable to the Sun: the consequence of which is, that the Moon traces a heating power of the moon-beams, and cannot be borne out sort of spiral line round the Sun; because, by the time the by experience.

Moon has made one revolution round the Earth, the Earth The Moon, then, not possessing any heating rays, that has performed nearly one-twelfth part of her annual circuit are cognizable by man, does not seem likely to possess or round the Sun. The Moon goes round the Earth about exert any influence over the herbs, flowers, and other pro- 124 times in the course of a year; and the actual time ductions of the earth, as was imagined by the old botanists. taken up by the moon in performing this circuit is about We read in the 33rd chapter of Deuteronomy, verse 14, 27į days; but the time from new moon to new moon again where Moses, the Jewish lawgiver, speaks of the blessings is about 29 days. To each of these periods of time has of Joseph, that he refers to the precious fruits brought been given the name of month; the former being called forth by the sun, and the precious things put forth by the periodical, comprising the period of the Moon's course

We ought to observe that, in the original Hebrew, round the Earth; the latter synodical, or the month, as the word moon is used in the plural number; and in the agreed upon by men in the infancy of society, and deternext place, commentators have offered two senses of the mined by the coming together of the Sun and Moon. The latter phrase :-first, it may imply the productions of the reason why the latter is longer than the former is, that, ground made to spring up by the dews, which descend at although the Moon might actually pass round the Earth in night, when the Moon is visible; or, secondly, we may 27's days, if the Earth were still; yet, a longer time is understand the productions of the earth, which appear consumed from one phase of the Moon to the same phase respectively in their different months, or moons; the former again, owing to the motion of the Earth in its orbit, in the of these two words being only a derivation of the latter. same direction as the Moon's motion, from west to east; so

The inclination of the Moon's axis to the plane of the that the extra 2 days are spent by the Moon in fetching ecliptic is only about li°; so that her seasons are perma- up the overplus of the progress made in the mean time by nent and without variety. The density of the Moon is the Earth. considered to be somewhat greater than of the Earth. The Moon revolves on an axis, and it is remarkable that

The Sun and the Moon have always attracted the atten- the time of this revolution is just equal to the time which tion of mankind more than the other celestial bodies, owing she takes to revolve round the earth; a consequence of to their greater apparent size, and direct intluence upon our which is, that the Earth always has the same side of the globe. The Moon, revolving round the Earth, is called the Moon presented to it. The inhabitants, if any, on this side Earth's satellite, or attendant. When the full Moon is the Moon have the Earth always before them, while those viewed through a powerful telescope, her illuminated on the remote side of the Moon can never be blessed with surface appears interspersed with dark spots and ridges, of the view of it. The disk, which the Earth must exhibit to every variety of shape, as represented in the subsequent the inhabitants of the Moon, having a diameter nearly four figure; which kind of representation of the Moon was first times as large as the Moon's, is more than twelve times sketched out by Hevelius, in the year 1645.

as large as that which the Moon offers to the Earth. The There are valleys, or hollows, which are supposed to be Earth must, of course, rise and set to the Moon, and go three miles deep, and are surrounded by nearly circular through the various phases of light, just as we see is done margins, a phenomenon to which the Earth cannot afford by our celestial attendant, owing to the motion of the Moon a parallel. The spots have been so carefully noticed, that a round the earth; otherwise, the Earth will appear fixed in catalogue of 89 of them has been prepared, in which a de- the heavens, relatively to the stars, because the earth is the scription of the form and appearance of each spot, and of its centre of the Moon's motion. The Earth too would turn on exact position on the Moon's surface, is given. The spots its axis nearly thirty times, while the Moon is moving once have had fanciful names applied to them, --sometimes they round,—a rapidity which must seem astonishing to the have been named after distinguished individuals, while at Lunarians. The phases exhibited to the Moon by the other times they have been named after certain places on Earth, must be always the reverse of those exhibited at the the Earth's surface, such as Byzantium, Caucasus, Sog- same time by the Moon to the Earth, as will be evident from diana, &c. The heights of the mountains, which have inspecting the subsequent diagram. We may imagine been observed on the Moon's surface, are very variously what must be the feeling of intense curiosity with which stated by different authors, according to the modes in those on the further side of the Moon seek for information which the observations were made :-one of these modes concerning the splendid orb, visible to the other lunar hemiwas to measure the lengths of the shadows, cast by the sphere. Suppose now that we, in England, were to hear of mountains, in consequence of the light of the Sun coming a splendid moon, of vast dimensions, being visible to the



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