Abbildungen der Seite
[ocr errors]

torians dwell upon the great variety of colours and regarded as proper employments for the wives and shades in Egyptian dresses. Still the monuments daughters of even the most powerful monarchs. show us that the colours mentioned by the sacred The Tabernacle was built from the free-will offerhistorian were those most generally used; “ blue, pur- ings of the people, and it is interesting to find that so ple, and scarlet," are the favourite hangings in the far were the Hebrews from exhibiting any reluctance, royal palaces and noble halls which the artists have that the workmen, who were themselves volunteers, portrayed

had only to complain of too copious a supply. Spinning was regarded as an honourable occupa- Then wrought Bezaleel and Aholiab, and every wisetion for the mistress of a household to the latest hearted man, in whom the Lord put wisdom and under periods of the Jewish history. Even in the reign of standing to know how to work all manner of work for the Solomon, when the wealth and luxury of the Jewish service of the sanctuary, according to all that the Lord nation had attained its greatest height, we find it and every wise-hearted man, in whose heart the Lord had

had commanded. And Moses called Bezaleel and Aholiab, mentioned as almost an act of duty; it forms a

put wisdom, even every one whose heart stirred hint up to prominent part in the exquisite description given of come unto the work to do it: and thoy received of Moses a virtuous woman in the Book of Proverbs.

all the offering, which the children of Israel had brought She seeketh wool, and flax, and worketh willingly with withal. And they brought yet unto him free offerings

for the work of the service of the sanctuary, to make it her hands. She is like the merchant's ships; she bringeth every morning. And all the wise men, that wrought all her food from afar. She riseth also while it is yet night, the work of the sanctuary, came every man from his work and giveth meat to her household, and a portion to her maidens She considereth a field, and buyeth it: with the people bring much more than enough for the service of the

which they made; and they spake unto Moses, saying, The fruit of her hands she planteth a vineyard. She girdeth work, which the Lord commanded to make. And Moses her loins with strength, and strengtheneth her arms. She perceiveth that her merchandise is youu her candle goeth throughout the camp, saying, Let neither man nor woman

gave commandment, and they caused it to be proclaimed [ not out by night. She layeth her hands tu the spindle, make any more work for the offering of the sanctuary. and ner hands hold the distaff. She stretcheth vut her

So the people were restrained from bringing. For the hand to the poor; vea, she reacheth forth her hands to the

stuff they had was sufficient for all the work to make it, needy She is not afraid of the snow for her household

and too much. (Exodus xxxvi. 147.) for all her household are clothed with scarlet. She maketh herself coverings of tapestry; her clothing is silk and

The shape of the Tabernacle cannot be illustrated purple

. Her nusband is known in the gates, when he by the Egyptian monuments; it was a portable temple sitteth among the elders of the land. She maketh fine designed for a wandering race, and the Egyptian linen and selleth it; and delivereth girdles unto the mer religion prohibited everything which was likely to chant. Strength and honour are her clothing; and she encourage nomadic habits. Indeed, it would seem shall rejoice in time to come. She openeth her mouth

as if the Taberuacle had been designedly fashioned with wisdom; and in her tongue is the law of kindness. She looketh well to the ways of her household, and eateth

so as to withdraw the people from all association not the breal of idleness (Proverbs xxxi. 13—27.)

with the idolatrous worship of Egypt; for Moses was But as luxury advanced these customs of primitive cretion, but received specific directions from Jehovah,

not in this instance permitted to use his own dissimplicity gradually fell into disuse, and in the later not only respecting the general plan of the structure, ages of the Pharaohs we find ladies of rank in Egypt but even the minutest particulars of its details. yielding to that indolence which has always formed

The wood of which it was composed united the a part of oriental enjoyment. The labours of the distaff and the loom were neglected; the princess two great requisites, lightness and durability; it was and the lady of rank had no higher enjoyment than probably the same as that of which the mummy. to sit in her pleasure-house, enjoying the perfume continued undecayed for nearly thirty centuries, and

cases are composed, a species of timber which has of the lotus, while a slave attended to fan her and which every body wnu las visited a museum of bring a constant supply of fresh flowers. This de- Egyptian antiquities, must know to be about the cline in the simplicity of Egyptian customs was, lightest with which we are acquainted. It was thus

easily transported from place to place, especially as the whole tribe of Levi was charged with its custody.

But thou shalt appoint the Levites over the tabernacle of Бол

testimony, and over all the vessels thereof, and over all 1161

things that belong to it: they shall bear the tabernacle, and all the vessels thereof; and they shall minister unto it, and shall encamp round about the tabernacle. And when the tabernacle setteth forward, the Levites shall take it down: and when the tabernacle is to be pitched, the Levites shall set it up: and the stranger that cometh nigh shall be put to death. (Numbers i. 50, 51.)

We learn from a subsequent passage, that the

various parts of the structure and its edifice were TA

assigned to the charge of different families, and from the monuments it would seem that the custody of the sacred things in the Egyptian temples was simi. larly distributed, for there is no example of priests of one rank using the same utensils as those of another.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]



however, of much later date than the Exodus. The In addressing a few words of advice to our Cottage Hebrew ladies who prepared the curtains and em- readers on the economy of Cottage Gardening, we broidery for the tabernacle, engaged not in work un. have no intention of speaking on the best modes in suited to their station, for in that age, and to a much which their gardens may be cultivated, or their small later period, the labours of the loom and distaff were plots of land farmed, or the crops most easily raised or which will prove most profitable: for this most I have often seen, from a want of attention to this valuable information we would rather refer them to rule, children, and men too, laboriously collecting a the many excellent and cheap books written for these scanty supply of manure from what they can pick purposes. The object of the present remarks is to up on the roads, when they allow the offscourings of point out the value of that, without which, neither their own houses to run not only to waste, but to cottage, nor garden, nor field, will prove to its occupier become a nuisance to themselves and others. Whereas

, a source either of comfort or advantage.

had they but taken the trouble to collect these in a Let a traveller pass through an agricultural district, hole through a drain, which any man might make to he may know little or nothing of the art of farming, his own house at the expense of a little labour, he and yet if he is at all observant or reflecting, he can would possess at hand more manure than the utmost hardly fail of giving a pretty correct guess at the labour of himself and his family would enable him comparative excellences of neighbouring farmers. to draw together from other sources, more, probably, If he is asked why he prefers farm A to farm B, he than his garden would require, and he would have may not be able to enter into a calculation of the the additional comfort of a more clean, pleasant, and superior excellences of farmer A's stock, or the healthy dwelling. These are advantages springing greater bulk of his ricks, but he will say at once, “I directly from care, industry, and forethought; but can tell where farmer A's property extends by the there are many incidental benefits to be derived from superior neatness of his fields, his hedges, and his these sources, which will never be guessed at till the yards, I cannot therefore doubt that he is the better time comes when they may be enjoyed. There are, farmer.” There can be no question that the tra- also, many incidental losses and inconveniences not veller's eye will rest with greater pleasure upon perhaps to be forseen, that may be avoided in this farmer A's fields, but he is not bribed by this satis- way; to explain my meaning, I will conclude by an faction alone to decide in favour of his superior extract from a very valuable French writer, skill as a farmer. If he reasons at all on what he I was, (says the author in question,) once in the country sees, he will say to himself, “ In the farm before me a witness of the numberless minute losses, that negligence I see instances of care, of industry, of judgment; is in household regulation entails. For want of a trumpery it possible for me to observe these without concluding latch, the gate of the poultry-yard was for ever open ; there that all these qualifications for the good management being no means of closing it externally, it was on the swing of business, are directed and restrained by know every time a person went out, and many of the poultry were ledge?" For after all, how is knowledge of any kind his escape into the wood, and the whole family, gardener,

lost in consequence. One day, a fine young porker made to be attained? Is it not the result of patient labour cook, milk-maid, &c., presently turned out in quest of the guided by judgment? Where do we find skill or fugitive. The gardener was the first to discover the object knowledge sought in this manner, withheld ? Every of pursuit, and, in leaping a ditch to cut off his further man is liable to make some errors, or fall into some

escape, got a sprain that confined him to his bed for the mistakes, and he must smart for them; but if he is

next fortnight; the cook found the linen burnt that she wise or judicious, he will speedily escape from the having forgotten in her haste to tie up the cattle properly in

had left hung up before the fire to dry; and the milk-maid, effects of these miscalculations, and will find that he the cow-house, one of the loose cows had broken the leg of has purchased for himself, perhaps at a heavy ex- a colt that happened to be kept in the same shed. The pense, that which he may make well worth the cost. linen burnt, and the gardener's work lost, were worth full It is, however, our wish to diminish as much as pos- twenty crowns", and the colt about as much more; so that sible this cost, and to prevent our poorer friends from want of a latch, that might have cost a few sous

, (or hall

here was a loss in a few minutes of forty crowns, purely for indulging in faults, which will entail on them a heavy pence,) at the utmost; and this in a household were the expense not only in their gardens and their fields, strictest economy was necessary, to say nothing of the poor but in their homes and their families ; not only in man, or the anxiety and other troublesome incidents. The their means of living, but in their comfort, and ulti. misfortune was, to be sure, not very serious, nor the loss mately, also, in their respectability.

very heavy; yet, when it is considered, that similar neglect Let this be your first rule, that whatever you do, and ultimately the ruin of a worthy family, it was deserving

was the occasion of repeated disasters of the same kind, ll, you do it thoroughly; many a man is of some little attention.-J. B. Say. tempted to undertake too much, to engage in too many things, and consequently to do nothing well :

But who could have expected or foreseen such a he incurs too often the expense, but does not reap the train of accidents from the trifling carelessness of not fruits of his outlay, whether in labour or in money. fastening a door? we may fancy some careless perHe is apt to say, for instance, when order and neat

son, determined not to profit by experience, at least ness is recommended to him, all this looks well, and of others, to exclaim. The simple answer to such is very suitable for a gentleman, but what does it

a one is, No one could have foreseen them, and no one signify to a poor man like myself? The real answer

ever does foresee an accident, otherwise an accident to such doubts, the offspring of indolence, is that

would never happen. So, on the other hand, no one neatness and order are economy; and is it nothing is prepared to avail himself of opportunities of good

can foresee the advantages which may befall him, if he to a poor man to avoid waste; in other words, to practise economy? Is it nothing to a labouring selves in fault, and hence we hear of lucky and unlucky

which fall in his way. Men do not like to own themman to be able to make his tools last longer by a little care than they would without that care ? to persons, of those to whom every accident brings good make his clothes serve him and his family better fortune, and those who never can lay hold of good for being put out of harm's way when they are no

fortune. Chance, luck, fortune, anything, everything longer wanted. Is it nothing to a poor man that the

is to blame, rather than themselves; and in the same furniture of his house should supply his wants for as way, everything is to be praised for their neighbour's long a time as possible ? and thus that he should be prosperity, rather than the care, the industry, the saved from the expense of having to replace it? Yet, sobriety, and the patience of their neighbour, which

, the only means of ensuring these objects are order in the long round at least, are the most probable

B. and neatness, or, as it may be expressed in short, by

means of securing good luck as it is called. letting there be a place and a time for everything, * French money; equal to nearly 84. 10s. English. and by letting everything be kept to its place and time.

you do it


ELECTRICITY. Tae Dahlia, which now forms so prominent a feature

No. I. amongst our autumnal gaieties in the flower-garden,

GENERAL PRINCIPLES. was named in honour of Andrew Dahl, a botanist of Sweden. Wildenow objected to the term, under an ELECTRICITY is the term employed to designate that erroneous impression that it had previously been important branch of experimental philosophy, which appropriated to another genus; and adopted the relates to the properties exhibited by certain subname Georgina; but he has not been followed by stances when rubbed against, or by some other means subsequent writers. Others objected to it from its made to communicate with, each other. It is derived similarity to Dalea, a genus already established, after from electron, the Greek word for amber; electric our countryman, Dale. The name Dahlia is now, phenomena having been first observed in that body. however, so well confirmed, that it may bid defiance Of the true nature of electricity we are compelled to the caprice of modern botanical name-changers. to acknowledge our ignorance. There is no doubt It is, notwithstanding, very desirable that attention that it pervades all material bodies, animate as well be paid to the proper pronunciation of the word. as inanimate; but in what it consists, or how it is The a should have the open sound, as in father; it constituted, are questions too difficult for us to will then be clearly distinguishable from the older solve. We do not even know whether electricity is name Dalea. The genus is now principally divided material or not. If it be, it is so subtle and refined into two species, superflua and frustranea, in allusion in its nature, that it passes with inconceivable veloto the florets of the rays of the former abounding in city through the hardest substances, and if allowed seed, whilst those of the latter species are barren. to accumulate in them, it does so without making Other specific distinctions were first adopted, but any difference either in their weight or their dimensions. they all proved unstable; and from the proneness of On this account it is that electricity, as well as light the Dahlia to sport into such numerous varieties, it and heat, is denominated an imponderable element; to may be doubted whether the present distinction will distinguish it from those forms of matter which prove permanent.

possess the qualities of length, breadth, and thick. These splendid plants are natives of Spanish ness, and, consequently, weight. America, and though noticed by the Spaniards about

Some suppose that light, heat, and electricity, are the middle of the seventeenth century, did not attract nothing more than certain attributes, or conditions much attention till they had flowered at Madrid, in of matter, inseparable from it in this terrestrial globe, 1790, when Cavanilles described them in the first and limited perhaps to the various elements of which volume of his Icones, published in the following it is composed. Or it may be that these influences year. In 1802, he sent plants to Paris, where they extend to the whole universe; and that they are were successfully cultivated by Monsieur Thouin, modified and controlled according to circumstances who, shortly afterwards, published coloured figures and the will of Him, who upholdeth all things by and a description of them. The first introduction of the word of his power. We know nothing of matter, the Dahlia into England was, according to the Hortus nor can we form any intelligible idea of the mode of Kewensis, by the Marchioness of Bute, in 1789, but its existence, excepting in association with light, heat, the plants, it may be presumed, were soon lost. In and electricity; nor have we any experience of the 1802 and 1803, others were sent from Paris; and in latter elements but in combination with the grosser 1804, seeds from Madrid; yet, for several years, forms of matter. they were scarcely heard of amongst us. Their Electricity is developed in a variety of ways; but habits being unknown, their increase was slow; whatever be the nature of the materials, or of the whilst, on the continent, innumerable and splendid process, employed, we may justly conclude that the varieties were produced; so that, after the peace, in principle is in all cases identical, however different 1814, they were poured upon us in all the variety of it may appear to be either in its effects or its mode of their present tints; exciting the astonishment of operation. every beholder, and the joy of those who could num- When a piece of glass is rubbed with silk, or a ber such beauties amongst their own collections. stick of red sealing-wax with woollen cloth, each Since that time they have been rapidly increased and substance acquires a property not possessed by it improved; and England can now boast of varieties whilst in a quiescent state ; and which consists in alteras superb as any in the world.

nately attracting and repelling feathers, straws, dry Early sown seeds produce plants that will flower leaves, fibres of cotton, and many other light subin the succeeding Autumn. The more certainly if stances. The electricity thus excited is called ordiforced on a hot-bed. Roots keep very well in sand, nary, and sometimes common electricity. in a dry cellar. In dividing them, the old stems If two or more plates of dissimilar metals, as may be slit, and a portion must be retained to each copper and zinc, for instance, are immersed in a plant. Plant old roots in the first week of April; mixture of sulphuric acid and water, and so arranged or pot them, force in a hot-bed, and turn into the that they may not be actually in contact, but comborders when three or four inches high. A few may municate with each other by means of wires, electric be retained in large pots; they will be less luxuriant, action ensues, and one of the metals (zinc,) is, under and flower earlier. Train one stem only from each these circumstances, more rapidly corroded or disroot, and pinch off the lower-side shoots. The su- solved, than it would be if the other metal (copper,) perfluous shoots from old roots, when taken off, may were not present. This is denominated galvanic, or be planted in the shade, under a hand-glass, and will voltaic, electricity. readily grow, as will cuttings of the older stems. Or

If the electricity excited by the process just cuttings of fine varieties may be grafted on the described, and which is transmitted through the tubers of common ones, merely by splicing them wires by which the plates communicate, is made to together, tying, and enclosing them in a little clay, circulate around a bar of iron, the latter has thereby before they are potted in mould: they should then imparted to it magnetic properties, which continue in be put in a hot-bed and shaded. A gravelly soil operation only so long as the electrical energy is checks their luxuriance and produces most flowers. sustained. This is termed electro-magnetism. (MAUND's Botanic Garden.]

When motion is produced at the poles of a steel


magnet either by its own rotation, or that of a piece of in opposite states, of electricity, attract, and those in soft iron, by which its poles communicate, electricity similar states, repel, each other, is excited, and by suitable arrangements it can be The distinction to which we have just referred will made to exhibit properties precisely similar to the be more satisfactorily shown, if we take a large stick electricity obtained by the means already enumerated. of red sealing-wax and excite it by rubbing it with a This is called magneto-electricity.

piece of dry and warm woollen cloth. On presenting If some of the metals, as bismuth and antimony, the excited wax to the feather it will be first attracted or iron and platinum, for example, are placed in and then repelled, as noticed with the glass; but contact and heated, electricity is developed. This when the feather is repelled by the wax, if we approach has received the name of thermo-electricity.

it with the excited glass, it will be instantly attracted, Under these several heads, and in the order in and when repelled by the glass it will be attracted by which we have enumerated them, we propose to lay the wax. It is hence sufficiently plain that the before our readers a description of the most interest- electricity developed by glass differs from that proing phenomena connected with this department of duced by wax; and whether the difference is described science. We begin with Ordinary Electricity, or that as being dependant on opposite kinds, or opposite which is produced by friction.

states, of electricity, the effect is the same. The following simple articles of apparatus will The electricity excited on glass used formerly to be illustrate electrical excitation.

called vitreous; that on wax resinous-terms which Let a clean and very light downy feather be attached have now given place to positive and negative. In the to a piece of white sewing-silk about three feet long, l experiments we have described, therefore, the feather, and suspended from the ceiling, or other part, of a when charged with electricity from the glass is said room, in such a manner that it shall be eighteen to be positively, and when charged from the wax, inches or two feet distant from all surrounding negatively, electrified. bodies. Then provide a piece of glass tube, say, 1 By the terms positive and negative is implied, that three-fourths of an inch in diameter and thirty inches in one case, the substance electrified contains more, long. The tube being perfectly clean and dry, if it and in the other less, than its ordinary proportions. be rubbed briskly with a warm and dry silk hand- But this explanation is probably more convenient kerchief, it will be electrically excited, and on ad- than it is philosophical—a fact to which we shall hare vancing it slowly towards the feather the latter will occasion to refer more at length by-and-bye. be attracted by, and adhere to it; but on separating Many substances used by us in the common afairs them and again bringing the tube near the feather, of life are susceptible of electrical excitation, and we that body will be as promptly repelled as it was before often produce electrical phenomena without being attracted. After a little time the feather, will again conscious of it. We may cite an example or two. opproach the tube and again be repelled by it, and In cleaning glass mirrors with an old silk handkerthis alternate action will continue until the whole of chief, or a very dry linen duster, it generally happens the electricity excited on the surface of the tube has that small fibres and particles of dust accumulate on been dissipated; but a fresh supply may be obtained their surfaces, the more rapidly in proportion to the as often as required by rubbing the tube with the labour bestowed in removing them. The same thing handkerchief, as already described. The appearance occurs in wiping decanters and other articles of of the feather, as it is alternately attracted and re- glass, and especially the glass chimneys used on gaspelled by the glass, is here represented.

burners. In all these cases electrical excitement is produced by friction, and the fibres, disengaged from the duster, as well as the dust floating in the surrounding atmosphere, are atttracted by the glass, and adhere to it, as already shown with the glass tube and feather.

Silks of all kinds are highly electric; as are also most of the precious stones, a great variety of resinous substances, the paste of which false gems are made, the hair and fur of animals, paper, sulphur, and some other minerals; india-rubber (caoutchouc,) and certaia descriptions of wood, when thoroughly dried by baking.

Among domesticated animals the cat furnishes a remarkable instance of electrical excitability. When dry and warm, the back of almost any full-grown cat (the darker its colour the better) can be excited by rubbing it with the hand, in the direction of the hair, -a process which is accompanied by a slight snapping sound, and in the dark by flashes of pale blue light

The substances which were just now mentioned as One of the most important principles connected highly electric must be understood as being intended with the science of electricity, is indicated by the merely as specimens. All subjects, without exception, preceding experiment; which is, that there are two are undoubtedly capable of being electrically excited; kinds, or if not two kinds, two opposite states, of but some require more complicated arrangements electricity. Thus, when the feather has received a than others. The reason of this we shall next pro. portion of the electricity which is excited by friction ceed to explain. on the glass, it is no longer attracted by the latter, but, on the contrary, repelled; whence it is inferred that the electricity of the feather, whilst in a quiescent

LONDON state, and that of the glass after being rubbed with JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. silk, are dissimilar; and therefore it is concluded PUBLISHED IN Weekly NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MUNTALY PARTI that bodies imbued with opposite kinds, or which are

Sold by all Booksellers and Newsreaders in the Kingdom.



[merged small][graphic][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][graphic][ocr errors][merged small]

.... A holy peace

morisch or forest ground," as it is called by Leland, Pervades this moorland solitude -- the world,

is about twenty miles in length, and of an average And all who love that world, are far away !--CARRINGTON.

breadth of about eleven; stretching in a line from

east-north-east, to west-south-west. It contains, acDEVONSHIRE is one of the most picturesque and cording to the latest authority, a superficies of 130,000 romantic portions of our island. Its natural scenery, acres, affording only a scanty pasturage to sheep and both maritime and inland, is of the highest order; cattle. and combines every variety that can either charm the The external aspect of this interesting district is eye or interest the imagination. The tourist may extremely wild and dreary, presenting an almost trace the mountain torrent from its source, brawling endless continuation of lofty bills, craggy rocks, and over a wild and rugged channel through rocky glens narrow valleys strewed with enormous masses of OT moorland wastes; or behold it gently meandering granite, which some convulsion of nature in by-gone through some luxuriant valley, where its fresh and days has probably severed from the surrounding limpid waters diffuse life and loveliness over the eminences. Indeed, innumerable masses of stone of softened landscape ;—the antiquary may ponder over various dimensions lie scattered over the general ruined castles, and mouldering fanes, with their surface of the Moor, and those which lie on the sides shattered arches and crumbling cloisters, the relics of the hills, are moulded into the wildest and most of a former age, or recognise the remnants of a still impressive forms imaginable. Some of these heights more remote period, in the semblance of moss-grown rise abruptly into peaks, crowned with huge piles of cromlechs and fallen columns.

stone, and are called " Tors.” To a person standing The central part of the western district, extending on one of these lofty points, the surrounding country from the vale of Exeter to the banks of the Tamar, wears the appearance of an irregular broken waste, chiefly consists of the very remarkable region called which may be best compared to the long rolling DARTMOOR, a district distinguished in a striking | waves of a tempestuous ocean, fixed into solidity by degree from any other in England, and of which we some instantaneous and powerful impulse. Gilpin, purpose to lay before our readers as full and popular in his work on the western parts of Devon, in allusion an account as is compatible with the space of the to this, says that, “ Dartmoor spreads like the ocean Saturday Magazine.

after a storm, heaving in large swells.” Even at a This great “Devonshire Wilderness," or 'wild | distance, this desolate wilderness has the same billowy Vol. XIII.


« ZurückWeiter »