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CRUSADE UNDER SIMON DE MONTFORT AGAINST THE itself. In a former paper* we brought down the

ALBIGENSES—CAPTURE OF MINERVE AND BAR- history of the persecution of the Albigenses to the

BARITIES COMMITTED BY THE PAPAL PARTY. period when the principal object of the first crusade Tue Castle of Minerve, situated at a short distance against them had been accomplished by the capture to the south-west of the town of St. Pons, in the of Carcassonne, in the month of August, 1209. All South of France, was one of the strongest of the open resistance on their part was then at an end; feudal fortresses which, in ancient times, so thickly but as the Pope's legate, Arnold Amabrie, Abbot of covered that part of the country, and which have Citeaux, who had been foremost in preaching the still left their ruins to impart a picturesque charm to crusade, and directing its operations, deemed the its scenery at the present day. It was built upon a work of persecution to be yet incomplete, he consteep rock, surrounded by deep precipices, and from ceived the diabolical design of rooting out the the advantages of its position was generally esteemed “pestilent heresy,” by extirpating the enlightened impregnable. It formerly gave the title of count people who had fostered it, and into whose homes he and viscount to its possessors, and the adjacent dis-had already brought such dire calamities. trict was called Minervois, after its name.

Our en

The legate's first measure was to call a council of graving gives a view of the castle in its present state; the crusading chiefs, to provide for the disposition of the adjoining little village still preserves the name of the conquests which had been made by their united Minerye.

arms, in favour of some prince, who would underIn the days of its strength the castle of Minerve take to complete the extermination of the Albigenses. was a place of importance, and occupied a conspicuous The viscounties of Beziers and Carcassonne, whose station in the wars which at different times desolated lawful lord, Raymond-Roger, still languished in the the South of France. The most prominent feature, prison to which the perfidy of Arnold had consigned however, in its history is its capture by Simon de him, were offered to Eudes the Third, the reigning Montfort, during the crusade against the Albigenses, Duke of Burgundy. This prince was one of the in the early part of the thirteenth century, an event great lords who had engaged in this sacred war at of considerable moment in the history of the crusade

* See Saturday Magazine, Vol. XI., p. 97 VOL. XII.

365

the instigation of the monks of Citeaux; or, as a offer, the active operations of the campaign of 1209 French historian of Burgundy expresses it, he had were, for a time, at an end. taken the cross and joined the other lords, who, for Simon de Montfort now turned his attention the love of truth, and zeal for the Catholic religion, towards securing himself in possession of the new took arms to beat and destroy the Albigenses,- states which he had acquired; and to effect that heretics so much the more dangerous, as they affected object he had recourse to a deed which has left upon to follow an apostolic, penitent, and altogether disin- his character one of the deepest of the stains disterested life." But although the blind bigotry of gracing it. He had observed, that although Raymond. Duke Eudes had led him, for the love of truth," Roger, the lawful sovereign of those states, was still to make war upon the truth, he was not wanting in allowed to be detained in prison, the hostility of many that sort of magnanimity and regard for justice with of the crusading chiefs against him was mitigated, which knights and nobles were, or were supposed to and that, in fact, pity had succeeded in their minds be, inspired, in the age of chivalry. He refused the to fury. The neighbours of that prince loved him; legate's offer of the territory of Raymond-Roger, his people regretted him; and it was not impossible saying, “ That he had plenty of lordships and domains that his uncle and sovereign lord, the King of Arragon, without taking that to disinherit the said viscount, might be disposed to interfere in his behalf. Accordand that it appeared to him that they had done him ingly De Montfort “ gave the necessary orders that evil enough without despoiling him of his heritage.” Raymond-Roger should die of a dysentery on the

The legate, however, was not long in finding a 10th of November, in a lower room of the viscountal more pliant ally. He obtained from the council for palace at Carcassonne, where he was carefully himself, in conjunction with two bishops and four guarded.” Anxious however not to appear guilty of knights, full authority to settle the fate of the con- so heinous a crime, he displayed the body of the quered lands; and then, in the name of this com- youthful prince to his subjects, and caused him to be mission, offered them to Simon de Montfort, Earl of buried with honour. But his efforts to conceal his Leicester*, whose character is thus depicted by villany were fruitless; the public voice accused him Sismondi.

of having poisoned his captive. This lord of a castle ten leagues from Paris, was the

The chief operations of the campaign of 1209 head of a house that had been illustrious for two hundred having been brought to an end, the crusaders deemed .years, and which is traced by some to a natural son of their task

their task accomplished, and certainly they had King Robert. He had possessed the countship of Evreux, ample reason to be satisfied with the extent of the which, a few years before, he had sold to Philip Augustus ; enormities which they had committed. and his mother, who was an English woman, had left him,

They had as an heritage, the Earldom of Leicester. He had distin: destroyed two large cities, they had slaughtered with guished himself in the fourth crusade, from which he was

the sword thousands of the sectaries, and compelled recently returned. Skilful as a soldier, austere in his car- others to fly from their burning houses, and sink riage, fanatical in his religion, cruel and perfidious, he under the pressure of want in the forests and moununited every quality which could please a monk. He was tains. Of the princes who had excited their wrath, too ambitious to refuse the offer which was made him, of by wishing to maintain in their own dominions some elevating himself to the rank of the grand feudatories; but liberty of conscience, one had perished in prison, two he still thought himself obliged to feign a refusal, very sure that they would overcome this pretended reluctance.

others had submitted, and “ to make their peace, Simon de Montfort having accepted the proffered refused not their tribute to the fires of the inquisition,

so that a daily sacrifice of human victims was offered lands, proceeded to receive the homage of those

up to the bigotry of these persecuting fanatics. among the vassals of the two viscounties, whom fear

Sismondi observes, that those who had committed had inclined to submission, and brought to the camp

so many crimes were not, for the most part, bad of the crusaders ; he also imposed on his new territories an annual tax payable at Rome, and issued Northern France where crimes have always been rare ;

They came from that part of Burgundy and severe decrees against all his subjects, who should but the heretics were in their eyes outcasts from the not display an immediate and eager anxiety to free

human race. themselves from excommunication. In spite of the

Accustomed to confide their consciences to their priests, capture of Beziers † and Carcassonne f, the two prin

-to hear the orders of Rome as a voice from heaven,cipal towns of the Albigenses, they were yet far from

never to submit that which appertained to the faith to the submitting to their persecutors, but continued bravely judgment of reason,—they congratulated themselves on to hold out in the castles which abounded in the the horror they felt for the sectaries. The more zealous country. Many, too, of the crusaders departed from they were for the glory of God, the more ardently they the army, their stipulated term of service,-forty laboured for the destruction of heretics, the better Christians days,-having expired.

they thought themselves.

Pope Innocent the Third, was the original in. command of De Montfort, and after taking some castles stigator of the persecution of the Albigenses ; and he directed his arms against the Count of Foix, who, by his legates and emissaries, he « continually as well as the captive Viscount of Carcassonne, bore sharpened the sword of the murderers.” The the name of Raymond-Roger. This count possessed two Spaniards whom he sent into the province in the greatest part of Albigeois, which was regarded 1204, and who helped to found the Inquisition, as peculiarly the seat of the new doctrines; and was

“ first taught the art of seeking out in the villages even himself suspected of having secretly embraced those whom the priests were afterwards to fasten to them. Unable to contend with De Montfort, he their stakes." The spirit of fanaticism had been offered to treat, after having sustained several reverses,

excited to frenzy by the monks over Europe. Gerand his antagonist deeming it politic to accept the

mans came from the extremity of Austria to fight

under the banners of the crusade; and the English * This name sounds familiar to English ears. The earl men- monk, Matthew Paris, testifies to the zeal of our tioned in the text was the father of that Simon de Montfort, Earl of benighted countrymen in the same cause, and to their reign of Henry the Third, and terminated his ambitious career on the triumphant joy at "the miracle which had avenged 4th of August, 1265, in the memorable battle of Eveshamn, which the Lord,” as he calls the massacre of Beziers. restored the sovereign power to its legitimate possessor, + See Saturday Magazine, Vol. XI., p. 50.

The guilt, therefore, of the atrocities committed Ibid. Vol. XI. p. 97.

against the Albigenses, will not rest so heavily upon

men.

the actual perpetrators as upon the subtle instigators | place. As they were proceeding to execute them, of them; and as Sismondi remarks, it would be to the Abbot Arnold returned to the camp, and De destroy the only responsibility which rests upon the Montfort declared that nothing which they had powerful, the only resort for the oppressed upon this agreed upon could be considered as binding, till the earth, not to hold up to public execration the fana- legate had given his assent. tical monks who directed this movement, and the At these words, (says Peter de Vaux-Cernay,) the abbot ambitious who profited by it.

was greatly afilicted. In fact, he desired that all the The vengeance of public opinion ought not to rest only

enemies of Christ should be put to death, but he could not upon those who accompanied the Crusaders in their ex- take upon himself to condemn them, on account of his peditions, who dragged the reformers to the lames, and quality of monk and priest. who mingled their songs of triumph with the groans of With the view, however, of creating some dispute their miserable victims; these were, at least, blinded by concerning the negotiation, and thereby causing all the same mad passion with which they had inspired the the inhabitants to be put to the sword, he required combatants. There was something more personal, more deliberate, more coldly ferocious, in those clouds of monks

the two negotiators, De Montfort and Guiraud, to who, issuing from all the convents of the order of Citeaux, write down without communication the conditions to spread themselves through the states of Europe, occupied which they had agreed. As Arnold had hoped would all the pulpits, appealed to all the passions to convert them be the case, he found some difference in the stateinto one, and showed how every vice might be ex piated by ments, of which De Montfort availed himself to decrime, how remorse might be expelled by the flames of clare, in the name of the legate, that the negotiation was their piles, how the soul, polluted with every shameful broken off. But the knight of Minerve replied, that, passion, might become pure and spotless by bathing in the

though he thought himself sure of his memory, yet he blood of heretics, Towards the close of 1209, the crusaders had

would accept the capitulation as Simon de Montfort

had drawn it up. De Montfort, however, referred experienced severe reverses, nearly all the castles which they had conquered having been surprised and recap-tulation upon the following terms:—That the Lord

the matter to the Legate Arnold, who settled the capitured; so that at the end of that year, the dominion Guiraud and all the Catholics in the castle, and even of Simon de Montfort, in Languedoc, was reduced to eight cities or castles, it having previously comprised those who had favoured the heretics, should have more than two hundred. During the ensuing Winter their lives saved—that the castle should remain in he remained on the defensive ; but with the Spring the hands of De Montfort,—and that the “ perfect came fresh clouds of fanatics, who enabled him again should have their lives saved if they would become

heretics," of whom there was a considerable number, to take the field in force. De Montfort began his attacks at once upon the converted. When the capitulation was read in the

council of war, castles, which existed in great numbers. Many of them were, however, abandoned on the approach of Robert of Mauvoisin, (says the monk of Vaux-Cernay,) a

nobleman entirely devoted to the Catholic faith, cried, that the crusaders, their possessors not deeming them

the pilgrims would never consent to that; for it was not to capable of sustaining a siege. De Montfort gene- show mercy to the heretics but to put them to death, that rally caused all their inhabitants whom he could lay they had taken the cross; but the Abbot Arnold replied— hands upon, to be hanged upon gibbets. Some Fear not, for I believe there will be very few converted. castles, calculating too favourably upon their strength, The anticipations of the legate proved well founded. endeavoured to resist him ; that of Brom was taken The crusaders took possession of the castle of Miby assault the third day of the siege, and Simon de nerve on the 22nd of July, 1210; they entered Montfort chose out more than a hundred of its singing Te Deum, and preceded by the cross and wretched inhabitants, and having torn out their eyes, the standards of Montfort. The “heretics," as they and cut off their noses, sent them, in that state, had been styled, were in the mean time assembled, under the guidance of a one-eyed man, to the castle the men in one house, the women in another, and of Cabaret, to announce to the garrison of that for there, on their knees, and resigned to their fate, they tress the fate which awaited them. The castle of 1 prepared themselves by prayer, for the torments that Alairac was not taken till the eleventh day; a great awaited them. The Abbot of Vaux-Cernay came part of its inhabitants were able to escape from the in pursuance of the capitulation, and began to ferocity of the crusaders, but De Montfort massacred preach to them the Catholic faith ; but his auditors the remainder, Further on he found castles abano interrupted him by a unanimous cry,doned and absolutely empty; and, not being able to

We will have none of your faith, (said they,) we have reach the men, he sent out his soldiers to destroy the renounced the church of Rome: your labour is in vain surrounding vines and olive-trees.

for neither death nor life will make us renounce the opinions De Montfort then conducted his army to a more

that we have embraced. important and arduous task—the siege of the castle

The abbot then passed to the assembly of the of Minerve, situated at a small distance from Nar- women, whom he found equally resolute, and more bonne, on a steep rock surrounded by precipices, enthusiastic in their declarations. The Count de and regarded as the strongest place in the country. Montfort, in his turn, visited both, having already The castle belonged to William à Guiraud of Minerve, piled up an enormous mass of dry wood: Be a vassal of the Viscounts of Carcassonne, and one converted to the Catholic faith,” said he to the asof the bravest knights of the province. The army sembled Albigenses," or ascend this pile.None, of the crusaders appeared before Minerve at the be. however, were shaken. Fire was then applied to ginning of June; the Legate Arnold, and the canon the pile, and the whole square being soon covered Theodise, joined it soon after. The inhabitants, with a tremendous conflagration, the victims were among whom were many who had embraced the conducted to it. Violence, however, we are told, was tenets of the Albigenses, defended themselves with not necessary to compel them to enter the flames; great valour for seven weeks; but when, on account they voluntarily precipitated themselves therein to of the heat of Summer, the water began to fail in the number of one hundred and forty, after having their cisterns, they demanded a capitulation, Guiraud commended their souls to God. came himself to the camp of the crusaders one day

These martyrs (says the historian Milner,) died in when the legate was absent, and agreed with Simon triumph, praising God that he had counted them worthy to de Montfort on conditions for the surrender of the suffer for the sake of Christ. They opposed the legate to

B

d

Fig. 1.

D

A

his face, and told Simon that on the last day, when the ON EMPLOYMENTS WHICH INJURE THE

PLOS books should be opened, he would meet with the just judg

EYE-SIGHT. ment of God for all his cruelties.

No. I. Three women only recanted; they were forcibly

A POPULAR DESCRIPTION OF THE ORGANS OF SIGHT. held back by the noble lady of Marly, the mother of Bouchard, Lord of Montmorenci; terror and conster-Man in his present temporary position on the globe, nation succeeded to the enthusiastic fervour which is subject to all the physical laws which, under the had hitherto supported them, and consenting to be direction of a superintending Providence, govern the converted, they were saved from the flames.

universe. He is endowed with certain perceptions, by whose means alone, he communicates with the

exterior world and acquires all his knowledge. These AMUSEMENTS IN SCIENCE.

perceptive faculties are admirably fitted for use in the No. VIII.

strict sense of the word, and it seems to be a law of GEOMETRY.--Part 5.

nature, as rigid as it is grand and beautiful, that the

natural laws are self-acting; that is, they bear with To draw a right angle without any other instrument and inflict of themselves their own penalties. If, for than a straight stick and two or three pegs. Draw

example, we exceed the use of any one faculty; so the straight line F A C B, and

soon as the use intended by nature is exceeded, the make FA, A C, and c B, equal abuse of the faculty begins, and then also the penalty to each other; from c draw attached to the law of nature, which regulates the the straight line c d d in any

use, begins.

Pain is the most apparent symptom of direction, make cd equal to abuse, and usually accompanies it; but the most ca, and draw the line ph awful, and awful because mysterious, operation of through the point a, draw the the penalty is, the slow and premature loss of the line F G, through any part of

use of the faculty either in part or wholly : the ph, and make Eg equal to E F.

faculty then ceases to act; and its possessor, because The point G will then be ex

he has abused one of nature's gifts, is deprived of it. actly perpendicular to A, and

And here there is no court of appeal: it is useless the line ga, when drawn, to urge ignorance of the powers of the faculty, since will be at right angles with a B, and consequently the nature began by inflicting her penalty by slow degrees, angle A is a right angle.

either by imparting to the possessor small increments To measure the superficial contents of a rectangular of pain, or partial deprivation of the power of the

piece of ground. Suppose a B to be equal to faculty, so as to urge, as it were, upon the owner, twenty feet, and c B to nine feet; multiply gently, and in her own beautiful way, the necessity of twenty by nine, which produces one hundred complying with those laws which never vary, by and eighty; this would be the contents of the chiding him for being so hard a taskmaster as to square plot of ground A B C D, and conse

exact from a faithful servant a task which it was quently, the contents of the triangular plot never calculated to supply.

would be equal to one-half one hundred C Fig. 2. B

Many of the arts of life furnish employments and eighty, namely, ninety feet.

which injuriously affect the faculties of those em

ployed in them : what these pursuits are, and how A BRICKLAYER had to construct a wall whose length | they operate, is a curious and instructive inquiry, in the direction A B C was twenty-four feet. The one- into which, as far as respects the organ of sight, we half of this wall, namely, from B to c, had to be built are now about to enter, with the hope that our roaFig. 3.

ders generally will find it useful, and some of them in particular will, we doubt not, find the subject one of more than common interest as it affects themselves

peculiarly. We shall point out how, in many emover a piece of rising ground, so that the base of this ployments, the faculty of vision is injuriously affected part of the wall would necessarily be more than

or abused, and the simple and practicable means of twelve feet. In making out his account he charged removing the abuse. We select the organ* of sight more for this half of the wall than for that which

as being

probably the most extensively useful of all was built on level ground from A to B.

our faculties, and the one most liable to abuse.

A geometrician assured him that the square contents of both

We propose, in order to the due comprehension of portions of the wall were exactly alike, which may tion of the eye somewhat fully; and as many of the

our present subject, to describe the organ and funcbe proved in this manner. Cut two pieces of card

visual imperfections to be hereafter described are the results of the writer's own personal experience, the present paper may be considered partly as an expo

sition of the writer's own visual defects, and also how Fig. 4.

Fig. 5.

such defects may be traced to a large variety of board in the form shown in figs.'4 and 5, to represent

causes more or less energetic in their action, but the two parts of the wall; lay the piece representing the whose proximate operation is nearly the same. straight wall on the curved piece, and it will be found 1. The eye, which, from the wonderful power of its that the angles which project at A and B will exactly exterior expression, and the exquisite beauty of its fill up the spaces at E and F. The piece of paste

internal arrangements, is said to be “Nature's masterboard representing the straight wall, may thus be piece,” is a globular structure placed within an orbit, proved to be exactly sufficient to form a piece equal the nose and under the arch of the forehead. The

or funnel-shaped cavity, on one side of the root of to that representing the curved wall. You may then lay the curved piece upon the straight one, and

• We may here state, that an organ is the physiological arrangereversing the experiment, prove that the curved piece ment of parts through which the function, or work done by the is capable of forming a rectangular piece equal to organ, acts. Thus the eye is the organ of sight ; seeing, therefore, is the other.

the function. The ear is the organ of hearing, and hearing the function, &c.

A

B

F

eye-ball is a little smaller than this socket or orbit, according as light is more or less abundant. In man to allow of free motion in every direction: this motion this apparatus seems to be self-acting, and not to is effected by means of a muscular arrangement depend upon the will, except in a few rare cases, attached to the white of the eye, and the motion is where individuals have been known to possess the rendered easy, and at the same time the eye is de- power of spontaneously regulating the motions of fended from injury or compression in its motion, by the iris; but this power, like that by which a very a quantity of fat which in health is secreted in the few persons have been able to move about the outer orbit, forming several soft cushions on which the ear, after the manner of some of the lower animals, globe of the eye rests. When this fat is absorbed seems lost to the great bulk of mankind. It will by any emaciating disease, the eye sinks within its doubtless have been noticed, that on quitting a wellsocket, and a person is then familiarly termed “hollow- illumined room, where the pupil is small, that is, in eyed.” The eye itself is composed chiefly of three its contracted state, in consequence of the abundant humours (one of which is solid and the others fluid), presence of light, and going out into a dark street, and four membranous coats or tunics: the humours we are apt, at first, to suppose that the night is more completely fill the eye, and give it its shape, and at than usually obscure; but, as we proceed, objects the same time support the membranous coats. The become more and more visible, and we are apt to white of the eye, or the slerotica, so named from its exclaim, It is not so dark as it was!" while, in all hardness, is the exterior coat, and forms the whole probability, the change, if any, is in the observer's of the outer eye-ball, with the exception of about own eye, since the fibrous arrangement which reguone-fifth, which latter space is occupied by the cornea, lates the motions of the pupil, being relieved from the (so called from its horny texture,) a transparent shield stimulus of a large quantity of light, gradually placed in front of the eye, through which the rays of relaxes, and allows the pupil to expand, so as to light pass uninterruptedly. The cornea receives its admit as much light as possible in the obscure situalustre and polish from the eyelids, which are con- tion into which we now suppose it is transferred. It stantly engaged in folding over it; and our readers is believed that the motions of the pupil in the eyes will doubtless call to mind that one of the first acts of feline animals, such as cats, &c., and animals of of the cold though active hand of Death, is to dull prey generally, are voluntary; that is, they are reguthe transparency of this beautiful convex mirror, lated by the will of the animal, and serve the purwhich reflects all objects presented to it; while life, poses of sudden and extraordinary adjustment, which health, and youth, preserve its properties unimpaired. may be required by the animal while engaged in its

The tendency of age is to flatten the cornea, and to nocturnal pursuit after food. diminish its transparency and polish ; hence, it is The iris divides the interior globe of the eye into said, that the eye of age is dim; and by a converse two very unequal parts, or chambers; that before the application the eye of youth is said to be lustrous, Iris is called the anterior chamber, and contains a limpid sparkling, beaming, &c., since in this case the cornea colourless liquid, called the aqueous humour, from its is a convex mirror, whose polish reflects light from similarity to water, and the space behind the iris its surface, while its transparency transmits light into (which has been called the curtain of the eye, from the eye for the purposes of vision.

the beautiful manner in which it seems to fold and The white of the eye is lined internally with a unfold), is named the posterior chamber, and contains membrane of a more delicate structure, called the a small hard double convex lens, called the crystalline choroïd coat, or tunic, which is covered with a black lens, (from its resemblance to crystal;) and the vitreous non-transparent pigment, placed there for the pur- humour (from its similarity to molten glass), which pose of absorbing the rays of light when the purpose completely fills up all the rest of the eye. of vision has been served. Within the choroïd The crystalline lens in its posterior, and most concoat is the retina, (so called from its reticulated or vex face, is exactly fitted to a concavity in the forenet-like structure,) which is a very delicate mem- part of the vitreous humour; it is said to be enclosed brane, formed from the expansion of the optic nerve, in a transparent bag, called a capsula, and it is surwhich enters the eye at a point nearly opposite the rounded by what are termed the ciliary processes, pupil. In the centre of the retina there is a small | which form an opaque circle round the lens, and spot surrounded with a yellow margin ; this spot is impede all rays which might otherwise be transmitted miscalled the foramen centrale, or central hole ; for it by its side: the lens itself is composed of triangular is not a hole but a spot; and it is remarkable, that pieces, which in their turn are formed of concentric while the whole of the retina receives upon itself the scales. The substance of the lens increases in den. images of external objects, and is highly susceptible sity: that is, its structure becomes more compact of luminous impressions, the foramen centrale is in- from the circumference to its centre, for the purpose capable of luminous excitation by means of light of of correcting what is called its spherical aberration t. ordinary intensity, and it does not, as far as we The form of this lens varies in different animals acknow, assist the visual powers of the eye.

cording to their habits and places of abode. In the Behind the cornea we find a coloured membrane eye of the cod-fish it is spherical, and such of our drawn across the eye; this membrane is called the readers as have seen a boiled cod's-head at table, will iris, (a Latin word for the rainbow,) and is the probably have noticed a white opaque ball in the eye distinguishing feature by which the colour of eyes of the animal; this is the crystalline lens of the codis determined, its anterior surface being in some fish, which containing albumen, becomes of an opaque animals richly and variously coloured. The iris is white, similar to the white of egg (which is almost pure perforated nearly in its centre by the pupil*, which albumen) when subjected to the heat of boiling water. is a hole for the admission of light into the interior The vitreous humour occupies the whole of the chambers of the eye; and it is a fact no less extra- space between the crystalline lens and the retina. ordinary than beautiful, that the iris is furnished This humour is contained within cells, and resembles with a self-adjusting apparatus, to which there is no

+ The object of spherical lenses is to converge the rays of light to parallel throughout the whole of human invention,

a point or focus, but in practice it is found ihat the rays deviate by means of which the pupil is contracted or enlarged, somewhat from this point, and this deviation is called spherical

aberration; the latter term implies a wandering or straying. Two * The Latin word pupilla signifies the ball, the apple or sight of causes are assigned to this phenomenon ; Ist, the form of curvature of

the lens ; 2nd,

the different refrangibilities of different rays of light.

the eye.

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