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court. She found them as they were ; poets repri- | Lord Treasurer “will have in remembraunce to promanded them, but the nobility were too formidable, vide and helpe that her Mats tarieng be not above and her crown too precarious from their cabals, to two nights and a daye,” hinting, indeed, that he has allow her to alter their state or enjoyments. She made preparation for no longer time. had no choice but to join the festivities they expected Archbishop Parker,” says Sir Henry Ellis, and required. It was the general taste, as well as his one of the few who seemed thoroughly pleased at one own, and not peculiarly the queen's inclination, that of these intended visits. A thought struck him to Leicester sought to gratify by his magnificent festivities make it subservient to the promotion of the protestant at Kenilworth.

religion.” This visit, which we shall describe on a It has been oftentimes objected to these progresses future occasion, was paid to the Archbishop of Canthat they were calculated only to impoverish her terbury in 1573, and in his letter to the Lord Treawealthy subjects under colour of honouring them,-surer, he says,that, in fact, they were an instrument of oppression It would much rejoyce and stablishe the people here in in the hands of the Queen. With reference to the this religion, to see her Highness that Sondaye (being the poorer classes of the people, it is allowed that she

first Sonday of the moneth, when others also customablie seemed on all occasions willing to spare them ; but may receive) as a godlie devoute prince, in her chiefe and for those of better rank and fortune, it is said that metropolituall churche, openly to receive the communyon.

which by her favour I would minister unto her. Plurima she had no consideration, but that, on the contrary, sunt magnifica et utilia ; sed hoc unum est necessarium. she contrived in many ways to pillage and distress [Many things are magnificent and useful; but this one is them.

necessary.] I presume not to prescribe this to her Highnes, It was the tameness of that time, (says a speaker in one but as her trustie chapleyn shewe my judgement. of Bishop Hurd's Dialogues,) to submit to every imposition

Strype tells us that a rumour of the small-pox and of the sovereign. She had only to command' her gentry measles being at Canterbury, caused some stop of the on any service she thought fit, and they durst not decline Queen, and made the archbishop stay some of his it. How many of her wealthiest and best subjects did she impoverish by these means, (though under colour you him, as he told the lord treasurer, to see her Majesty

carriages. “For as in fifteen years it should rejoice may be sure of her high favour); and sometimes by her very visits!

at his house at Canterbury, the cost whereof he weight An old writer, in a Description of England, speaking not; so he would be loth to have her person put in

fear or danger." of the variety of the Queen's houses, checks himself with saying,

In the year 1577, Lord Buckhurst, who expected

to receive her Majesty at Lewes, was so forestalled in But what shall I need to take upon me to repeat all, and respect of provisions, by other noblemen in Sussex tell what houses the Queen's Majesty hath, sith all is and the adjoining counties, that he was obliged to hirs? And when it pleaseth hir in the Summer season to recreate hirself abroad and view the state of the countrie, send for a supply from Flanders. He thus writes to and hear the complaints of her unjust officers or substitutes, the Earl of Sussex :every nobleman's house is hir palace where she continueth My very good lord, during pleasure, and till she returne againe to some of hir

I besech your lordship to paraon me yf thus I owne; in which she remaineth as long as pleaseth hir. shall becom troblesome unto you, to know some certenty of The historian Carte, expressing the opinion that

the Progres yf it may possibly be. The time of provision « Queen Elizabeth made it her business to depress

is so short, and the desire I have to do all thinges in such the nobility," and that “even her appearing favours portune your lordship to procure her H. to grow to some

sort as appertaineth, so great, as I can not but thus im ministered to this purpose,” adds,

resolucion, both of the time when her Ma. will be at Lewis, Whether she stayed a time with any of them in her pro- and how long her H. will tary theare. For having alredy gress, (as she did A.D. 1601, for a fortnight together, with sent in to Kent, Surrey, and Sussex, for provision, I assure the Marquis of Winchester at Basing, or only took a dinner,) your lordship I find alredy all places possest by my lord of they paid very dear for the honour of the visit; and what- Arundell, my lord Mountague, and others. So as of fors I ever exorbitant expence she put them to, she did not think am to send in to Flaunders, which I wold spedely do yf the herself well entertained unless they made her a rich pre

time of her Ma. coming and tarians with me were certain. sent at parting. Thus, dining on December 6th, not four I besech your lordship, therefore, yf it may be, let me know months before her death, at Sir Robert Cecil's, he made by your Lo. favourable means somewhat whereunto to trust, her, when she went away, according to the custom, presents for if her H. shall not presently determin, I se not how to the value of two thousand crowns. Her ministers might, possibly we may or can perform that towardes her Ma. perhaps, be able to support such an expense; but by im- which is du and convenient. poverishing the nobility, who were generally discontented at When Mr. (afterwards Sir) Michael Hickes, Lord their usage, it sunk their credit so low that it was impos- Burghley's secretary, was married, in 1597, the sible for any of them to get a number of followers, were

Queen hinted that she would honour him. Hickes they never so inclined to make a disturbance.

wrote to a friend at court to ask the Lord ChamberIn Sir Henry Ellis's Original Letters illustrative of lain what preparation he should make ; and his friend English History, are a few epistles illustrative of the

told the Lord Chamberlain that it troubled Hickes, feelings of some of Queen Elizabeth's subjects, when

“ that he had noe convenient place to entertaine they heard that her Majesty had vouchsafed to honour

sum of her Maties necessary servants.” The Lord them with a visit during her Progresses; and the

Chamberlaine's reply is thus communicated to Hickes editor remarks, that it will be readily gathered from

by his friend :those letters, how inconvenient to many these Progresses must have been. Sir Nicholas Bacon, the

His answeare was, that you weare unwise to be at aine

such charge: but onelie to leave the bowse to the Quene: Lord Keeper, in a letter to Lord Burghley, concerning and wished that theare might be presented to her Male the Queen's contemplated visit to him at Gorham- from your wief, sum fine wastcoate, or fine ruffe, or like bury, in 1572, rejoiced much that her Majesty in- thinge, which he said would be acceptablie taken as if it tended to do him so great an honour, but owned

weare of great price. himself quite a novice in receiving royalty. The Earl Sir Henry Ellis notices it as a fact not generally of Bedford, writing to Lord Burghley in the same known, that much as these visits sometimes put the year, announces his intention of preparing for her Queen's subjects to expense, “ the cost of them to the Majesty's coming to Woburn, “which shall be done,” public treasury was also a matter of deep concern." he says, " in the best and most hartiest manner that Among the Lansdowne Manuscripts in the British I can;" but he trusts, at the same time, that the Museum, is "an Estimate of increase of Chardgies

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his gift,

in the time of Progresse, which should not be if her Queen, was greater to him than to any of her subjects. Majestie remeynid at her Standing Howses within But his love to his sovereign, and joy to entertain her and xx. myles of London ; collected out of the Creditors her train, was so great, as he thought no trouble, care, or of the last Progresse, Anno, xv!o Regina Elizabeth," performed to her Majesty's recreation, and the contentment

cost, too much, but all too little, so it were bountifully A.D. 1573.

It is altered and corrected in Lord of her train. Burghley's hand. The increase of charges caused by the Progress, appears to have amounted in the fond of magnificence and show, and wished to be

It appears, moreover, that although Elizabeth was whole to 10341. Os. 6d. Lord Burghley, it is probable, (says Sir Henry Ellis, perfluous expense" in her progresses.

royally entertained, she, nevertheless, “ misliked su

Puttenham, would have been personally glad, if the Progresses could in his Arte of English Poesie, after laying down a have been altogether dispensed with. The Queen's visits to him were extremely frequent. His Lordship's treatmen number of rules to regulate the carriage of courtiers of the Queen's suite when she went to Theobalds, seems not to their sovereigns, observing that, in playing with a to have been generally acceptable to the visiters. In more prince, it is decent to let him sometimes win of purthan one letter we find the writers vexed when they learned pose, “to keepe him pleasant,” and never to refuse they were to go there.

" for that is undutifull; nor to forgive him Yet, although the Queen's visits might have put his losses, for that is arrogant, nor to give him great her nobles to considerable expense and inconvenience, gifts, for that is either insolence or follie, nor to feast the inference is not necessarily to be drawn that him with excessive charge, for that is both vaine and those visits were unacceptable, and that the parties envious," addsto whom they were paid, thought the honour of And therefore the wise prince, King Henry the Seventh, receiving them an insufficient compensation for the her Majesty's grandfather, yf his chaunce had been to lye cost and annoyance which they occasioned. Are we at any of his subjects' houses, or to passe moe meales then sure, as Mr. Nichols asks, that Leicester thought he one, he that would take upon him to defray the charge of paid too high a price for the gratification of his am

his dyet, or of his officers and houshold, he would be marbition, -or that the Earl of Hertford regreited the dare undertake a Prince's charge, or looke into the secret

relously offended with it, saying-What private subject expense of regaling her Majesty at Elvetham, to of his expense ? Her Majestic hath bene knowne oftenregain her long forfeited favour ; or that Sir Robert times to mislike the superfluous expense of her subjects Cecil thought much of the great entertainments he bestowed upon her in times of her progresses. gave ber at Theobalds, when she conferred the Much of the manners of the times may be learned honour of knighthood on him in 1591, and it was from these Progresses. expected that he would have been advanced to the They give us (says Mr. Nichols) a view into the interior secretaryship. Cecil, indeed, glories how much The- of the noble families, display their state in housekeeping, obalds was increased by occasion of her Majesty's often and other articles, and set before our eyes their magnificent coming ; "whom to please," says he,“ I never would of the succeeding age. Houses that lodged the Queen of

mansions, long since gone to decay, or supplanted by others omit to strain myself to more charges than building England and her Court, are now scarcely fit for farms, or it.” The strong desire of Elizabeth's subjects to levelled with the ground or rebuilt. Such were the seat of please her in her progresses, was never more strikingly the Compton family at Mockings; of the Sadleirs at Stanshown than on the occasion of a visit which she don; of the great Burleigh at Theobalds; of the Earl of paid to Sir Thomas Gresham, the founder of the Leicester at Kenilworth ; of the Bishop of Ely at SomerRoyal Exchange, at the mansion which he had built Mildmay's at Moulsham; Lord Rich's at Leiglis; Sir Tho

sham; Sir Thomas Cook's at Giddyhall; Sir Thomas at Osterley, in Middlesex. Her Majesty happened to mas Waldgrave's at Smallbridge; Mı. Tuke's at Layer find fault with the court of the house, observing that Marney. The royal palaces are almost all gone. it was too great, and that it would appear more Our illustration is copied from a very celebrated handsome if divided with a wall in the middle.

engraving by Vertue—one of his “ Historic Prints," What doth Sir Thomas, but in the night time send for which he copied, in 1737, from the original picture in workmen to London, (money commands all things,) who so the possession of the Earl of Oxford, at Coleshill in speedily and silently apply their business, that the next Warwickshire. It had then been in the hands of that left single before. It is questionable whether the Queen family for fifty or sixty years; but no account of it next day was more contented with the conformity to her had been handed down, except that it was painted in fancy, or more pleased with the surprise and sudden per- memory of Queen Elizabeth's visit to a young married formance thereof.

couple. Who the parties thus honoured were,—and Her courtiers amused themselves with sundry wit- when or where the visit was made.--were points ticisms upon the transformation; some observing wholly unexplained. Vertue himself, after much conthat it was no wonder he could so soon change a sideration, came to the conclusion that it represented building who had been able to build a Change ; while a visit to Henry Cary, Lord Hunsdon, at Hunsdon others, reflecting on some well known differences in House in Hertfordshire, where she is known to have the knight's family, remarked that a house was easier been in September, 1571 ; and that it was the work divided than united.

of Mare Gerrards of Bruges, painter to

een ElizaThe visits which Elizabeth paid to Cecil were fre- beth. But the appropriation of the scene to Hunsdon quent. She was twelve times at Theobalds, which House, has been controverted in the British Topostood at a very convenient distance from London. graphy as having every probability against it. Each visit cost Cecil two or three thousand pounds- The queen is seated in a canopy-chair of state, a large sum in those days; the Queen staying with carried by six gentlemen ; several knights of the garbim“ at his lordship's charge,” sometimes three ter with their collars are walking before the queen, weeks or a month, or six weeks together.

and many favourite ladies following in the train. Her Sometimes she had strangers or embassadors come to yeomen of the guard follow, and the band of gentlemen her thither, where she has been seen in as great royalty, pensioners line the way. and served as bountifully and magnificently as at any other I have some reasons to think (says Vertue) that amongst time or place, all at his lordship's expense, with rich shows, the ladies that follow the Queen, the foremost in white may pleasant devices, and all manner of sports that could be be the Lady Hunsdon; on her right hand, Lord Hunsdon's devised, to the great delight of her Majesty and her whole sister, Lady Katherine, who was wife to Admiral Howard, train, with great thanks from all who partook of it, and as and next behind, in a dark grave habit, Lady Mary Boleyn, great commendations from all that heard of it abroad. His mother of Lord Hunsdon : all the ladies are richly adorned lordship's extraordinary charge in entertaining of the with jewels, &c., to grace the solemnity of this procession.

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the mind or the body, but of special legislation, Had man been a mere animal machine, destitute of founded on premeditated design, and accomplishing reason, he would have been the most defenceless

an adaptation of means to end, wonderful for their creature on earth. The elephant possesses an instru- perfection. Thus the heart, to which the lover apment by which he can grasp his enemy, and an enor-peals as the seat of his ardent feelings, as the most mous weight by which he can trample him to death. sensible organ of his system, may be rudely pressed The bear is endowed with a degree of muscular by the hand without conveying to him the sensation strength, by which he can compress the human figure that it has been touched. Harvey's celebrated expewith as much facility as we break a nutshell. The riment puts this fact beyond a doubt. lion and the tiger can spring upon their prey, and fix

It happened that a youth of the noble family of it by their claws to the earth until they satiate their Montgomerie had his interior exposed in an extraorhunger. But the infant, what a helpless being it is, dinary manner, in consequence of an abscess in the and remains, long after it first sees the light! The side of the chest, which was caused by a fall. The idiot who never enjoyed reason ; the melancholy youth was introduced to the presence of Charles the maniac who has been deprived of it: how pitiably First, and Harvey, putting one hand through the weak and dependent are they, compared with the aperture, grasped the heart, and so held it for some rhinoceros or eagle! Nevertheless, it has been time, without the young man being at all conscious given to man to subdue all the tribes of animated that any new object was in contact with it. Other nature to his use, and he has fulfilled his destiny in observations have since confirmed this discovery, and that respect by means of his hand, the most perfect the heart is now universally declared by medical men physical instrument with which we are acquainted to be insensible! Nevertheless, we all well know that Not all the skill of man has yet been able to imitate the heart is affected not only by the emotions of the the hand in its formation and functions, or to sug- mind, but by every change that takes place in the gest an improvement in one of its joints or muscles.

condition of the body. Here, then, is a complete Galen's enthusiastic and eloquent description of it, proof of design. The heart insensible to touch, which, which the reader will find translated in Dr. Kidd's from its internal position, it was never intended to volume, though unrivalled in ancient or modern lite experience, is yet sensibly alive to every variation in rature, scarcely does justice to the flexibility, delicacy, the circulation of the blood, and sympathizes in the and strength of this admirable instrument. But it strictest manner with the powers of the constitution. is, after all, nothing more than an instrument; it There is nothing, however, in the mere principle of would have been, comparatively, powerless, had it life, still less in the physical texture of the heart, to not been moved to action by the rational faculty of give it insensibility to touch, and sensibility to feeling which it is the immediate servant.

of the most active and refined description. As life Yet, although it is by means of the hand that we

is animation added to the body when formed, so this operate upon external matter, we cannot perceive, peculiar susceptibility of the heart is an endowment as Sir Charles Bell justly remarks, any relation be added to the organ bv Him who made it.- Quarterly tween that instrument and the mind. The hand is Review. not more distinct from the rose which it is about to

THE STOMACH.-"I firmly believe that almost every pluck, than the mind is from this organ of its volition. Indeed, we must all feel that the pulse which malady of the human frame is, either by high-ways or by

ways, connected with the stomach. The woes of every beats at the wrist, has nothing whatever to do with other member are founded on your belly timber; and I our will. We may use the hand for our purposes,

must own,

I never see a fashionable physician mysteriously but its machinery, its vitality, do not in any way consulting the pulse of his patient, but I feel a desire to depend upon our dictates. The action of the heart, exclaim;-Why not tell the poor gentleman at once, “Sir, the circulation of the blood, are carried on by laws

you have eaten too much; you've drunk too much, and

you have not taken exercise enough!' The human frame to which the mind is no party. Had it been other

was not created imperfect. It is we ourselves who have wise, a single act of omission in ordering the requisite made it so. There exists no donkey in creation so overfunctions on our part, might bring life to a premature laden as our stomachs." — Bubbles from Nassau. termination. The fracture of a small filament in the admirable tracery of nervous cords which unites

How frail and inconsistent is men! How different does he

think and act even for himself, in different circumstances ! many organs in sympathy, would produce spasm,

How strangely does the same passion of pride seek for suffocation, and death. Thus, then, we have two gratification from contrary causes, from pursuing ideal good, principles of vitality in us,-one, that of the mind,- and from giving up that which is attainable and real ! One the other, that of the frame in which it is enveloped ; moment he strains at a gnat, and applauds himself for each perfectly distinct, and manifestly the work of a

sagacity, in the next he does not suspect himself of creduSuperior Intelligence, who has given us a control over

lity when he swallows a camel.-PARR. the operations of both, but has taught us the secret LONGEVITY. In the third volume of Mr. Sharon Turner's of immortality, in the laws which disclose their sepa- Sacred History of the World, is the following passage: rate existence. The planets move round the sun by “The salubrity of England, either from its climate, its his attraction; the blood circulates through our manners, or its intellectual cultivation, to the more advanced frame by no relation to the mind. The planets and periods of social life, is indicated by the fact that, in 1834, the sun itself shall perish; the blood shall cease to

it was calculated that there were then seventy peers in the circulate, and the fairest fabric of mortality shall House of Lords, who were between seventy and eighty moulder in the dust ; but the mind lives indepen- lears of ageor a sixth part of the 426 of whom the House,

including the bishops, consists. Eleven of these were dently of matter, as matter does of mind, and can

noticed as octogenarians, or still older. These eleven peers no more be affected, as to its vital essence, by the were thus represented :destruction of the body, than Sirius would be by the Lord Wodehouse

Lord St. Helens extinction of our entire solar system.

Lord Lynedoch.......
Lord Stowell ....

Earl of Ranfurley
Not only are the vital functions of the body inde- Lord Eldon ....i

Earl Powis pendent of our will, but each of our organs has been

Lord Middleton............

Lord Carrington endowed, without any consent or previous knowledge on our part, with powers admirably suited to its pur. the Earl of Egremont, and Lord Rolle, the two former of

To these might have been added the Bishop of Norwich, pose; powers which are not the result of life either of whom have paid the debt of nature: the last is still living.

Earl Fortescue

93 84 89 83 83 82

81 81 80 80 80

Lord Scarsdale

USE AND MANUFACTURE OF BELLS weighs 127,836 lbs. “ This was the largest bell The employment of sonorous metal in the form of known until Bovis Godenuf gave the cathedral of bells, for the purpose of producing musical sounds, that city a bell weighing 288,000 lbs. This was again is of very great antiquity. We read of it in the Holy surpassed by the bell cast at the expense of the emScriptures, where bells are mentioned as being em

press Anne, which weighs at the lowest computation ployed in religious ceremonies, and it was ordered by 432,000 lbs., or between twenty-one and twenty-two Moses that the lower part of the blue robe of the tons*." high priest should be hung with pomegranates and

The largest bells in England are at Christchurch small bells. The same custom is noticed with refer- | College, Oxford, weighing 17,000 lbs.; St. Paul's, ence to the kings of Persia ; and in many parts of London, 11,474 lbs.; and the great Tom of Lincoln, the East, at the present day, the mistress of the house 10,854 lbs., the heaviest of these being only onehas the lower part of her dress furnished with hollow twentieth the weight of the Russian bell. pieces of metal, containing small stones, and these Although the English have nothing to boast of as producing a sound as she moves, warn the domestics to the size of their church bells, when compared with of her approach. Bells were used to decorate the those of other nations, they have practised almost heads of the war-horses of the Jews, in order to ac

exclusively the art of bell-ringing. From a series of custom them to noise. The Greeks and the Romans

bells of different sizes, properly tuned, so as to also used bells on many occasions, religious, civil, produce when struck, the different notes of the gamut, and military; in funeral processions, at sacrifices, and many harmonious effects are obtained. to announce the hour of bathing, and of rising in the

The practice of ringing bells in changes or in regular peals morning; they were also rung at executions.

is said to be peculiar to England; the custom seems to have

commenced with our Saxon ancestors, and to have been But although bells were known thus early, the

common before the Conquest. The tolling of a bell is nothing manufacture of them appears to have been confined more than producing a sound by a stroke of the clapper to those of a small size. The first church . bells are against the side of the bell, the bell itself being in a pendant supposed to have been cast at Nola, in Campania, in position, and at rest; but in ringing, the bell is elevated to the year 400; but it is not until the beginning of the a horizontal position, so that, by means of a wheel and rope, sixth century that their enıployment is known to a

the clapper strikes forcibly on one side as it ascends, and on

the other side on its return downwards, producing at each certainty. From this time, their use in churches

stroke a sound. rapidly spread in all directions; and at the end of the ninth century, scarcely a church or monastery, of any this country, has caused great attention to be paid to

Bell-ringing having been reduced to a science in note, was unprovided with these lively harbingers of the process of casting bells, and preparing the metal. religious duties. Among the Roman Catholics, many superstitious proportions vary according to the size of the bell, or

Bell-metal is composed of tin and copper ; but the notions were attached to the employment and pro- | the judgment of the founder: the usual quantities are perties of bells. A church bell is noticed by anti

23 lbs. of tin to 100 lbs. of copper. In large bells quaries, inscribed with the following Latin verses, in which its valuable properties are summed up :

more copper is added, and sometimes in very small

ones a portion of silver is used, which is said to imFunera plango, fulgura frango, sabbata pango,

prove the sweetness of the tone materially. Excito lentos, dissipo ventos, paco cruentos;

The method of casting a large bell is in the first which may be thus translated,

instance to form a core which is to fill the inside of I strike at a funeral, I disperse the thunder, I announce the the bell while casting. For this purpose a hole is dug sabbath,

large enough to contain the bell, and to allow a free I excite the lukewarm, I dissipate tempests, I soften the hearts of cruel men.

passage to the workman, during the operation of

moulding. In the spot to be occupied by the centre In allusion to another superstition regarding bells, of the mould, a stake is firmly driven into the earth; we find in the Golden Legend of Wynken de Worde, on the top of this stake is an iron peg, on which the one of our early English printers, that, “ It is said,

guage or compasses of the moulder revolves; the the evil spirytes, that ben in the regyon of thayre, stake is surrounded, at the lower end, with solid doubte moche when they here the belles rongen : and brickwork. This is called the millstone, this is the cause why the belles ben rongen when it portion of the space to be occupied by the core is thondreth, and when grete tempeste and outrages of

with bricks and earth, a hollow chamber wether happen, to the end that the feinds and wycked being left in the centre, into which in a subsequent spirytes shold be abashed and fee, and cease of the

part of the process, hot coals are introduced for the movynge of tempeste."

purpose of drying the mould. This rough foundation The custom of naming bells and blessing them is afterwards covered with successive layers of fine with certain religious ceremonies exists in the Roman cohesive earth and sand, mixed with horse or hog's church. Before bells are hung they are washed, dung, the compasses being frequently applied for the crossed, blessed, and named, by the bishop.

purpose of ascertaining the progress of the work, and The Chinese, have been from early times famous

a moulding-board used to preserve the correct curve. for the magnitude of their bells. The city of At intervals, as the work proceeds, the mould is freNankin formerly possessed some of a very large quently dried, and any imperfections which may size, but their weight was so enormous, that they arise from shrinking are corrected by the moulder, brought down the tower in which they were hung. by the addition of fresh compost; and the core is One of these bells is twelve feet in height, and

again dried and carefully smoothed over. seven in diameter: it is computed to weigh as much

The core being complete, the model of the bell as two tons and a half. These bells were cast itself is next formed, by a composition of moulding about three hundred years ago : they are four in loam and hair, which is applied to the core by layers, number, and are named, the hanger, tchoui; the eater,

the last being very thin; the last layer is a mixture che; the sleeper, choui; the will, si.

A French of wax and grease.

The model being thus comauthor mentions seven other bells at Pekin, each of plete, the shell of the mould is formed; the first which weighs the enormous weight of six tons. But layer of this last coating is composed of earth, sifted some of the bells - in Russia exceed even these in

* See Saturday Magazine, Vol. IIl., p. 7, for a description of weight; one in the church of St. Ivan's at Moscow this monstrous bell.

A great

filled up

very fine, and mixed with cow-hair, to make it adhere, and tempered with water to a state of semi-fluidity, when it is poured upon the waxen mould, and readily adapts itself to all its parts, filling in the ornaments, or writing, with which it is marked.

Two or three of these coatings haring been applied, a fire is again lighted in the core, by which the shell is dried, and the wax, leaving its impression in the sand, melted off. After this other layers of the moulding loam are laid on, a quantity of hemp being spread intermediately, to bind the mass more securely together; the compasses are still employed, in order to secure a degree of equality in the thickness of the shell.

When the moulding is completed, and all the parts sufficiently dry, the hollow of the core is filled with sand, through an opening left at the head of the shell. Five or six pieces of wood, two or three feet long, are placed about the mill-stone, and under the lower part of the shell ; between these and the mould, wooden wedges are driven to loosen the model and the shell, the latter being lifted off, and the former broken and removed from the core: the shell, after being blackened inside by the burning of straw, to give smoothness to the casting, is lowered exactly over the core ; the cap containing the perforations for the rings or ears is affixed, and cuts are made for the escape of air, and admission of the metal, after which the whole is carefully surrounded in the pit with sand, well rammed about the shell. A gutter being made from the furnace, along which the metal, when in a state of fusion, is allowed to flow into the mould in the pit, until it has filled every part.

Like flattery's voice, from yonder tower
Shall speak the genius of the hour,-
Shall bid the sons of mirth be glad,
Shall tell of sorrow to the sad,

Reflection to the wise ;
Shall add to superstitious fear,
And peal on rapt devotion's ear

The sounds of Paradise.
And all his changeful fate brings down

On suffering man below,
Shall murmur from its metal crown,

Or be it joy or woe.
Browner see the mass appearing;

Now the rod I dip within-
Should it glaze it, close adhering,
We may then our work begin.

Come pour the tide,

And be it tried,
To know if yet with favouring sign,
The ruder and the weak combine.
Lift the liberating latch,

Free the metals on their way,-
First a hasty moment snatch,

IIeaven's protecting aid to pray!
Strike the stopper! out it goes -
Heaven protect us !—now it flows.
Shooting, sparkling through the mould,
Now the fluid mass lias rolled.
Through the moulded chambers gliding,

Now the metal fills the soil;
May the fashioned mass, subsiding,

Prove deserving of our toil.
Short repose, an instant courting,

Till the bell has cooled, we rest Like the bird in groves disporting,

Each may play as likes him best. Break me down the mighty monld,

It has reached its master's aim,
Let the longing eye behold

The created child of flame.
Break it down, though strong it fit,
Swing the hammer till it split.
Would we raise the living bell,
We must break its mortal shell.
The master knows the time to shiver
The moulded form with cunning land-
Lo from the clay asunder parting,

Untarnished by the lapse of years,
Rays of metallic lustre darting,

All freshly bright the bell appears. Come, close your ranks, your counsel tell, To bless and consecrate the bellConcordias' name may suit it well, And wide may it extend the call Of union and of peace to all;— Such then be its solemn name, And this its object and its aim.

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In Germany, and other parts of the Continent, the casting of a large bell is celebrated as a holiday by all the neighbourhood of the foundry, and is attended with much ceremony. The following extracts are from Lord Leveson Gower's translation of the celebrated “ Song of the Bell,” of Schiller. We have already alluded to this poem in the Saturday Magazine, and now add a more lengthened extract, embracing the whole of the descriptive part of the subject.

Through yonder clay at close of day

The molten mass shall run,
The fashioned bell itself shall tell

Our weary task is done.
Choose me splinters of the pine,

Choose them clean and dry
That the spiry flame may shine

Up the tube on high.
Pour the molten copper in,
Mix it with the bubbling tin,
That the viscous mass may flow,
Duly through the mouth below.
That offspring of consuming fire,

And man's creative hand,
High from the summit of the spire,

Shall murmur o'er the land.

And now, with many a rope suspending,

Come, swing the monarch's weight on high,
By our last toil, its throne ascending,

To rule the azure canopy.
Stretch the pulley—now he springs !
Yet another—now he swings !
Let him bid the land rejoice-

Peace be on his earliest voice ! The most necessary talent of a man of conversation, is a good judgment. He that has this in perfection is master of his companion, without letting hiin see it; and has the same advantage over men of any other qualifications what soever, as one that can see would have over a blind man of ten times his strength.—STEELE.



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