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gests them.

pen, the object of which is to remedy the defect com- will perform its office for a whole day without renewplained of, that the nibs increase in breadth by use. ing its edge; this superior quality is given to the In the new pen, the nibs are made parallel-sided for steel by hammering it for several hours. This is an about one-eighth of an inch long, the remaining por- important fact, and seems to have been discovered by tion being cut in the usual curved manner, so that the pen-makers. When the other slits and openings one-eighth of an inch may be worn away without have been made, and the maker's name stamped, the increasing the breadth of the nibs. We have not next operation is called dishing, by which the proper used any of these pens, but it occurs to us, that by shape is given to the pens by means of a metallic the above means the equable opening and closing of punch and die, accurately fitting each other, the two the nib during writing cannot be insured, that the ink being the exact form of the pen. would not flow down in sufficient quantity, and that The pens are now hardened by being heated to unless the pen were held in one particular direction, redness, and being then plunged into cold oil, which the equal wearing away of the nibs would not occur. must be at least three feet deep. The oil in a few We should rather fear that the pen would often act weeks loses its properties and becomes charred. The the part of a chisel, and dig into the paper instead next operation is cleaning and polishing; this is of moving over its surface; but these objections are effected by a very curious machine. It consists of a offered without ever having used the pen which sug- tin cylinder, eight or nine inches in diameter, and

three feet long, with a hole in the middle of its length, The oblique position in which the pen is held in- for putting in and taking out the pens, which hole is duced Messrs. Mordan and Brockeden, in 1831, to covered by a lid. This cylinder is hung on joints at make their oblique pens, in order that the two sides each end to cranks, formed one on each of two axles of the nib should bear equally on the paper. The furnished with a fly-wheel, and one of them with a form of this pen is that of a bird's head and bill; handle. As this latter is turned, the cylinder is the slit, or mouth of the bird, is the part employed thrown up and down and backwards and forwards, in writing, and this slit is inclined, at an angle of 35°, and the pens are agitated in a manner similar to to the general direction of the pen. They hold a great materials shaken in a bag. This motion is continued deal of ink, and their use is pleasant to the writer. for eight hours, when many thousands of pens, by

Other pens, called Lunar Pens, have been adopted. rubbing against each other, are found to be entirely Their under surface being large and concave, a great deprived of any roughness which might have otherportion of ink is taken up by them, and thus the wise existed on them, and which, though invisible to writer's time is economized.

the eye, might offer serious impediments to free Mr. Gowland has invented a pen with an addi- writing. They are now tempered by being placed on tional nib, called the “ Three-nibbed Slit Pen." The a furnace-plate, and as soon as they have acquired a additional nib is formed by cutting it out of the bright blue colour they are removed; this colour inshank, and turning it back over the nibs. This pen dicates the best temper for the pens, and is due to a is manufactured by Mordan, as also “ Mordan's thin film of oxide formed on the surface; were they Counter-oblique Pen.” Both these penis hold much heated in vacuo, or in any meờium containing no ink, and the awkward appearance of obliquity in the oxygen, the blue colour would not appear. The last bird's-head

pen is removed, while, at the same time, operation consists in cracking the slits, which is done the oblique effects are preserved.

by pressing the nibs suddenly with a pair of pincers; There are many other forms of steel pens, which the slit, which was cut only two-thirds through, then we need not stop to describe, since the examples suddenly opens. already given will afford to the reader a sufficiently It is calculated that the total quantity of steel accurate idea of their forms and uses. We proceed, employed in this manufacture, amounts to 120 tons therefore, to perhaps the most interesting portion of per annum, from which upwards of 200,000,000 of this article, viz., the processes by which steel pens pens are produced. are manufactured.

There is, however, a considerable waste of mateThe steel with which the pens are made is rolled rial in this branch of art. The pieces of steel cut into very thin plates; it is then cut into slips, about out of the pens cannot be applied to any use ; it is four inches broad and three feet long, then annealed so thin that it cannot be welded, and it cannot be for fourteen hours, and again submitted to the roller; melted, because it takes fire and burns, in consethe thickness of these bands is not more than oth of quence of access of air between the thin pieces. an inch. The bands are then passed under a stamp- It is a cheering statement, that in spite of the ing-press, and pieces of the proper size for the pens immense consumption of steel pens, the demand for are cut out with great rapidity. These pieces are quills has not abated, but, on the contrary, is on the called blanks, or flats, and are so cut out, that the increase. This is to be accounted for by considering fibres of the steel shall run in the direction of the that, within the last few years, population has greatly length of the pen. The blanks are now submitted to increased, and that by the diffusion of the refining the action of a hardened steel punch and matrix, of influence of education, that class of persons now can the exact size and shape of the pen, and which are write which twenty years ago was altogether illiterate. attached to a powerful fly-press. The pens are then Besides this, the Continent and America are supplied softened by being put into an iron box containing by us with steel pens. When first introduced, they tallow; this box is placed in a furnace and equally were as high as 88. per gross, then they fell to 4s., and heated. When the box is withdrawn, the pens are now they are manufactured at Birmingham at so low emptied upon hot ashes and covered with the same, a price as four-pence per gross ! As yet, it appears and so allowed to cool gradually ; by this means they that the only branch of trade that has suffered by are sufficiently soft for the subsequent processes. the introduction of steel pens is the cutlery trade: They are then marked for the slits ; this is done by pen-knives are in less requisition than formerly. means of an extremely fine-edged chisel, brought down separately upon each pen, and so admirably

LONDON: adjusted that two-thirds only of the substance of JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. the pen is cut through. The edge of this chisel is PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MOXTHLY PARTI fincr than any razor, but much harder, because it

Sold by all Booksollers and Newsreaders in the Kingdom

PRICE SIXPENCL.

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MASANIELLO, THE FISHERMAN, AND THE REVOLUTION OF NAPLES.

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PART THE SECOND.

him, and this declaration rendered further evidence JULY 8th.-The morning of Monday had scarcely superfluous. dawned, when licentious bodies of rioters appeared The viceroy under these circumstances endeavoured parading the streets, renewing the scenes of the to palm on the populace a forged document similar former day with tenfold violence. In this, as in to that which they required. There had not been every other instance of a popular outbreak, it was sufficient time to give such a fraud even a chance of found that the disposition to riot, like every other success; it was at once detected, and popular indigevil principle, is greatly strengthened by indulgence, nation was directed against the Duke of Matalone. and that the calamities of licentiousness accumulate The fiercer insurgents seized on his person, loaded with frightful rapidity. The Duke of Arcos resolved him with chains, and dragged him to prison. to negotiate, and he employed a Neapolitan noble- Masaniello's malady had been aggravated by a man, the Duke of Matalone, whom he held at the sleepless night; he incited his followers to fresh acts time as a prisoner in the castle, to act as his mediator of violence, and begun to display a fierce hatred of with the insurgents.

the nobility and gentry. With his sanction, the No more puzzling question could be put to the houses of all who were regarded as enemies to the Neapolitans, than to ask what was the substance of people, were gutted and destroyed ; his followers, their demands. The expectations of a mob are the lowest and most licentious of the Lazzaroni, always vague, and hence they insist upon impossi- paraded the streets with boat-hooks to drag the bilities. The leaders of the insurrection demanded gentlemen from their horses, and inspired such not only the abolition of all imposts, but the produc- terror, that the appearance of one of them was suffition of a charter, written, as they said, in letters of cient to clear a crowded street. The very women gold, and granted by the Emperor Charles the Fifth, joined in these excesses, with muskets on their to the citizens of Naples. No such document had shoulders, swords by their sides, and daggers in the ever existed, but nothing short of a miracle could folds of their dress; and even the children were made convince the multitude of their delusion. Masaniello to bear their part in the national frenzy. A second averred that it had been superbaturally described to night of revolution closed in, and the results of the VOL. XII.

362

tyranny of a mob were traced in characters of blood of the popular leader. All agreed that the Duke of and flame on the once lovely city of Naples.

Matalone and his brother, Don Joseph Caraffa, were July 9th.—The excesses of the former days were the contrivers of the conspiracy; but some, probably renewed with fresh violence. Masaniello led a body in the vain hope of preserving their lives, added of his followers against the steeple and church of St. many other horrors, declaring that a plot had been Lorenzo, which had been garrisoned by a company laid for undermining the place of assembly, and blow. of Spanish soldiers, who were too few to offer any ing all the insurgents together into the air. These effective resistance. Henceforth, the church of St. revelations scarcely delayed their fate, as each told Lorenzo became the chief focus of the insurrection, all he was supposed to know, he was hewn down, and its great bell was used to sound the tocsin, beheaded, and mutilated in barbarous triumph. whenever Masaniello and his successors deemed it The assembly still continued its meeting ; Masa. necessary to summon an assembly of the people. niello, guarded by the most ferocious of the Lazzaroni, In the evening of the day, the viceroy made a new bearing on pikes the gory heads of the slain baneffort to open a negotiation with the insurgents, em- ditti, harangued the multitude, exaggerating the ploying as his ambassador Cardinal Felomarino, Arch. dangers from which he and they had escaped, and bishop of Naples, who was rather a favourite with the calling for vengeance on the whole body of the nobles. populace. He persuaded the people and their leaders Horrid outcries rent the air as he concluded; a that he had full power to arrange all the points of party instantly departed in search of the duke and difference, and he produced copies of the charters his brother, while others, in anticipation of their granted by Ferdinand the Catholic, and Charles the capture, hastily prepared a wooden scaffoid ; the Fifth. Though these documents contained nothing bleeding bodies of those who had been slain were like the stipulations ignorantly expected by the mul- tied to the tails of horses and dragged through the titude, they were received with satisfaction, and the streets ; the fishermen, the Lazzaroni, and hordes of night was passed more peacefully than either of the degraded women, incensed by fury, mutilated the preceding.

senseless carcasses, while children wallowed in the July 10th.—The expectations of peace to which blood, and seemed to take a premature delight in the cardinal's embassy had given rise, were disap- slaughter. Matalone escaped his pursuers, but Capointed by a new series of events. Large parties of | raffa was taken and dragged towards the square. banditti, which had long infested the kingdom of His captors could not delay their eagerness for his Naples, flocked to the capital, and were gladly re- blood, and, before he reached the scaffold, a butcher ceived by Masaniello. To one of these criminals, by struck off his head with a blow of a cleaver. When name Perrone, he intrusted the charge of the pri- intelligence of this event reached Masaniello, he soners. But the Duke of Matalone found little difli- ascended the scaffold, still in his sailor's dress, with culty in persuading the bandit to become a traitor to a drawn sword in his hand, and exclaimed, “ Bring the popular cause, and to join with another bandit, here the head of the traitor." His orders were obeyed, named Palombe, in a plot for the assassination of and the furious demagogue insulted and spurned the Masaniello. As a preliminary, the duke was permitted corpse of the unfortunate nobleman, until his own to make his escape, and he took good care to remove followers could not conceal their feelings of disgust. himself to a safe distance.

During this dreadful day the Neapolitan clergy Masaniello summoned a general assembly, to deli- kept the churches open, covered the altars with the berate on the proposals made by the cardinal; an ornaments used in the services for the dead, offered immense multitude thronged into the square ap-up prayers for peace, and repeated the service of their pointed for the meeting; but the appearance of five church called “supplications for the passing soul," hundred banditti, armed to the teeth, well mounted, usually recited for persons at the point of death. and acting in concert, excited some alarm. They Even this spectacle failed to produce the intended rode forward to the place where Masaniello stood ; effect; murderers with their weapons of slaughter, some exclamations from the crowd excited his alarm, incendiaries waving their blazing torces, stopped at and he commanded the bandits to dismount. Instead the gates of the churches as they passed, uncovered of obeying the order, seven of them discharged their their heads, knelt for a few moments to go through carbines at him, but though his shirt was burned by the mummery of devotion, and then went on their the gunpowder, not a ball struck him. The enraged way to continue the work of destruction. mob immediately assailed the bandits ; thirty of them July 11th.—The Duke of Arcos was far from fell at the very first discharge, and the rest sought breaking off the negotiations in consequence of the shelter in a church, trusting that the Neapolitans, preceding horrors. Cardinal Felomarino again prewho are proverbial for superstition, would respect the sented himself as a mediator; Masaniello, who was sanctuary.

unable. to write, dictated to his secretaries certain But in the terrible excitement of popular fury, conditions for peace, principally insisting on the religion ceases to curb violence, and superstition is total abolition of taxes, and full indemnity for all of course still more inefficacious. The enraged mul- who had engaged in the insurrection. When the titudes forced the gates, the work of butchery went articles were prepared, they were read to the people in on in the sucred precincts, the floor was flooded the church of the Carmelites, and received with loud with blood, wretches were slaughtered while they acclamation. Cardinal Felomarino then proposed grasped the altar, and the images of the Virgin and that Masaniello should accompany him to the Spanish the Saints were stained with the gore of the victims. | governor; the proposition was adopted, and the A few were reserved for a worse fate; they were tor: demagogue exchanged his sailor's dress for a superb tured to force a confession; cords were drawn round robe of silver tissue. He then mounted a splendid their thumbs, and tightened until blood spouted from charger, richly caprisoned, and, accompanied by a the nails; the heads of others were subjected to vast multitude, proceeded to the viceroy. similar compression until their eyes were starting The Duke of Arcos, though imbued with a double from the sockets: they confessed the plot that had portion of Spanish pride, received the imperious been laid for the murder of Masaniello, and the inten- fisherman with the utmost respect, and treated him tion of their masters tu fall upon the mob during the as if he had been the first of the grandees. The eonfusion that must necessarily result from the loss / courtly ceremonies .were tedious; they were pro

For a

66

ere his

tracted to such a length, that the crowd which waited | always mischievous, tended greatly to abate the pooutside for Masaniello's return, began to get alarmed, pular enthusiasm in his favour; a new conspiracy was and to show symptoms of suspicion and uneasiness. formed for his destruction, in which many who had On hearing this Masaniello stepped to the window, been his most ardent supporters were included. His and by a single word hushed the miscreants to silence. | despotic power, which he frequently manifested by He took the opportunity of showing to the viceroy various acts of tyranny during the day, seemed still the wonderful and perilous influence which he had too formidable to be resisted. But towards evening established over the populace by manifesting their i he drew his sword, cut furiously at all around him, immediate and implicit obedience to his commands and became so outragevus that his friends were He gave a signal with his hand, and instantly all the obliged to bind and secure him during the night. bells in the city began to toll; he waved his hand July 16th.-Early in the day Masaniello escaped once more, and their knell instantly ceased. He from the friends who detained him in custody, and lifted bis arm, and the multitude raised deafening rushed into the church of Del Carmine, during shouts; he placed his finger on his lips, and the service before a crowded congregation. When the assembled thousands became mute and motionless solemnity was concluded, Masaniello ascended the as statues. Such an exhibition produced the designed pulpit with a crucifix in his hand, harangued them effect; the viceroy felt it necessary to recognise the in a desponding mood, complaining that he was title of so potent a demagogue; he not only saluted | betrayed and deserted. As he grew warm with the him as captain-general of the populace, but placed a fervour of discourse, his insanity began to break gold chain round his neck with his own hands, and out; at length his language and his gestures became proclaimed him Duke of St. George.

so outrageous that the priests removed him by force July 12th.—The hopes of peace were baffled by the from the pulpit. He then applied to the cardinal for increasing malady of Masaniello; he was haunted protection, offering to resign all his authority to the by a morbid terror of death, direading particularly the viceroy, and the prelate persuaded him to retire into banditti, and the nobles by whom he believed them an adjoining cloister. The conspirators soon burst to be instigated. He could only sleep for a few into his place of refuge, exclaiming, “ Health to the minutes at a time, keeping his attendants in con- king of Spain and death to Masaniello !” stant excitement, by springing from his troubled slum- moment his former energies were rallied; he turned bers and exclaiming, “ Up, up, there can be no rest round to the assassins, and in a tone of firmness for us until we are masters of Naples !" He received exclaimed, Do my faithful subjects seek me? Here food only from the hands of one of his relations, and I am." The words had scarcely passed his lips he frequently expressed a belief that he would even- when he received the fire of four muskets in his tually be deserted by the fickle populace, ignomi- bosom; he had only time to exclaim, “ Ungrateful niously slain, and that his body would be exposed | traitors !" as he fell. He was a dead man to insults as gross as those which had been offered to head touched the earth. the remains of Caraffa. Agitated by these apprehen- The crowded congregation, in the church of Del sions, he no longer received applications and petitions Carmine, learned the fate of the popular favourite in the market-place, but posted himself at the win-without emotion. Those who had followed shouting dow of his own cottage, in his fisherman's dress, in his train on the preceding day, patiently stood by with a loaded blunderbuss at hand. A body of the while his head was cut off to be borne as a trophy Lazzaroni surrounded the house as guards and execu- to the viceroy. His body was dragged through the tioners of his will; two secretaries prepared his answers, streets by a rabble of boys, among whom the nobility sentences, &c., and in all of these Masaniello continued freely flung pieces of money, and was then cast into to manifest an implacable hatred of the aristocracy. one of the city ditches.

July 13th.—The business of this day was the July 17th.-The death of Masaniello does not installation of Masaniello in the cathedral, and the conclude his " strange eventful history.”. On the solemn ratification of the articles of peace arranged morning after his murder a vast crowd of the Lazzabetween him and the viceroy. During the ceremony roni assembled, sought out his dishonoured remains, the marks of Masaniello's madness first became and carried them in melancholy procession to the obvious to the spectators; he frequently interrupted cathedral; there his body was arrayed in royal robes, the reading of the articles by captious and even decorated with a crown and sceptre, and treated with absurd objections; at the conclusion of the cere- all the respect due to a deceased sovereign. His mony he was with difficulty restrained from throwing funeral was celebrated with the utmost pomp; thouoff his robes, and assuming his old dress in the pre- sands of armed men followed the hearse, testifying sence of the whole assembly. The multitude, how their respect and sorrow; as the body sunk into the ever, still adhered to him, and their acclamations grave the assembled multitude burst into a passion succeeded for a time in restoring his equanimity. of tears, prayers, and lamentation, and the memory

July 14th. The insurrection had now lasted a of the unfortunate fisherman was long held in the week; a second Sunday had dawned, and the dis- highest veneration by the mob of Naples. tractions of Naples seemed to have become worse Thus, in the short space of ten days, Masaniello than ever. Masaniello's insanity now began to be was raised from indigence and obscurity to the height manifest to the multitude; he gailoped through the of power; then suddenly slain as a wild beast and streets half-naked, invited the cardinal and the Duke dragged through the city with ignominy, yet finally of Arcos to sup with him, jumped into the sea with buried as a prince and almost worshipped as a saint. his clothes on, continued to swim about for an hour, The civil war soon broke out afresh, but the Neaand drank at supper twelve flasks of strong wine. politans, after their first enthusiasm had cooled, The intoxication which ensued, produced the only proved unable to resist the might of the Spanish sound sleep he had enjoyed since his elevation. monarchy. Torn in sunder by internal tumults, in

July 15th.-Insurrectionary violence was now be- sulted by their leaders, betrayed by their favourites, ginning to grow weary of its own excesses. The and plundered by banditti, they were glad to purchase populace had nothing to do; for all who could be peace upon any terms, and to submit to a government regarded as enemies of the public cause were removed. still more oppressive than that against which they Masaniello's insane freaks, sometimes ludicrous and had taken up arms.

HISTORY OF THE OLIVE TREE, AND THE words upon the mutual action and reaction of vege. MODE OF PREPARING THE OIL. table upon animal, and of animate upon inanimate No. II

matter. By tracing the food of animals through all The cultivation of the Olive has always been particu- its conditions, we find that no substance or being is larly attended to by the husbandmen of Western isolated or self-dependent—that the same element is Asia and Southern Europe. It was formerly, and at gradually developed from inert matter to vegetable the present day, propagated both by cuttings and by life—from vegetable to animal life—and that its apgrafts; the latter method is referred to at some length

parent death is merely its transition from one conin Romans xi. 17-24.

dition to another. It was observed by a native of There was a law at Athens that the Olive-tree must

Marseilles that the Olive, in its wild state, is propabe planted nine feet from another man's ground, be- gated by kernels that have undergone the digestive cause it is said to spread its roots further than other process of animals, and more particularly of birds. trees.

It was further observed that, by this process, the fruit Virgil, describing the various ways which Nature has was deprived of its natural oil, and thus rendered ordained for the propagation of trees, says, that Olives

permeable to the moisture of the soil, the excrement are increased by truncheons, that is, by cutting or

of the animal at the same time serving for manure, sawing the trunk or thick branches into pieces of a

and probably the soda which that contains, by comfoot or a foot and a half in length and planting them; bining with the portion of the oil that has escaped whence a root, and soon after a tree, was formed. He digestion still further ensuring germination; the congoes on to express his astonishment at their great tinuance of the species being thus produced by the vitality :

very means that would seem to have destroyed it. E'en stumps of Olives, barred of leaves and dead,

The digestive process is so powerful, that, “ some Revive, and oft redeem their withered head.

physiologists," says John Hunter, “will have it, that In another place, he says, that these trees,

the stomach is a mill-others, that it is a fermenting Unlike vines, when once they have taken root and braved

vat others again, that it is a stew-pan-but in my the winds, require neither pruning-hooks nor rakes; the

view of the matter, it is neither a mill, a fermenting land itself, after being ploughed, affords sufficient nourish- vat, nor a stew-pan-but a stomach;" its action, ment, and so productive are the plants that it would almost however, is so powerful, that the handles of knives seem as if the fruit in full maturity were really turned up swallowed by jugglers have been dissolved, and the by the ploughshare.-—-Georgics, II. 420.

edges of the blades been acted upon by the gastric But little alteration has taken place in its culture, juice ; yet the principle of life in the kernels of the It is still propagated by grafts, or by suckers and Olive is still more powerful, resisting all chemical truncheons, and it is still the custom to deposit stones action except that which is favourable to germination *. in the trenches for encouraging moisture about the Olive oil was, perhaps, the first, certainly the chief roots, as described by Virgil.

object of the early commerce of the Levant.

As vast Its successful cultivation may be taken as no un- quantities of it were made by the ancient Jews, it certain test of the industry and security of the country became an article of exportation.

The demand for it that produces it; its delicate constitution, if the term

in Egypt led the Jews to send it thither, and the may be allowed, and the long period that must elapse prophet Hosea, xii. 1, upbraids his degenerate nation before it will bear fruit, demands all the care and with the folly of their conduct, when, in the decline patience of the labourer. If once the original stock of their national glory, they carried the produce of is destroyed, as frequently happens during a war, a their Olive-plantations into Egypt as a tribute to their whole generation must pass away before the new ancient oppressors, or as a present to conciliate their plants come to maturity, and unless property is pro- | favour, and obtain their assistance in the sanguinary tected and the labourers have some interest in the

wars which they were compelled to wage with the soil, it may not be reproduced for centuries. Under neighbouring states. the paternal government of Greece it is daily adding

It was also carried into Egypt by the Greeks ; to the riches of the country, while in Egypt it has Plutarch tells us that Plato defrayed the charges of gradually disappeared, nor have they been able to his travels by selling oil in Egypt. fevive its cultivation. “Of many thousand young "The relative value of this tree

, as comparea with Olive-trees," says Prince Puckler Muscau, in a recent other productions of the soil, may be seen by the letter to this country, “which Ibrahim Pasha caused oath which the Athenian youths were required to to be distributed gratis some years ago, hardly one remains, because they were carelessly planted and tend the dominions of Athens shall never cease while

take at the age of eighteen. “My endeavours to exstill more carelessly looked after."

there are wheat, barley, vineyards, and olive-trees The Olive, in the Western world, (says Gibbon,) followed the progress of peace, of which it was considered as the * One more instance of the reaction that animals exert upon vege. symbol. Two centuries after the foundation of Rome, both table life. The formation of the finer soils immediately upon the Italy and Africa were strangers to that useful plant; it was

surface of lands is chiefly to be attributed to the digestive process of naturalized in those countries, and at length arrived into

the common earth worm. Swallowing with its food a considerable the heart of Spain and Gaul. The timid errors of the

quantity of earth below the ground, it deposits this upon the surface

in a state admirably adapted for vegetation. This little gardener ancients, that it required a certain degree of heat, and "earths up" the delicate roots of plants from which the mould has could only flourish in the neighbourhood of the sea, were been washed away by rains, and is continually preparing a fresh soil insensibly exploded by industry and experience.

to receive their seeds. It has been lately proved by actual observa.

tion, that the superficial stratum of a field is entirely changed in this The Olive grows readily in our own country by manner every few months, and that pieces of pottery that have been cuttings, or it may be grafted on the privet.

thrown away as rubbish, are buried, in the course of a few years, to

the depth of several inches. There is no room left to adduce other With protection during frost, (says Mr. Loudon,) it may examples, but it requires no painful labour to follow pature ourselves be maintained against a wall in the latitude of London. through this or any of her paths: it is true that we have no opporSome trees so treated produced a crop in the garden of tunity in this country of observing whole reefs of rocks, secreted by Camden House, Kensington, in 1719, and in Devonshire

one class of animals as bone is secreted in the human body. (see some trees have stood the Winter for many years, as

Saturday Magazine, Vol. III., p. 219,) and the surface of these standards, though without ripening their fruit. Large

rocks broken down into a rich and impalpable mud by another class,

both lower in the scale of creation than the common earth worm. plants are frequently imported from Genoa along with But there are changes going on before the eyes of all, so beautiful orange and pomegranate trees.

and yet so simple, that it seems strange that our attention is not more This subject affords an opportunity of saying a few remain insensible to the perfect wisdom they evince.

frequently arrested by them--and seeing them, that our minds caa

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