« ZurückWeiter »
sainge of Orace (Horace) “ Feras non culpes quod vitairi Paid to Edmunde Allin for a Bible xxs.
Pendred's childe as by warraunte doth appeare, ls.
Paid in reward unto sondrie persons at St. James, her
ELIZABETH. Grace then being there, viz. :--The king's fotemen xls. This letter very well illustrates the remark of her The under kepar of St. James xs. The Gardener vs. To tutor Ascham, that she was a great admirer of meta
one Russel, grome of the Kinge's great chamber xx. John phor and antithesis. Of the few letters which exist, Frenchman that gave a boke to her Grace xs.
Forman xs. To the Warderobe xls. The Violans xls. A
The kepar from Elizabeth to her brother, there is another which of the Parke Gate of St. James xs. Mr. Staunfords sercommences in precisely the same elaborate manner. vants xxs. The Lorde Russell's minstralls xs. In th' ole,
Like as a shipman in stormy wether plukes downe the as by warrant apperetlı, ixli. xvs. sailes tarijnge for bettar winde, so did I most noble kinge,
Paid in reward to sondrie persons the xth of August, in my unfortunate chanche a thurday pluk downe the hie viz., to Farmer that plaied on the lute, xxxs. To Mr. sailes of my joy and comfort, and do trust one day, that as
Ashfelde servant, with ij prise oxen & x muttons, xxs. troblesome waves have repulsed me bakwarde, so a gentil More, the harper, xxxs. To him that made her Grace a winde wil bringe me forwarde to my haven,
table of walnut-tree, xliiijs. ixd. And to M. Cocke's
servaunte which brought her Grace sturgeon, vjs, viijd. After her father's death, Elizabeth resided for some time with her step-mother, the Queen Dowager, originally taken from a picture by Holbein, executed
Our engraving contains a portrait of Elizabeth, who married the Lord Seymour of Sudley, the am
in the year 1551, when she was about eighteen years bitious and unfortunate brother of the Protector Somerset. The palace of Hatfield was afterwards land a few years afterwards, in the report which, in
age. A Venetian ambassador, who was in Engher residence; and in 1551, Edward granted to her the old abbey of Ashridge, which, at the dissolution conformity with the practice of his state, he preof the monasteries, became a royal house. She occa
sented to the Doge and Senate, thus describes her
personal appearance : sionally visited her brother's court; and Strype records an instance of her riding through London in although her face may rather be called pleasing than
She is a lady of great elegance, both of body and mind, great state, to the palace of St. James :
beautiful. She is tall and well made; her complexion, fine March 17, 1551. The lady Elizabeth, the king's sister, though rather sallow; her eyes, but above all her hands, rode through London unto St. James's, the king's palace, which she takes care not to conceal, are of superior beauty. with a great company of lords, knights, and gentlemen;
Camden, as has been seen, describes her in her and after her a great company of ladies and gentlemen on horseback, about two hundred. On the 19th, she came
youth as being of “ admirable beauty." from St. James's through the park to the court; the way
The simplicity of Elizabeth's costume in this porfrom the park-gate unto the court spread with fine sand. trait, offers a remarkable contrast to that fantastic She was attended with a very honourable confluence of noble style of decoration in which she afterwards delighted and worshipful persons of both sexes, and received with to display her person. Holbein was remarkably caremuch ceremony at the court-gate."
ful in preserving the features of costume, and we A very curious memorial of the domestic affairs of have other testimony to his correctness in this inthe Princess Elizabeth, about this time, has been pre- stance. “ With respect to personal decoration,” says served-namely, the Household Book for a year, from her tutor Ascham, in the letter before quoted, “she the 1st of October, 1551, to the last day of Septem- greatly prefers a simple elegance to show and splenber, 1552. It is entitled “ Th’ Accumpte of Thomas dour, so despising the outward adorning of plaiting Parry Esquyer, Couferor [Cofferer,] to the righte the hair and wearing of gold, that, in the whole excellent Princesse the Ladie Elizabeth, her Grace manner of her life, she rather resembles Hippolyta the King's Majestie's most honorable Sister.” Every than Phædra.” Dr. John Elmer, or Aylmer, who page is signed at the bottom by the Princess herself. was tutor to Lady Jane Grey and her sisters, and
The sum total of receipts, including the “ remayne became Bishop of London in Elizabeth's reign, thus of the preceding year,” amounts to 57911. 1s. 31d., speaks of the taste of the princess in this respect with the third part of a farthing. The total amount when young, in a work entitled, -A Harbour for of the payments within the time of the accompt, is faithful Subjects. 36291. 18s. 83d.; and there was left for the wants of The king lest her rich clothes and jewels; and I know it
remayne" of 15071. Os. 01d., a half to be true, that, in seven years after her father's death, she farthing and the third part of a farthing, which sum never in all that time looked upon that rich attire and is stated to have been delivered into her Grace's own precious jewels but once, and that against her will. And hands upon the determination of this accompt: The that there never came gold or stone upon her head till her
sister forced her to lay off her former soberness, and bear expenses of the house amounted to 39381. 183. 7d. ; her company in her gliítering gayness; and then she so wore but deductions for “ hides, felles, and intrails of the it as every man might see that her body carried that which cattle,” supplied 2071. 3s. 8£d. Under the Buttry her heart misliked. I am sure that her maidenly apparel, and Cellar, great quantities of Beer are entered with which she used in King Edward's time, made the noble"swete wine,"
Raynishe wine,” and “ Gascoigne men's daughters and wives to be ashamed to be dressed wine." Board wages for servants are continually men
and painted like peacocks, being more moved with her
most virtuous example than with all that ever Peter or tioned. Lamprey pies are once entered as a present. Paul wrote touching that matter. Yea, this I know, that The wages of household servants for a quarter of
a great man's daughter, (Lady Jane Grey,) receiving from a year, amounted to 821. 17s. 8d. The “ lyveries" of Lady Mary, before she was queen, good apparel of tinsel, velvet coats for xiij gentlemen, at xls. The lyveries cloth of gold, and velvet, laid on with parchment-lace of
“ what shall I do with it?". of the yeomen to 781. 188. There is also a sum of gold, when she saw it said, 31. 158. 8d., mentioned as “ given in almes at sundrie
* Marry," said a gentlewoman, “ wear it." Nay," quoth
she, “ that were a shame to follow my Lady Mary against times to poor men and women.” Among the entries
God's word, and leave my Lady Elizabeth, which followeth of the Chamber and Robes are the following
God's word." And when all the ladies at the coming of Paid to John Spithonius the xvijth of Maye, for bokes, the Scots' Queen Dowager, Mary of Guise, (she who visited &nd to Mr. Allin for a Bible, xxvijs. iiijd.
England in Edward's time,) went with their hair frownsed, Paid the thurde of November to the kepar of Herforde curled, and double curled, she altered nothing, but kept Bayle for fees of John Wingfelde lying in warde, xiijs. inja. her old maidenly shamefacedness.
the next year, a
POTTER FORMING TUE CLAY
ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE BIBLE FROM THE than brick-making, and was not attended with such MONUMENTS OF ANTIQUITY.
fatigue and injury to the constitution. The Egyptian No. VIII.
potters were eminent for their artistic skill; their
vases are fully equal to the most beautiful specimens POTTERY AND GLASS MAKING.
of Greece and Etruria ; indeed, there is every reaThe art of pottery is closely connected with that of son to believe, that both these nations originally brick-making last described, and many allusions are derived the art of pottery from Egypt. made to the process by the sacred writers. Most of One of the most remarkable inventions of a remote our readers have probably witnessed this interesting era, was the manufacture of glass, with which the operation. A formless lump of clay is placed on a Egyptians were acquainted more than three thousand revolving stone; as the wheel turns, a mere touch of years ago. Of this we have the clearest possible the finger suffices to give it shape, the same process evidence, not only from numerous specimens of the
hollows the inside and articles themselves, found in the tombs, and among forms the exterior. the ruins of the temples, but also from the painted The simplicity of this representations of the processes of manufacture
, plastic process com- preserved in the same situations, and from which pared with the beauty the illustrations of the whole of this series of papers of the result, suggests are copied. They were not only skilled in the art of a very vivid illustra- fusing the materials, but also in the use of the blowtion of the Power pipe, an invention so ingenious that its presence alone which formed man out indicates a very high degree of civilization. The of the clay; thus Isaiah fusion of glass was closely connected with the art of says, “ But now, O pottery, for many of the vases and fictile ornaments Lord, thou art our fa- are glazed over with a vitrefied substance containing
ther; we are the clay, the proper proportions of the ingredients for making all
and thou our potter ; glass. It was generally believed by the ancients that
we all are the work of Egypt produced a peculiar species of earth without thy hand.” (Isaiah Lxiv. 8). The lesson of our de. which glass of the best quality could not be manupendence on our Creator is also inculcated by a factured; it is not easy to discover the nature of this reference to the same imagery. “ Woe unto him substance from the loose descriptions transmitted to that striveth with his Maker! Let the potsherd us, but it is said that the beads and ornaments formed strive with the potsherds of the earth. Shall the clay from it possessed all the lustre and brilliancy of the say to him that fashioneth it, What makest thou ? or diamond. The specimens of Egyptian beads preserved thy work, He hath no hands ?” (Isaiah xlv. 9). A in the different museums of Europe, show that this still more remarkable use of this illustration is in Jere- description is far from being exaggerated. In some miah, where, under the type of a potter, God shows of them colours are blended with more exquisite skill his absolute power in disposing of nations. “ The than in any specimens of modern art with which we word which came to Jeremiah from the Lord, saying, are acquainted; and in others pieces of coloured glass Arise, and go down to the potter's house, and there I are made to form beautiful mosaics, an art which is now will cause thee to hear my words. Then I went so rarely practised on account of the great difficulty down to the potter's house, and, behold, he wrought a of finding a proper flux for the glass, that many work on the wheels. And the vessel that he made writers have doubted the possibility of the process. of clay was marred in the hand of the potter : so he It is singular that glass beads, both round and made it again another vessel, as seemed good to the oblong, were used by ladies in ornamental work so potter to make it. Then the word of the Lord came early as the days of Moses just as they are by modern to me, saying, O house of Israel, cannot I do with embroiderers. The oblong beads, or as they are you as this potter? saith the Lord. Behold, as the usually called, bugles, were strung into a great variety clay is in the potter's hand, so are ye in mine hand, of fanciful patterns. In the Egyptian collection O house of Israel.” (Jeremiah xviii. 1-6).
belonging to the king of the French, there is a lady's When the vessels were formed by the potter, they reticule formed of bugles, whose workmanship is of
were burned or baked in a extraordinary beauty. The sacred beetle is a conspi-
snakes, reptiles, and disgust- purposes of deception, as with the design of enabling ing insects, so that the phrase of " being among the persons in the middle and lower ranks of life to potsherds” was frequently used in the East, to signify imitate, at a cheap rate, the luxuries of their superiors. the lowest degree of degradation. This circumstance The Jewellers in the following engraving are probably may, perhaps, explain a passage, usually regarded as employed in preparing some of these factitious ornaone of the most difficult in the Psalms :-" Though ments which were no where so common as in Egypt. ye have lien among the pots, yet shall ye be as the Mr. Wilkinson, whose valuable and interesting work on wings of a dove covered with silver, and her feathers the Domestic Manners of the Ancient Egyptians has with yellow gold." (Psalms Lxviii. 13).
been published since these papers were commenced, It only remains to be added, that pottery among makes the following remarks on this subject : the Egyptians was a more honourable employment
• See Saturday Magazine, Vol. VIII., p. 32.
ANCIENT EGYPTIAN CA6KET.
Many false stones, in the form of beads, have been met of ornamental oordering on some of the caskets, and with in different parts of Egypt, particularly at Thebes ; the spirit of the figures portrayed upon them, could and so far did the Egyptians carry this spirit of imitation, that even small figures, scarabæi, and objects made of ordi- scarcely be paralleled even by the best of our modern
Such inventions, and successful endeavours to imitate
Connected with this branch of Egyptian manufactures, we may notice the seal-rings, many of which were made of glass, because the impressions could be carved more easily upon this substance than upon stone. Job speaking of the subjection of the earth to the Almighty, says “ it is turned as clay to the seal,” whence we find that even before the days of Moses, the process of taking impressions upon some soft substance with a seal was so common that it was
used as a familiar illustration in a poem, whose date JEWELLERS MAKING GLASS ORNAMENTS.
is probably anterior to the invention of alphabetic
writing. The seal was worn as a ring upon the finger, Though glass was principally used for fancy works, or as the ornament of a bracelet; the former custom it was also employed in the manufacture of bottles, prevailed every where before the invention of watches, vases, and other utensils, but especially wine cups. In and is not yet wholly disused. In the Bible we find the later ages, when the Romans conquered Egypt, the seal of a king, or of a witness to an important the use of glass vases nearly superseded those of gold deed, frequently substituted for the sign manual. and silver. Indeed, some of them were so exquisitely Thus in the case of a royal decree, we read in the wrought, that they were more valuable than if they book of Esther, “Then were the king's scribes called had been formed of the precious metals.
on the thirteenth day of the first month, and there It is said that Alexander the Great was buried in a was written according to all that Haman had comglass coffin, and there is no doubt that the Egyptian manded unto the king's lieutenants, and to the artists could have produced a vitrefied mass sufficiently governors that were over every province, and to the large for the purpose. But it is more probable that the rulers of every people of every province according coffin, or sarcophagus, was only glazed over; because to the writing thercof, and to every people after their we find that it was not unusual to have a granite language; in the name of king Ahasuerus was it sarcophagus after it had been carved, covered with a written, and sealed with the king's ring." Esther iii. 12. coating of vitrefied matter, not very different from that It will be remembered by most of our readers, that used in the manufacture of our common green bottles. recourse was had in England to the same expedient This process displayed the sculptures and hieroglyphics when the increasing disease of his majesty George IV., carved upon the granite with great clearness, while it rendered it impossible for him to affix his signature preserved their point and finish safe from the injuries to papers of state. The seal in Eastern nations, in. of time.
deed, is still frequently used as a stamp, being rubbed The porcelain of the Egyptians was a species of over with ink and then applied to the necessary docuglass very similar to that invented in modern times ment. The use of the seal hy subscribing witnesses by the celebrated Reaumur, who, almost within our to bonds or deeds is mentioned by Jeremiah: “M memory, discovered the art of working glass into a shall buy fields for money, and subscribe evidences, substance not very unlike china-ware.
and seal them, and take witnesses in the land of BenFrom the great beauty of the Egyptian glass-works, jamin, and in the places about Jerusalem, and in the they were esteemed very highly in the remote ages. cities of Judah, and in the cities of the mountains, It is distinctly mentioned by Job, who calls it Zekukith, and in the cities of the valley, and in the cities of the a word which our translators have rendered "crystal," south : for I will cause their captivity to return, saith because when their translation was made, the antiquity the Lord.” (Jeremiah xxxii. 44). The seal was also of glass had not been so decisively proved, as in our used, to detect whether any particular door of a box, times. “The gold and the crystal cannot equal it safe, or building was opened without the owner's (wisdom)." (Job xxviii. 17.)
permission, and it was also applied to bags for the same The manufacture of caskets and other such articles purpose. Thus Job, “my transgression is sealed up in of combined ornament and utility was very extensive; a bag, and thou sewest up mine iniquity.” (Job. xiv. 17). these, indeed, were, next to the linens and cottons, the It seems also probable that documents were frequently most important exports from the valley of the Nile. sealed up like modern wills, in order that they should Some were enamelled, others very elaborately carved not be opened until after a certain specified time. and adorned with studs of metal. The peculiar style Thus in the visions of Daniel we read that the "celestial
personage" which was upon the waters of the river ADVANTAGES OF A TASTE FOR NATURAL said to the prophet, “Go thy way, Daniel: for the
HISTORY. words are closed up and sealed, till the time of the When a young person, who has enjoyed the benefits of a end” (Dan. xii. 9.); and Isaiah speaks of an obscure liberal education, instead of leading a life of indolence, prophecy, as “ the words of a book that is sealed.” dissipation, or vice, employs himself in studying the marks (Isaiah xxix. 11.)
of infinite wisdom and goodness which are manifested in The seal of a king was sometimes, as a mark of every part of the visible creation, we know not which we
ought most to congratulate, the public or the individual. special favour, imprinted with ink or some other
Self-taught naturalists are often found to make no little coloured material on the forehead or face of a person progress in knowledge, and to strike out many new lights, appointed to some especial dignity. Thus we read in by the mere aid of original genius and patient application. the Gospel of St. John“ Labour not for the meat But the well-educated youth engages with these pursuits which perisheth, but for that meat which endureth
with peculiar advantage. He takes more comprehensive
views, is able to consult a greater variety of authors; and, unto everlasting life, which the Son of man shall give
from the early habits of his mind, is more accurate and unto you; for him hath God the Father sealed.” (John
more methodical in all his investigations. The world at vi. 27.) To this use of the seal there is a more remark- large, therefore, cannot fail to be benefited by his labours; able allusion in the Book of Revelations: “And I saw and the value of the enjoyments which at the same time another angel ascending from the east, having the seal he secures to himself, is beyond all calculation. No tedious, of the living God : and he cried with a loud voice to
vacant hour ever makes him wish for he knows not whatthe four angels, to whom it was given to hurt the earth
complain, he knows not why. Never does a restless impa
tience at having nothing to do, compel him to seek a moand the sea, saying Hurt not the earth, neither the
mentary stimulus to his dormant powers in the tumultuous sea, nor the trees, till we have sealed the servants of pleasures of the intoxicating cup, or the agitating suspense our God in their foreheads.” (Rev vii. 2, 3.)
of the game of chance. Whether he be at home or abroad, Amulets, fetiches, and other instruments of idolatry, in every different clime, and in every season of the year, were frequently made of glass or porcelain; and
universal nature is before him, and invites him to a banquet hence, in the second commandment, the prohibition is
richly replenished with whatever can invigorate his undergeneral, “thou shalt not make unto thyself any graven he treads, the air in which he moves, the sea along the
standing, or gratify his mental taste. The earth on which image,” after which comes the special prohibition of
margin of which he walks, all teem with objects to keep images, “nor the likeness of anything that is in heaven his attention perpetually awake, excite him to healthful above, or in the earth beneath.” These small images, activity, and charm him with an ever-varying succession which were supposed to act as charms, were great of the beautiful, the wonderful, the useful, and the new. temptations to idolatry, and we find that when Jacob
And if, in conformity with the direct tendency of such ocfiled secretly from Laban's house, that his favourite considers the duties which naturally result from his own
cupations, he rises from the creature to the Creator, and wife Rachel stole her father's domestic images, which situation and rank in this vast system of being, he will must have been of small size from the ease with derive as much satisfaction from the anticipation of the which they were concealed. “Now Rachel had taken future, as from the experience of the present, and the re the images and put them in the camel's furniture, collection of the past. and sat upon them. And Laban searched all the The mind of the pious naturalist is always cheerful,
always animated with the noblest and most benign feelings. tent, but found them not.” (Gen. xxxi. 34). It was
Every repeated observation, every unexpected discovery, probably to prevent this perversion of the glass manu
directs his thoughts to the great Source of all order, and facture, that the inspired lawgiver of the Hebrews all good; and harmonizes all his faculties with the general did not make use of glass ornaments in the tabernacle, voice of nature. and that no effort was made to introduce the process
Whom nature's works can charm, with God himself into Judea.
Hold converse ; grow familiar, day by day,
With His conceptions; act upon His plan,
And form to His the relish of their souls.
Wood. If I were to pray for a taste which should stand me in stead under every variety of circumstances, and be a source of happiness and cheerfulness to me through life, and a
ON A PEACEABLE TEMPER AND CARRIAGE. shield against its ills, however things might go amiss, and the world frown upon me, it would be a taste for reading.
We are obliged to these duties of humanity, upon account I speak of it, of course, only as a worldly advantage, and
of common interest, benefit, and advantage. The welfare not in the slightest degree as superseding or derogating and safety, the honour and reputation, the pleasure and from the higher office and surer and stronger panoply of quiet of our lives are concerned, in our loving correspond
ence with all men. religious principles—but as a taste, an instrument and a mode of pleasurable gratification. Give a man this taste,
For so uncertain is our condition, so obnoxious are we to and the means of gratifying it, and you can hardly fail of manifold necessities, that there is no man, whose good will making a happy man, unless, indeed, you put into his
we may not need, whose good word may not stand us stead, hands a most perverse selection of books. You place him
whose helpful endeavour may not sometimes oblige us. in contact with the best society in every period of history
The great Pompey, the glorious triumpher over nations, with the wisest, the wittiest—with the tenderest, the bravest, and admired darling of fortune, was beholden at last to and the purest characters who have adorned humanity.
a slave for the composing his ashes, and celebrating his You make him a denizen of all nations-a contemporary of funeral obsequies. The honour of the greatest men depends all ages. The world has been created for him. It is hardly
on the estimation of the least, and the good will of the possible but the character should take a higher and better
meanest peasant is a brighter ornament to the fortune, a tone from the constant habit of associating in thought with greater accession to the grandeur of a prince, than the most a class of thinkers, to say the least of it, above the average
radiant gem in his royal diadem. of humanity. It is morally impossible but that the manners
It is but reasonable, therefore, if we desire to live seshould take a tinge of good breeding and civilization from curely, comfortably, and quietly, that by all honest means having constantly before one's eyes the way in which the
we should endeavour to purchase the good will of all men, best-bred and the best-informed men have talked and con
and provoke no man's enmity needlessly; since any man's ducted themselves in their intercourse with each other. I love may be useful, and every man's hatred is dangerous.
-Isaac Barrow, There is a gentle, but perfectly irresistible coercion in a habit of reading well directed, over the whole tenour of a pian's character and conduct, which is not the less effectual Life's evening, we may rest assured, will take its character because it works insensibly, and because it is really the from the day which has preceded it; and if we would last thing he dreams of. It civilizes the conduct of mer, close our career in the comfort of religious hope, we must and suffers them not to remain barbarous.—Sir JOHN prepare for it by early and continuous religious habit.HERSCHEL,
ON WRITING MATERIALS.
was, that the ink drying upon the pen, in a great No. II. THE HISTORY OF STEEL Pens. measure neutralized the action of the spring.
Metallic pens appear to have been introduced into The first attempt at the construction of Permanent various seminaries, from time to time as rarities, Pens, appears to have consisted in arming the nibs of among writing materials; they were given as prizes, Turkey-quill pens with metallic points or nibs. As rewards for merit, &c. But the first mention that the friction of the quill pen upon the paper, and the we find of steel pens for writing, is in 1803, when Mr. softening produced by the ink, are the causes which Wise constructed barrel-pens of steel, mounted in a wear away the nibs of ordinary pens, it is obvious bone case for convenience of carrying in the pocket, that metal is better calculated to withstand these two | These pens were very dear, and produced to their influences than quill. But although the metallic inventor but a scanty income. For many years, nibs greatly increased the durability of the pen, it however, Wise's pens were the only steel pens that was at the expense of the elasticity of the quill; and could be had, and by means of great activity in since the durability of the metallic-nibbed pen was “ pushing a sale” of them, they were to be had at not adequate to its additional cost over the common almost every stationer's shop in the kingdom. quill pen, this method was soon abandoned.
About twelve years ago, the celebrated Perryan In our “ History of the Quill Pen," we have given pens first appeared. Mr. Perry may be regarded in a mode of cutting up the quill in the direction of its
the light of a great improver; many of his pens are length, (as practised by Mr. Bramah,) whereby a ingenious and original in construction. He arranges great many pens could be formed out of one barrel.
his pens into genera and species, advertises their The object of this process was to prevent pen-mend beauties and their merits in prose and rhyme, and ing, an operation which most writers feel to be an has thus, not altogether undeservedly, acquired fame infliction.
and renown, and, we doubt not, profit, to which, years Pens have been made, from time to time, out of ago, a mere pen-maker would not have aspired. Mr. horn and tortoise and other shells. These pens were Perry first overcame the rigidity complained of in of course more expensive than common quills, and steel pens generally, by introducing apertures between nearly all of them more durable. Nibs have even been the shoulder and the point of the pen; thus transformed, somewhat successfully, of precious stones, ferring the elasticity of the pen to a position below the advantage of which is, that they are subject to instead of above the shoulder. This was the object no wear and corrosion. In 1823 Messrs. Hawkins of his patent of 1830. In 1832 further improveand Mordan employed horn and tortoise-shell, which ments suggested to him the propriety of seeking were cut into nibs, and softened in boiling water; a second patent, which he obtained for a pen now small pieces of diamond, ruby, and other precious bearing the odd cognomen of “The Double Patent stones were then embedded into them by pressure. Perryan Pen." Perry's “Regulating Spring Pen" is In this way were insured durability and great elas- furnished with a sliding spring, which increases or ticity. In order to give stability to the nib, thin diminishes its flexibility, according as it is placed pieces of gold, or other metal, were affixed to the farther from or nearer to the point. In another case, tortoise-shell. Pens somewhat similar were formed Mr. Perry employs a thread of India-rubber round by Mr. Doughty ; his nibs were rubies set in fine the nibs of his pens, the yielding of which allows the gold. With these pens a person could write as finely points to open in proportion to the pressure. as with a crow-quill, or as firmly as with a swan- One of the most extensive manufacturers of steel quill, or the two modes might be combined. These pens is Mr. Joseph Gillott, of Birmingham. This pens possessed considerable elasticity, and by their gentleman employs three hundred pairs of hands, and means an uniform manuscript, unattainable by means consumes fifty tons of steel annually. Now one ton of ordinary pens, could be produced. Pens of this of steel is sufficient to make about two millions of construction have been in constant use for upwards pens; hence this manufacturer alone furnishes of six years, and at the end of that time exhibited no about one hundred millions of pens annually. signs of wear, they were as perfect then as ever. In The kind of pen made by Mr. Gillott is similar to using them, however, care is necessary to preserve the original pen by Wise. The improvement of the the nibs from contact with hard bodies; they require modern maker consists in employing metal of a occasional washing with a brush in soap and water. better quality, and in a thinner and more elastic state; Mr. Doughty states that, although they are costly at in making the slit shorter, and in carefully attending first, yet, in the end, they will be found economic, on to the finish and temper of the metal. These imaccount of their permanency. To prevent injury to provements have been attended with such a reduction the points, in the act of dipping this pen into an ink-in price, that a gross is now sold for very little more stand, Mr. Doughty lines the interior of his elegant than was formerly charged for one of Wise's pens. ink-stands with India-rubber, or places a bottle of The common Three-slit Pen" has long been, and that material within the stand to contain the ink. still is, a favourite with steel pen writers. Its pecu
Dr. Wollaston also constructed pens from two flat liarity consists in having a slit on each side of the censlips of gold, placed angularly side by side, and which tral slit, the elasticity being thereby much increased. were tipped with the metal rhodium ; others have The nibs of all pens increase in breadth by use, so employed the metal iridium ; but these pens have that steel, as well as quill pens, require mending, or been abandoned on account of their expense, and the rejecting for a new one. The difference is a question great care necessary to their preservation. These of time, for while a quill pen will increase in breadth pens were, however, very durable, though not equal in an hour, the steel pen may be used for many days to the ruby nibs.
without the necessity of mending or rejection. But Many of the pens to which we have alluded, were steel pens may be mended by means of a fine file sadly deficient in that indispensable quality, elasticity. or an oil-stone, by which the nibs can be brought to To supply a remedy to this defect, it was proposed to points sufficiently acute for the purposes of the writer ; place springs on the backs of such pens, sliding but the present low price of steel pens renders it backwards and forwards, to vary the elasticity accord- very questionable, whether the time employed in ing to the different hands required in writing. This mending them would not be thrown away. plan was somewhat successful, but a great objection Mr. Gillott has taken out a patent for an improved