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We have now to make a fow remarks on the trading- shores of the Mediterranean, the first civilized portion of vessels of the ancients; premising that, in natural order, the West, be still the limits which the naval art was this should have come first: as marine vessels originated practised. in the necessity for transport, either of person or goods. When a voyage was contemplated, the ships, which oad Piracy, or robbery by sea, deemed to be an honourable in all probability been hauled up on dry land, were pushed employment in the infancy of a nation, was excited and into the sea by the shoulders of the mariners, or by levers ; encouraged by the convenience thus afforded ; and then or latterly, by means of a rolling machine called a helix, followed naval war.

invented by Archimedes, about 200 years B.C. The oval form of the merchant ship is, of course, to be A fleet, or number of ships, being, therefore, about to referred to the accommodation of passengers, and the set sail, every proceeding connected therewith became stowing away of baggage. It seems to have been flat- matter of religious parade and solemnity. Sacrifices floored, broad, and of small draught of water, not very having been performed, and each ship committed to the dissimilar to the Chinese junk seen in our day, which is care of some deity, omens and prognostics were observed, thought by the best reasoning to be only a counterpart of and the trivial nature of some of them is such as to create the ancient ship of commerce. The length of the trading a smile. The perching of a swallow on the mast, or the vessel was four times its breadth, while the war galley was sneezing of any person to the left, would so perturb the eight times longer than broad. As the war ship, which minds of these enterprising sailors, as to delay the deparhad a mast, was distinguished by a helmet thereupon, and ture till the following day. When, however, nothing had a banner at its bow, so a basket, emblematic of its nature, occurred to mar the resolution of the voyagers, the ships was suspended from the mast of the trading vessel. were unmoored, and departed with oars or sails, or, perhaps,

The common burden of their best and largest trading- both, decked with flowers and garlands, and attended with vessels seems to have been fifty or sixty tons, though much prayers to Neptune and the other gods, from the voyagers larger ones are alluded to; to the accounts of which there and their friends remaining at home. When they had got is attached the same uncertainty as we previously spoke a little out to sea, doves were let loose from the ships, which of in the case of the rowing.galleys. An obelisk of fifteen flying back to land, were hailed as omens of the safe return hundred tons' weight was brought from Egypt to Rome, of the crew. The ship of the commander usually sailed and placed in the Circus by Constantius, where it now on foremost, conspicuous for its gaudy ornaments: the stands. The same vessel carried, we are told, more than others followed in order, and, when fairly out at sea, sailed eleven hundred tons of pulse, placed at one end of the three or more abreast, or alongside of each other, unless ship to balance the stone at the other. Such vessels as the weather grew rough and the sea unsteady; in which these, called Ætnas, or moving mountains, were not valued case they would keep off from one another, in order that for ordinary use, being too cumb and unmanageable, the manœuvres of each vessel might not be hindered. Merchant-vessels having to pass from one country to another, Excepting under very favourable circumstances, they did were chiefly governed by sails, as mere transports were towed not continue sailing through the night, but anchored in along the banks of rivers by cords.

some cove or sheltered spot; or they drew up their ships We are not well informed what convenience the ancient on the beach, that all in the vessel might repose until the mariners had for sleeping in their ships. Berths, for the returning dawn. If they actually got out of sight of land, convenience of passengers on board the foreign trading- it was with the view of directing their course towards some ships, seem to have been made at the sides of the vessel, as headland, which they knew to lie in a certain direction. with us; see Jonah i. 5: but we infer that the resting- In the progress of ages, as the knowledge of astronomy places of the sailors themselves were of a chance-like advanced, and various observations of the heavenly bodies nature, and no wonder that it should be so, as ancient were made and collected, the situations and bearings of navigation did not permit vessels to be long out at sea, or places were, by these means, naturally attempted to be surfar from land. Ulysses, we read in Homer, slept on skins mised. navigate safely, and to trust oneself with conat the stern, and the rowers who, in the course of time, fidence upon the pathless ocean, it is necessary to hare were selected from slaves or malefactors, reposed upon the always ready at hand, a safe and uninterrupted guide to henches where they had toiled. Any superior accommoda- the relative situations of places. Though it appears that tion seemed likely to deteriorate the hardihood of the sailor; the general principles of the loadstone were well known and Alcibiades the Athenian commander, Plutarch tells us, many ages before the Christian era, yet the polarity of a was censured for having on board a bed hung upon cords ! suspended needle was never dreamed of among the active

nations on the western side of the ancient hemisphere, AN ANCIENT VOYAGE.

until within the last five hundred years. The early mis

sionaries to China found that the compass had long been Having hitherto confined ourselves, in great measure, to in use in that country* ; but that curious people seem to the vessel and its detail, we pass on to the consideration have been the first to attain, in ancient times, a certain point of the ship, or fleet of ships, when making way over the of civilization, beyond which they have never sinee advanced. waters; so that the observations which we shall here make So that the ancient sailor, who had the greatest skill and will not relate to any particular order of shipping, unless means which his art afforded, could look only to the heaso far as shall be specified at the time

vens for assistance; and they, oftentimes, in the midst of The invariable time for sailing was that of Summer, his greatest difficulties, were obscured. To navigate in when the heavens were genial, and the light of day ex- such circumstances would be similar to walking with the ceeded the darkness of night; the means and experience eyes shut; it was natural for him, therefore, to cling to the of the ancient mariners did not permit it to be otherwise. coast, and scarcely venture off from the earth by night. Even with a smooth sea and fair wind, they could not for But, after awhile, in addition to the motions of the sun and ages venture out of sight of the land, lest, in the apparently moon, it had been observed that certain stars towards the interminable waste of waters, they might be drifted about north never sunk below the horizon, but seemed to move for ever: their voyages, therefore, to which they were continually round a definite point. The ancient Greeks tempted by trade and commerce, were a continual coasting; noticed the constant revolution of the seven conspicuous and vessels were, in certain circumstances, even towed stars, forming the hinder part of the Great Bear; but it along: being also often necessitated to land for provisions, appears that the commercial Phænicians had already they would not be long at a time out at sea, a thing which more closely tracked up the northern point of the sky by even the superstition of the sailors would have forbidden. directing their attention to a set of stars, which kept on Superstitious fears seem to have haunted sailors from the revolving in smaller circles than those observed by the earliest to the present time; but these are, we trust, fast Greeks. This was the constellation called the Little Bear; fading before the cheering light of the Divine Word. at the tip of the tail of which animal is situated a star, now

It was an article of belief among the ancients, that a soul called the Pole Star. This is the nearest plainly visible which had departed from a body unhonoured with the rites star to that point which is in a line with the pole of the of sepulture, was condemned to wander in sorrow for a hun. earth, infinitely extended northward. When the use of dred years on the banks of the infernal river Styx, ere it these observations had been made familiar by practice, the could be admitted to a resting-place of bliss ; being, there- | nautical art advanced considerably, and various scheme of fore, in their landskirt voyages, at the mercy of the people enterprise were formed, and effected with more or less of the coast, and impatient at the close confinement and restriction of the ship, having also their religious dread of It has been well observed that it is a distinctive feature the unfathomable and heaving deep, we need not be surprised that ages upon ages should pass away, and the

* See Saturday Magarine, Vol. III., p. 115.


in modern Navigation, as compared with that of the lander captain of our times buys of the wise women a ancients that the method of conducting a ship now from quantity of this necessary material for navigation. We are place to place, as depending upon definite and distinct rules, told that Ulysses, having procured a bag of wind, was is much more safe and simple, and requires, perhaps, less returning home to Ithaca with a prosperous sail. When training and study, while it effects much more than the his native isle was just in sight, and the hero had fallen method of the ancients. The naval officers particularly asleep through fatigue, the bag was opened by the sailors, offering themselves to our notice by their official variation who suspected that treasure was concealed in it: wherefrom the moderns, are the master of the rowers, and the upon the winds rushed forth with awful violence, and drove pilot. It was the business of the former to attend to the the ship backward a distance of ten days' sail. rowing department of the vessel, to assign their places to At the termination of a voyage, the vessels were usually the rowers, to encourage them in their labours, and to keep stranded by urging them stern foremost towards the land, time to the motion of the oars, by the strokes of his mallet, when the crews drew them up out of the water by main or the musical intonations of his voice. The other officer, force, who especially claims our attention, is the pilot, or master The notion of light-houses seems to have been geneof the ship; to whom belonged the duty of navigating the rally adopted about the time of the Christian era from the vessel, and who was consequently responsible for the safety Egyptians. The small island of Pharos, in the bay of of the ship, and all on board. His place was at the stern; Alexandria, had been joined to the continent by a cause. and to excel in his vocation, he had to possess an exact way of a mile in length, about 284 B.C. At the extremity knowledge of his art, which consisted chiefly in skill in of this mole was built a white marble tower, at the top of steering, in managing the sails, and in the use of other which a fire was kept constantly burning, visible, we are nautical appurtenances, together with a knowledge and ex- told, at the distance of one hundred miles; but this would perience of the winds, of the heavenly bodies, as indicating make it to have been somewhat more than a mile in height the seasons, portending the weather, and directing the from the surface of the earth, unless, indeed, it were visible course of the ship, and of the site of commodious ports and from some eminence a hundred miles distant. This part harbours; when rocks and quicksands were to be dreaded, of the account seems apocryphal, and even the site of the and how they might be avoided. The ancients retired into celebrated Pharos is a matter of dispute. The pride of harbour when they saw the Winter signs begin to rise; man has doubtlessly exaggerated the facts of many ancient where they remained till the constellations of Spring invited narratives; and from this, perhaps, as well as from many other them upon the waters. It was not usual, therefore, for classical stories, we must make considerable deduction them to prosecute their voyages long after the Autumnal but, at any rate, we have accounts of various erections of Equinox. The gales which then prevailed in the Medi- this nature, and they seem at the later period of ancient terranean, formerly called Euroclydons, or Tuffoones, but navigation to have been not uncommon, when ample expenow Levanters, or Michaelmas flows, being hazardous to rience had made nocturnal sailing less formidable. We shipping, made them lie by for the Winter. The necessity find them accordingly erected at most of the harbours and of this is alluded to in Acts xxvii. 9. The Jewish fast of naval stations which ships frequented; places where nature expiation, which is there meant, was on the 25th of Sep had been assisted by art, and where the larger-sized tember. It was also necessary for the pilot to understand ships rode at anchor, secure from the swell of the seas and explain the signs and prognostics which offered them around. selves from the sea-birds, the fishes, the surge, the billows The ancients generally, as well as the barbarians of dashing upon the shore, and the waving of the woods on modern times, carried their idols with them on a voyage, the impending heights. A seaman, unapt in the solution thinking thereby to ensure the safety of the ship. Vows, of any novelty of this sort, could not attain to the reputation therefore, which had been made previously to, or during of a good pilot.

the voyage, were now discharged, and especially was due It was also expected that this personage should have pro- reverence paid to Neptune, whose peculiar dominion they cured an ample supply of favourable winds; as the Lap- had just safely left. Those who had landed in safety after

a storm, or any other of the manifold hazards of a seavoyage, hung up in one of the numerous temples surrounding the port, a picture of their disaster, together with the garments in which they had escaped it. This, with a multitude of other Pagan customs, has been exploded by time in most of the countries of the world ; but we learn that this act of piety is still practised on the coasts of the Mediterranean, where the people profess the Roman Catholic faith. Happy would it have been for the human race, if no heathen custom more questionable than this, had received the sanction of the teachers of Christianity in the ages succeeding the times of the Apostles !

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When Spain first acquired dominion over Naples, There are few kingdoms in Europe which have the latter country, notwithstanding recent wars, was undergone so many vicissitudes as that of Naples; wealthy and populous; and its position afforded a and the chief source of its calamitous changes was reasonable prospect of increasing prosperity, for it the preposterous claims of the popes to dispose at possessed the finest ports in the Western Mediterratheir pleasure of the crown. After the overthrow of nean, then the great high-road of commerce. Spain, the Hohenstauffen, a dynasty remarkable for its un

on the other hand, was exhausted by long "wars compromising hostility to the papal usurpations, the against the Moors, the recent discovery of America sovereignty of Naples was bestowed upon the house had seduced a large portion of the population to emiof Anjou ; but this French race of princes soon grate to the new countries, and the gold and silver became unpopular, and after many changes and con- imported from Mexico and Peru did not compensate vulsions, the Neapolitan dominions were annexed to for the abstraction of cultivation from the land, the the kingdom of Spain, then rapidly rising into the emigration of the most industrious, and the conseforemost rank of European states. It remained quent cessation of domestic improvement. Under quietly subject to Spain for nearly 150 years, until in these circumstances the Spanish government regarded the

year 1647, a poor fisherman raised a revolt, its Neapolitan territory as a kind of reserved treasury which entailed upon it additional misery. The by which all the pecuniary deficiences of Spain might history of this extraordinary revolution is so very be supplied and the chief object of their administrainteresting, and so very instructive, that we shall tion was to drain as much money from their Italian relate it at full length, especially as some of the most subjects, as they could obtain by fair means or by foul. important details have been hitherto hidden from Naples, of course, was governed by viceroys; the English readers. To understand the causes of the only object contemplated in the selection of these revolution, it will be necessary to give a preliminary officers was their skill in extortion, and if they sent sketch of the Spanish tyranny over the Neapolitans. home money in plenty, no objection was made to any

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acts of tyranny or rapacity in which they might please | indolence. On this numerous and dangerous class to indulge on their own account. The fertility and the tax pressed with enormous severity ; to use their opulence of the Neapolitan dominions would have own expression, recorded by a contemporary writer, enabled them to bear very heavy exactions, but the " it took the food out of their very mouths.” Acts more the Spaniards obtained, the more they desired, of violence succeeded to their disregarded murmurs; and the very ease with which existing taxes were the viceroy could not appear abroad without being paid, became an excuse and encouragement for fresh subjected to seditious clamours, and even personal impositions. Thus matters proceeded, until, as an insults; insurrectionary placards were posted in the Italian historian justly remarked. “The secret fires of market-place; and the booth erected for the collecVesuvius were not so numerous, nor so dangerous, tion of the tax was burned to the ground. Arcos at as the revengeful flames which burned in the bosoms length, greatly alarmed, summoned his council, and of the Neapolitan populace."

went through the mockery of deliberation; but every During the reigns of Philip the Third and Philip other source of revenue was pledged and mortgaged the Fourth of Spain, the sufferings of the Neapoli- to the outside of its value, money was to be raised tans were aggravated by the custom which prevailed at all hazards, and, of course, the consultations of farming the taxes. The Genoese brokers, who ended in ordering the continuance of the tax. Some purchased them from the King of Spain, extorted efforts were made to punish those who publicly profit in every shape and way, from the unfortunate testified their dissatisfaction; but this only increased peasant and artisan, and when profits no longer sup- the number of secret conspirators, and the viceroy plied their rapacity, compelled the unfortunate victims soon received an alarming warning of the perils by of their rapacity to yield up their little capital. Under which he was environed. A Spanish flotilla lay in such a system it is not wonderful that the wealth of the Bay of Naples, the admiral's galley was remarkNaples at length became exhausted ; and when the able for its strength and beauty, and 300,000 ducats Admiral of Castile, the ruling viceroy, demanded a were placed on board her for transmission to Spain. subsidy from the assembled estates, he received a On the night of the 12th of May, she was discovered refusal which he was convinced arose from absolute to be on fire, and ere means could be taken to save poverty. He wrote to Philip the Fourth, that Naples her, she blew up with all her treasure, and a portion in its present exhausted state, could not meet the new of her crew. There was not one who saw the specdemand; he received in reply, peremptory orders to tacle that did not feel convinced that it was the work exact the subsidy, but the gallant admiral refused to of treachery, and the viceroy felt so much alarmed, become the agent of oppression, and immediately that though he was pre-eminently superstitious, he resigned the government.

forbade the annual procession on the 24th of June, This excellent nobleman was succeeded by the in honour of John the Baptist, lest the collection of Duke of Arcos, a man of a very opposite character. a multitude should lead to a sudden outbreak of in. Like most Spaniards, he was haughty, vindictive, and surrection, obstinate, but unlike his countrymen, he was crafty Among those who exclaimed most bitterly against and treacherous. He had not been long in office, when the fruit tax, was Tomasso Aniello, better known by the French, then at war with Spain, sent out a fleet the abbreviation Mas-aniello, whose destiny it was which threatened to invade Naples, and consequently to experience more rapid changes of condition in the forced the viceroy to prepare an armament for the ensuing troubles, than any mortal ever underwent in protection of his province. The practice of that day the same space of time. He was a handsome, lightin such an emergency, was to borrow the amount of built, active, young man, not more than twenty-four the parliamentary grant from some capitalist,' to years of age, but already recognised as a leader whom a branch of the public revenue was mortgaged among his associates, from his readiness of wit, and for the interest and repayment of the loan, and who great personal activity in the manly sports which generally derived an exorbitant profit from the trans- delight the fishermen of Naples, His wife was action. Such was the general opinion of the Neapo- detected by the tax collectors concealing a bag of litan resources, that a lender and money were easily four, to evade the duty; she was grossly insulted and found, but such, also, was the exhaustion of the dragged to prison. The rest of the history must country, that the viceroy's council were at their wits' now assume the form of a journal, that our readers end to devise an impost for its repayment. At length may the better appreciate the rapidity with which it was proposed by Andrea Nauclerio, the provost of events followed each other. the merchants, to levy a tax of one carlin per pound, July 7, 1647. This was the second Sunday before on all the fruits and vegetables which were brought the feast of our lady of Carmel, one of the festivals to market, and which then, as now, formed the prin- celebrated by the superstitious Neapolitans with circipal articles of food to the lower classes at Naples. cumstances of peculiar solemnity.

Among other The proposition was adopted, and an edict for its en- amusements, it was customary to erect a wooden forcement issued on the 3rd of January, 1647. fortress, which the fishermen defended disguised as

This tax was by no means a new invention ; several | Turks, while the Lazzaroni attacked it in their ordiviceroys had already attempted to establish it, but nary habiliments. So popular was this spectacle, that had finally abandoned the scheme, from a conviction it was always rehearsed on the three preceding Sunof its odious and oppressive nature. The Duke of days; on the Sunday of which we speak, Masaniello, Arcos, however, was deaf to all remonstrances, and who had been chosen leader of one of the parties, he even accused those counsellors of treason, who assembled a crowd of boys and young persons, at a ventured to remind him of the homely proverb, that very early hour, to practise their parts in the per“ Hunger will break through stone walls." Scarcely formance. It so happened that this was also a great was the edict published, when loud murmurs were market-day, and crowds of peasants from the neighheard throughout the entire city of Naples. It is a bouring districts had come in with fruit and vegetacity in which a large vagrant body, called the Lazza- bles for sale. Either on account of the superabunroni, accustomed to support life at a very trifling ex- dant supply, or the engagement of the multitude in pense, support themselves by chance jobs, because a their sports, the market was very heavy, and purtrifling remuneration, less than English men frequently chasers could not be found for the articles. The fisbestow in alms, enables them to live in the luxury of cal officers insisted that the tax should be paid on everything, whether it was sold or not; but it still they knew full well that a mob, after having used the remaived to be decided whether the tax should be nobles, whom deluded ambition has led to participate paid by the peasants or by the hucksters. The dis- in their efforts, must eventually yield to the natural pute was referred to Nauclerio, the provost of the jealousy with which the lower orders regard their merchants, whom we have already mentioned as the superiors and fling them away as broken tools, too proposer of the obnoxious impost, and he decided fine and too weak to execute the rough work required that the tax should be paid by those who brought the by an imperious democracy. Shocked at the excesses fruit to market. Masaniello's brother-in-law, a he was compelled to witness, the Prince took the hard-working peasant from Pozzeroli, was one of the earliest opportunity of escape, while the confused persons aggrieved by this decision; he exclaimed masses spread over the city, began to direct their against the injustice of being compelled to pay for forces on one common centre and move towards the articles which had as yet produced him no profit, viceroy's palace. and his loud tones soon attracted the notice of Mas- The viceregal guards made a faint effort to resist aniello and his companions. They hurried into the the popular current, but they were soon overcome, market-place, and the peasant, now sure of support, and a body of the rioters forcing their way into the ventured to give free scope to his indignation, by viceroy's presence, imperiously demanded not only throwing about the figs, which had been the original the abolition of the obnoxious impost on fruit, but of cause of the dispute, crying out, “ Take these who all other taxes and impositions whatever. Terrified will, our tyrants shall have none of them !” In an by violence, destitute of any force on which he could instant, Masaniello, who stood by his side, seized a rely, and perceiving that the popular excitement bunch of figs, and flinging it violently into Nau- increased every hour, the Duke of Arcos readily asclerio's face, exclaimed, “ Let them take this at the sented to every demand; but his compliance did not least !" This was the signal for a general riot, allay the tumult, the mob began to destroy his most missiles of every description were flung at the tax- valuable furniture, and did not abstain from personal gatherers and their attendants, one act of violence violence. He attempted to escape in a coach, but led to another, the toll-bars were torn down, the was detected, abused, threatened and struck ; by booths of the collectors burned, and in a very few Ainging money among the mob, he diverted their minutes the market-place was at the mercy of an in- attention for a moment, and while they were eagerly furiate populace. Masaniello seized the opportunity engaged in a scramble, he succeeded in making his of addressing his companions, indignation prompted escape. his eloquence, and though he had no advantages of After his departure, the moo proclaimed Masaniello education, his harangue was one well calculated to Captain General of the faithful people of Naples," ensure the support of the mob. He pointed out to his he who had been an humble fisherman in the morning, hearers the dangers they had already incurred by was an absolute sovereign ere the night closed in. He provoking the vengeance of the Spaniards, he declared nominated a council composed of the lowest and most that this was the crisis of their country's fate, he infamous of the rioters, but, in the true spirit of a conjured them to stand by him, and promised in the low democrat, flushed by temporary power, he did strongest terms a redress of all the grievances of not permit his fellow rebels to deliberate on his which they had to complain.

orders ; indeed he would scarcely deign to listen to , are

their advice

demagogue to inflame a multitude ; but Masaniello "Even at this early stage of the revolution, symptoms

was not an orator who traded on excitement, it was were perceptible of the insanity to which Masaniello å mere accident which elevated him to be the author ultimately fell a victim, and which was necessarily and leader of a movement. But his career fully ripened by the excitement of the strange circumproved the perils that arise from stimulating the pas- stances in which he found himself placed. He sions of the ignorant, and added one to the many made the tower of the Carmelites his head-quarters, proofs which history affords of the impossibility of and there, while his council talked rather than delibecorrecting evils by an appeal to physical force, with rated, he stood in moody silence, warming his hands out producing calamities infinitely greater than the over a chafing-dish of coals. . The only answer he oppressions which led to the insurrection.

made to repeated inquiries was, " I feel a burning and Goaded onwards by the fiery harangue of Masani- a heaviness as if my brain were overflowed by molten ello, the mob rushed from the market-place; some lead; but the Blessed Virgin and the Holy Saints armed themselves with their ordinary implements of appear to me every night, and promise me their assistindustry, others broke open the shops of the gun- ance and protection. I have promised freedom to the smiths and seized the weapons they contained ; the people and they shall be free, yes I promise it, I swear houses of the farmers of taxes were broken open, it, they shall be free." This and similar broken shots were fired into the houses of persons supposed speeches were uttered with maniac vehemence, which to be favourable to the Spaniards, and many took the made them pass with his deluded votaries for words opportunity of revenging private quarrels under pre- of inspiration. They unhesitatingly obeyed his tence of zeal for the public cause. At first the insur- orders to break open all the prisons, and liberate the gents abstained from plunder, but in this as in count-captives; they massacred the few inhabitants who less other instances, the vehemence of patriotism was ventured to resist, and they set fire to the mansions of soon unable to restrain the lust of pillage ; the women several obnoxious individuals. One of the houses who had joined the rioters, gave the example of which became the prey of the incendiaries, contained pilfering, which soon extended into a regular system of a large quantity of gun-powder, it was blown up, robbery.

and eighty seven persons lost their lives. Sunday As yet the insurgents had no acknowledged leader; night was spent sleeplessly by the population of like all vulgar rioters they wished to have a member Naples; the flames of burning houses lighted every of the aristocracy, and accidentally meeting the Prince quarter of the city; the shrieks of the wounded and of Bisignano, they compelled him to act as their chief. the lamentations of the relatives of the slain were But though the Neapolitan nobles were justly indig- heard in every street, save where the imperious insurnant at the tyranny of the Spanish viceroy, they were gents forcibly compelled silence. too wise to countenance the outbreak of the populace;

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