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Israelites, after their settlement in Canaan, appear to The tyranny of Pharaoh commenced by his setting have neglected archery, for we read that, immediately “ task-masters" over the Israelites, “ to afflict them after his accession, David " bade them teach the chil- with their burdens." We find many representations dren of Israel the use of the bow." ( 2 Samuel i. 17.) of these cruel task-masters on the monuments; they

From the brief narrative in the book of Chronicles, are armed with formidable whips. it seems that the Hebrews in Goshen enjoyed a quali- “ The Egyptians made the children of Israel to fied independence ; they made wars upon their own serve with rigour, and they made their lives bitter account, and retained all their pastoral usages. In with hard bondage, in mortar and in brick, and in all some of their expeditions they were unsuccessful, and manner of service in the field; all their service perhaps subjected to very severe reprisals.

wherein they made them serve, was with rigour." Manetho now becomes our sole guide ; he informs (Exod. i. 13, 14). The manufacture of bricks was us in substance, that a nomade race, settled on the so very toilsome and painful an employment, that it north-eastern frontier of Egypt, invited the Hyksos, was usually the work of slaves and captives. Among who had been anciently overcome and expelled, to the monumental paintings, we find representations of return into Egypt, and that these barbarians obeyed different races of people employed in this degrading the summons, subdued Lower Egypt, and reduced the labour. Some of them being bearded, and otherwise inhabitants to slavery. Many circumstances recorded pourtrayed with characteristics strikingly different in Scripture, lead us to believe that the Pharaoh who from those of the Egyptians, it can hardly be doubted tyrannized so cruelly over the Egyptians, belonged to that the Jews are meant, and such paintings may, this intrusive dynasty of the Hyksos; he is described therefore, be taken as historical records of the state as “a king who knew not Joseph,” consequently, he of bondage of the Jews in the land of Egypt. These must have been a stranger unacquainted with the representations, too, are the more worthy of note, benefits which Egypt had derived from the enlight- because, we see some native Egyptians, also comened administration of that patriarch, for it is scarcely pelled to endure the same toil, whence the picture credible that any native Egyptian could have been may fairly be regarded as the memorial of a time, ignorant of those circumstances. This Pharaoh also when both the Israelites and the native Egyptians asserts, "the people of the children of Israel are more were forced to become the slaves of a foreign conand mightier than we ;” which is scarcely credible if queror, just as both the Arabs and the Fellahs of it be understood of the whole body of the Egyptian modern times were equally subjected to the tyranny nation, but it is very possible, nay very probable, that of the Turks. the savage race of conquerors may have been inferior The clay before being wrought was tempered with in number to the smallest division of the races which water, and broken into small particles by an instruinhabited Egypt. At this very hour, the Turks are ment resembling the hand-plough, described in a the least numerous part of the Turkish population, former article of this series. This process was and the jealousy with which they consequently regard equally painful and unwholesome under the burning all the other races subject to the Sultan, is the greatest sun of Egypt, where the moist exhalations from obstacle to the regeneration of their empire. Finally, humid clay have always been found very deleterious. one of the tasks which this monarch imposed on the When the clay was properly tempered, it was Hebrews, was the erection of treasure cities, that is, moulded in a shape, as is still the practice in the fortresses to secure the plunder which had been wrested modern manufacture of bricks. Indeed it is scarcely from the native Egyptians. When Joseph, under a possible to avoid remarking, how very similar the native Pharaoh, had received all the money of Egypt processes of the necessary arts of life, represented on in exchange for corn, we do not find that he was the Egyptian monuments, are to those which we see compelled to erect any fortresses for its security; every day around us. It does not appear that the such a precaution was necessary only under the iron Egyptians burned their bricks, though, as we shall rule of a barbarous foreigner and conqueror.

hereafter see, they were acquainted with the use of kilns. They preferred drying them in the sun, a brain seemed to be oppressed, and whose mental ray custom not wholly disused in Britain, though the was probably dimmed, if not extinguished, by the same lower temperature of our climate renders it far less cause that had produced his physical blindness. ellicacious than in Egypt. The piling of the bricks, I next proceeded to an apartment belonging to the and the mode of their transport, are represented in Shoemakers, some of whom were learning their craft the accompanying engravings.

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from superintendents appointed for the purpose; while the majority showed a readiness and execution which were perfectly astonishing. A strong well-finished

shoe was placed in my hands, which I thought would A VISIT TO

have served any gentleman's foot this wet wintry day; THE SCHOOL FOR THE INDIGENT BLIND,

while the smiling artist, whose name, if I remember IN ST. GEORGE'S FIELDS, SURREY.

right, is Wallenger, had the fellow to it on his lap,

nearly completed. It is an old and comrnon remark, that places and

The impression being fresh upon my mind, I objects of interest which we have constant opportu- now venture, at the hazard of wearying some of my nities of visiting, frequently remain unseen, and are, readers, to mention the Mat-room, where all sorts of therefore, unknown to us, except from the reports of brown and white rope door-mats, fine bright mats, others. It is equally true, that in order to form a

bordered with coloured worsted, worsted rugs for just estimate of many of the admirable institutions hearths and carriages, were being carried on in such a with which this country abounds, it is necessary to regular and business-like style, that if, for a moment, make a personal inspection of them. The quantity in admiration of the articles, I ceased to remember of accurate information which is thus derived from the condition of those who wrought them, I was the fountain-head, cannot but be improving to the instantly reminded of this truth,-" That where one mind; nor does it fail to increase the materials for

sense is defective, another is generally more perfect." profitable and engaging conversation. But we are So delicate is the touch of these blind persons, and not ashamed to own, that a far better result is, or

so strikingly do they illustrate that wonder, to which ought to be produced, by such scenes as we will now public attention has recently been called in a remarkendeavour to describe. The heart is touched : every able manner,--the wonder of the human hand! benevolent feeling is called into play : with pity for But it is time to say a few words respecting the the distressed is mingled the joy at witnessing the female part of this excellent Institution. The girls mitigation of their sorrows: a sentiment of gratitude were all assembled in a large airy room, and employed arises to the Giver of all good, for the several com

in knitting stockings, in needle-work, and in preparing pensations He has granted in special cases of infir- household linen, and linen for the scholars. A few mity, as well as for our own positive blessings : and, of them were as busy as bees, in platting a singularlyabove all, the effect on the kind and thoughtful visiter constructed patent sash-line, clock and clothes-lines, will be a desire to aid, according to his means, in

on a machine adapted to the use of the blind. I was the glorious work of Christian charity.

informed, that since the first manufacture of these These remarks have been suggested by a survey different kinds of line, a very material improvement I have just made of the School, established in 1799, has taken place, and that the sash-line, thus made, for the support and instruction of the Indigent has been approved by eminent builders. Blind. The object of this Institution is to teach the From a review of this slight sketch of the steady inmates a trade, by which they may be qualified to

career of industry within these walls, the reader will provide, either wholly or in part, for their own sub- learn with more gratification than surprise, that the sistence. Applicants who have a greater degree of articles made in the year 1836 by the hands of the sight than will enable them to distinguish light from blind persons, were sold for 17901. 178. 6d. darkness, cannot be placed on the list of candidates for admission. Of the description of persons totally the females were assembled, I was pleased to hear

On passing through a gallery to the room in which blind there are now sixty males and sixty-two females

the sound of sacred music growing more and more in the school, some of whom were born blind; others, clear; till, on entering, I distinguished the words of whose claim on the compassion of their fellow-crea- | the 149th Psalm, beginning, tures is stronger, and more affecting, from their having once possessed the precious gift of sight, and

O praise ye the Lord, lost it by illness or accident.

Prepare your glad voice! After passing through the rooms of the new which was well sung by the blind girls in the midst building, which is a very handsome fabric, calculated, of their work. One of them,—who was pointed out when finished, to accommodate an increased number to me by my benevolent guide as a very good girl, of pupils, I entered a large apartment in which the afterwards, on being requested, threaded her necdle males, ranged at intervals along each side, were busily much more easily, as I told her, than I could have occupied in making baskets, of different degrees of done. She smiled, and modestly answered, that she texture, large hampers, cradles, &c. It was impossible had been for some time in the school. Another not to be struck with the air of cheerfulness which young woman, whose sight had been destroyed, about pervaded the forms as well as the faces of these three years since, by the shameful heedlessness of a persons; so that seeing them active and industrious fellow-servant in firing a large pistol at her, unconover their respective tasks, one might easily forget, scious of its being loaded, assured me, that God had for a time, their peculiar privation. The predominant been very good to her; that she was entirely reconexpression, however, in their physiognomy is repose, ciled to her lot, and contented in the station which or tranquillity of features, owing, probably, to their she now filled. This declaration from her own lips regular habits, and freedom from a variety of those was peculiarly gratifying, because I remembered her disturbing causes which necessarily operate upon the forlorn and desponding condition at about the time many, particularly in the busy pursuits of a large the accident occurred, when she thought she never and crowded city. In the basket-room I noticed only should have been happy again. one painful instance of unfitness for even the easiest I was now shown some books, printed in embossed branch of work. It was that of a poor youth, whose types, for the use of blind persons, and designed

to be read by the touch. The letters in the several

From Chaos sprang the teeming Earth, specimens were of various character ; but of all the

At the Divine command; different plans, the simplest struck me as the best.

And the untiring Sea had birth, This was Mr. John Alston's, the Treasurer of the

’Neath the Almighty hand.

But darkness lowered upon the deep : Glasgow Asylum for the Blind, who has recently

Creation's first, long, silent sleep added to that Institution a fount of types and a

Still hid the world in night : printing-press, and has completed the whole of the

Till, with a voice that pealed through space, Four Gospels in relief, in two large quarto volumes,

From His most high and holy place, at 9s. 6d. per volume. The teaching of the blind to

God said, “ Let there be light.” read has engaged the attention of the benevolent for

" And there was light!" and with it grew some time past: and Mr. Alston's plan, which consists

The glory of the day :

The vast, the wonderful, the new, in using the common Roman capitals, sharply-formed,

Were seen bencath its ray. has proved the most successful; the children, if

Not hidden was the meanest root, tolerably apt scholars, learning it in a very short

The lowliest flower, the humblest fruit, time. Thus, though "knowledge is, by one entrance,

All burst upon the sight : quite shut out," they are instructed in the inestimable

For unto each, as if to prove truths contained in the word of God.

His universal care and love,

The Lord had yielded light.
Their hands can read, their fingers trace
The page of Truth and Love;

Praise be to God! another ray,
And thus they joyfully embrace

Not less divinely given,
The message from above.

Points, through his blessed Son, the way

To happiness and heaven. The most affecting part of the visit, however, yet

And thus your boundless charities remained. I well knew the taste for music possessed

Have spread before our sightless eyes, by blind persons generally; indeed it has frequently

Locked in eternal night, been a pleasure to me to reflect, that such a delightful

That holier radiance, mild and pure, resource should have been placed so completely

Which makes our soul's salvation sure,

The glorious Gospel light! within their reach. " The Hymn of Eve” was played and sung correctly, and with considerable feeling.

We cannot thank you as we ought,

But were our hearts laid bare, After a short pause, one of the girls was desired to recite

You'd see each fond and grateful thought that beautiful chapter of Isaiah, beginning, -" Ho,

Pour'd out in silent prayer. every one that thirsteth, come ye to the waters, and

And when we meet before the throne he that hath no money; come ye, buy, and eat; yea,

Of Ilim to whom all deeds are known, come, buy wine and milk without money and without

How shall we hail the sight price." As soon as she had ended, one of her compa

Of the pure glory, that will bind nions repeated with just emphasis, and in a pleasing

The brows of those, who taught the blind

To seek the living light! tove of voice, the 8th chapter of St. Paul's Epistle to

M. the Romans; and certainly two portions of Scripture more consolatory, or more abounding in passages of deep and universal concern to all, be their outward

AMUSEMENTS IN SCIENCE. circumstances what they may, it would be difficult to

No. V. select. The 18th verse sounded uncommonly affecting :-" For I reckon that the sufferings of this

ARITHMETIC.- Part 2. present time are not worthy to be compared with the We all know that if a cipher be added to any number glory which shall be revealed in us." All, or nearly of figures, the effect is the same as if they were multiall, the female pupils, as I was informed, know the plied by 10: if two ciphers be added, the same as if Psalms, (the prose version, used in our Liturgy,) multiplied by 100. On the same principle, to multithroughout, and some can repeat any part of the ply by 11, place a cipher at the end of the number Four Gospels. Listening to the inspired passages, to be multiplied, and the original number itself immemy mind stretched onward to the period, when diately under; then add them together, and the anthis mortal shall have put on immortality, and to swer is obtained. For example, to multiply 368,426 that city which hath “no need of the sun, neither by li, do thusof the moon to shine in it; for the glory of God

3684260

368426 doth lighten it, and the Lamb is the light thereof;

368426
or thus,

369126 for there shall be no night there.” In that perfect

4052686

4052686 day, thought I, shall not this desolate being, who walks by faith now, be gifted with a clear view of NUMBERS which increase by what is termed ariththe Divine majesty'; whilst many of those, who, metical progression, for instance, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, each humanly speaking, are walking by sight, and whose succeeding term increasing by 2; or 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, gaze

of a future world is dimmed and uncer- in which the terms increase by 3, or any other numtain, shall be pronounced blind? Yes; although, ber, possess some curious properties. independently of their privations, these sad objects In every arithmetical progression, the sum of the doubtless have their trials; yet, removed as they are first and last terms is equal to that of the second and from the temptations of a densely-peopled and vicious last but one, and to that of the third and last but metropolis, brought up in regular habits, taught two, &c.; or to the sum of the two middle terms, when to read and to pray, they possess privileges, they the number of terms is even; or to double that of enjoy advantages, the value of which it is difficult the middle term when the number of terms is odd.

With such reflections, I listened with For instance, if the number of terms are even, as pleasure to the following lines composed by one,

1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, who, if I mistake not, was formerly an inmate of 16 and 1 are equal to 17, and the two middle terms, 7 the School, and addressed to the friends of the Insti- and 10, are also equal to 17: if the series is uneven, as tution. I never can forget " the deep, the low, the

1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19, pleading tone,” in which they were recited. And 19 and I are equal to 20, and twice 10, the middle with these I shall conclude my narrative.

term, produces the same amount. In the last series the

inward

to calculate.

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number of terms is 7, and the difference 3; the 7th | eighth column, seven being the number of counters, term is, consequently, equal to the first with the addi- Then seek for the horizontal column of figures, whose tion of 6 times 3, or equal to 19. This property distinguishing number is one more than the number enables the scholar to obtain the amount of any term of counters to be taken at one time, which in this in the series, at any distance from the first, by a very instance is 3, the column, therefore, is numbered 4; simple proceeding. By this last property, we are en- by carrying the finger along these columns, until you abled to show in what manner the sum of all the terms come to their point of intersection at A, we find the of an arithmetical progression can readily be found, number 35, the number of ways in which seven for as the first and last terms make the same sum as counters can be arranged by threes. the second and last but one, and as the third and last but two, &c., it thence follows, that the whole progres- Two persons agree to choose, alternately, any sion contains as many times the sum of the first and number less than u, and to add these numbers last as there are pairs of such terms. The number of together until they shall make 100; by what means pairs is, of course, equal to half the number of terms, can one of them infallibly attain to that num.

100 and consequently, the sum of all the terms is equal ber before the other?

11 to the sum of the first and last term, multiplied by

To effect this, subtract 11 from 100, the num. half the number of terms.

89 ber to be reached, as many times as possible ;

11 Let us put the familiar instance of the man who this will give the remainders,-89, 78, 67, 56, picked up a hundred stones, one by one, placed in a 78 45, 34, 23, 12, 1. By a knowledge of these straight line at one yard distance from each other, 1 numbers, the party who writes down the first returning to a basket placed at a yard distance also number is certain of reaching 100 first, if he

67 from the first stone, one hundred times.

can count any one of these numbers. Let us

11 It is evident, that to pick up the first stone, and put suppose, for example, that the first person who it into the basket, the person must walk two yards, one 56 knows the game, takes 1 for his first number ; in going, and one in returning; that for the second he

11 it is evident that his adversary, as he must must walk four yards, and so on, increasing by two as 45

count less than 11, can, at most, reach 11, by far as the hundredth, which will oblige him to walk 11 adding 10 to it, the first will then take 1, which two hundred yards, one hundred in going, and one

will make 12; if the second takes 8, which

34 hundred in returning.

will make 20, the first will take 3, which will

11 It may easily be perceived also, that these numbers make 23 ; and, proceeding in this manner, he form an arithmetical progression, in which the number

23 will reach successively 34, 45, 56, 67, 78, 89; of terms is 100, the first term 2, and the last 200 ; when he attains the last number, it will be by the rule already noticed, the number of yards he 12 impossible for the second player to prevent the has walked is easily ascertained.

11

first reaching 100 before himself. Yards.

It is evident that, if both parties understand 2 distance walked for first stone.

1

the game, he who begins must inevitably win. 200 distance walked for one hundredth stone.

If a piece of square pasteboard is divided into 202 sum of the first and last term.

nine cells, how can the following numbers of counters half the whole number of terms, or the 50

be placed in the outer cells of the square, as that number of pairs of terms.

they all be placed, and yet there shall, in every 10,100 yards.

case, be nine counters, and no more, in each outer The distance walked, therefore, is equal to 10,100 | 18, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36. The following tables resolve

row of three cells? The numbers of counters are yards, or nearly five miles and three quarters.

this problem, and require no explanation. Under the head of Combination and Permutation, in

5

4 our books of arithmetic, we have rules given, by

4 1 4

3 3 3 which the number of different arrangements which

1
3

3 can occur in the order of placing a certain number of counters can be ascertained. By the use of the follow.

4
5
4 1 4

3 3 3 ing table, these operations can be much shortened, provided the number does not exceed 9.

5
2 2

1 7 1
1 3
2

9
4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 1 1 1|1|1|1|1|1| 1

5
5
7 7

9

9 1 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 8 8 2

2 5 2

1
1

9
1 3 6 10 | 15 | 21 | 28 | 36 | 3
14 10 | 20 A35 56 | 84 | 4

Read not to contradict and confute, but to weigh and con1 5 15 35 70 126 5

sider. Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, 1 6 21 56 126 6 and some few to be digested; that is, some books are to be

read only in parts, others to be read, but not curiously; and 1 7 28 | 84 | 7

some few to be read wholly, and with diligence and atten1 8 36 8 tion. Reading maketh a full man, conference a ready

man, and writing an exact man. - LORD Bacon.
1 9 9
1 10

He that wants good sense is unhappy in having learning,

for he has thereby only more ways of exposing himself; Suppose it is required to know how many ways 7

and he that has sense knows that learning is not knowcounters can be arranged 3 and 3. Look to the perpen

ledge, but rather the art of using it. The Tatler. dicular band of figures in the table, the number at the

LONDON: head of which, is equal to one more than the number JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. of counters to be combined; in this case, it will be the PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTHLY PARTS

501

7

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PRICE SIXPENCE.

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PART I.
ON THE NAVIGATION OF THE ANCIENTS.

Rude as Ineir ships was navigation then,

No useful compass or meridian known
Coasting they kept the land within their ken,
And knew no North but when the pole-star shone.

DRYDEN.

begun by that limited number of great minds, on which
Nature has poured down her choicer gifts.

While thus laborious crowds
Ply the tough oar, Philosophy directs

The ruling helm.
In the present and succeeding papers it is our purpose,
therefore, to trace the progress of Navigation from its earliest
principles and practice, to its present comparatively perfect
condition; and in doing so, it will be found convenient to
adopt the following arrangement, and treat-

1st. Of the Navigation of the Ancients.
2nd. Of the Navigation of the Middle Ages.

3rd. Of Modern Navigation.
The first division will comprehend, as to time, all the
period between the creation of the world and the downfall
of Rome; that is, a space of about 4500 years.

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ON THE REDIMENTS OF NAVIGATION, TO THE FORMATION

OF THE BOAT. When speaking of Navigation in the earliest stages of the world, the idea of the ark, used by Noah and his family, will readily enter into the minds of our readers. But we cannot consider the formation and use of the ark, in the seventeenth century of the world, as a commencement or link in the chain of nautical invention. The entire direction and means for accomplishing this stupendous work, were afforded by God, to effect a saving purpose in the midst of the miraculous destruction of the human race;

when the power and skill of man would have been, in those EGYPTIAN POTTERY-FLOAT.

times at least, impotent to withstand or elude the watery

havoc of Nature. In addition to this, we must notice the INTRODUCTION.

absence from the ark of any means, or of any necessity, for The contemplative mind is supplied with matter for moral, its occupants navigating it from one place to another ; and even sublime reflection, in viewing man in hiş

more which is essentially necessary to make it belong to our natural state, weak, savage, and untutored; clad in the present subject. No intention of this sort is alluded to ; skins of animals constituting his food, which are captured the ark being merely a vast shelter rendered capable of

floating on the water. For these two reasons, therefore, with toil and difficulty; inhabiting a rude hut, and confined within the narrow range of an island girt by the history, a place in this

treatise.

we conclude against assigning to this event in the sacred ocean, which to him is interminable; knowing no other land than that on which he dwells, and never daring to

We come, then, to regard the ocean as a part of the lose sight of that land, in the frail bark in which he arrangement of the Almighty power for His own wise purmoves along his native coast. Then if, by a rapid transi- poses; as among the creatures, which have been committed tion, we behold man civilized and highly cultivated as he to the use of man; beneficial in various ways, which it is

not our province to consider here, but only as it serves the now is, borne along byThe heaven-conducted prow

purpose of a great high-way for the nations of the world, Of Navigation bold, that fearless braves

pre-eminent among which, and may it ever be, is our own The burning line, or dares the wintry pole,

country. Our subject takes not in its view a supernatural we feel the force of the oft-repeated truism, that man is a state of the floods of the ocean, but that, wherein there is progressive being. Thus, it will furnish instruction to the not again to cover the earth. We contemn, therefore,

“set a bound that they may not pass over; that they turn reader, if we endeavour to fill up the long interval between the quailing lament of the heathen poet, Horace, who thus these two conditions, in which we find man acting his part delivers himself:as a member of the human family, by tracing the progress

Jove has the realms of earth in vain of Navigation from the rude raft, or ill-constructed canoe,

Divided by the unhabitable main, through the various stages of addition and improvement,

If ships profane, with fearless pride, until we reach that triumphant monument of human skill,

Bound o'er the inviolable tide. a ship of the line. An improvement, so vast, is of course we see how ill-timed is this awe of the sea, when we only one of the results of the advancement of nations in remember as readers of the Inspired Volume, that it is the scale of civilization ; and this advancement is accu- written, -" They that go down to the sea in ships, that do rately tested by their collateral progress in literature, art, business in great waters; These see the works of the Lord, and science. As the first ministers to the reflecting tastes and his wonders in the deep t:" and, when we call to mind, of its members, so the two latter supply their actual wants that, by means of ships, this Inspired Volume was brought and increasing desires; and there have been found, at all to us, and has been carried out again to all parts of the times, persons ready to devote their energies to carry out habitable earth. those subjects, which a few fortunate and gifted individuals In the youthful condition of the world, and when all was have invented, or improved. But the great bulk of man- new and untried, the innate love of exploring that which kind does not the less further the progress of civilization, had not yet been seen, gradually extended the locality of though all do not invent nor improve: they serve as the the human race. Brooks, and such like streams, were soon power for carrying on the work, which is contrived and forded, when new pastures, the impulse of hunting, and the • See Saturday Magazine, Vol. III., p. 36.

• Psalm civ. 9.

+ Psalm cvii. 23, 24. VOL. XII

358

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