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streams. There is no doubt that fishes in general, and species ; at Cambridge, the skins of two are preserved! Eels in particular, are able to appreciate even minute which weighed together fifty pounds; the heaviest alterations in the temperature of the water they inhabit. The mixed water they seek to remain in during the colder weighing twenty-seven pounds, the second twenty

three pounds. months of the year, is of a higher temperature than the pure fresh-water of the river, or that of the sea. It is a well known law in chemistry, that when two fluids of different densities come in contact, the temperature of the mixture is elevated for a time in proportion to the difference in the density of the two fluids. Such a mixture is constantly taking place at the mouths of rivers that run into the sea, and the mixed waters maintain a temperature two degrees warmer than that of the river or the sea. This elevation in the temperature of the water of estuaries and the mouths of rivers, is, I have no doubt, one reason why they in general abound with young fish. During the Winter, the Eels remain imbedded in

The Broad-nosed Eel is distinguished from the the mud twelve or sixteen inches deep, by the side of last by its broad head, flattened on the summit; the the channel of the stream they frequent.

eye is placed rather in advance of the angle of the Great doubt has existed as to whether the Eel pro.

mouth. duces its young alive, or deposits its spawn in the same manner as other fishes; but the observations of Mr. Yarrell and others, have gone far to pruve that Nature does not step out of her regular course in the case of the Eel; that is, that the Eel produces its young in the same way as the rest of the class of fishes. Singula, notions were entertained on this subject by the ancients and by some of the moderns. Aristotle believed they sprung from the mud; Pliny, from fragments which were separated from their bodies by rubbing against the rocks. Helmont believed they came from May-dew, and might be This is the Grig, or Glut, Eel, of Pennant, who obtained by the following process.

says “ they have a larger head, blunter nose, and Cut up two turfs covered with May-dew, and lay one thicker skin than the common sort." The term grig upon the other, the grassy sides inwards, and thus expose is applied near London to the small-sized Eel, whose them to the heat of the sun; in a few hours there will spring from them an infinite quantity of Eels.

The reason why Eels have been considered viviparous, has arisen probably, from their being infested with numerous intestinal worms, which have been mistaken for young Eels. The sudden appearance of Eels in places where they were known not to have existed previously, has added a little to the mystery head is shown in the engraving; but the fishermen of their mode of production. But there are many in the London river, call all small Eels which do not well-authenticated accounts of the manner in which exceed eight or nine inches in length, Grigs. this is most likely effected. The Eel in warm and The fourth species of Eel frequenting fresh water, moist nights, has been known to quit the water and is the Snig. This seems to be very rare, Mr. Yarrell travel a considerable distance through the wet grass. One instance of this occurs in Dr. HASTING's Natural History of Worcestershire.

I will here mention a curious confirmation of the opinion in favour of the overland migration of Eels. A relative of the late Mr. Perrot was out in his park with his keeper, near a large piece of water, on a very beautiful evening, when the keeper drew his attention to a fine Eel quietly ascending the bank of the pool, and with an undulating motion making its way through the long grass ; on further observation, he perceived a considerable number of Eels quietly proceeding to a range of stews, nearly at the dis having only seen two specimens, both of which were tance of a quarter of a mile from the large piece of water taken from the Avon, in Hampshire, where it is confrom whence they started. The stews were supplied by a sidered distinct from the common and well-known rapid brook, and in all probability, the instinct of the fish Eels. led them in that direction, as a means of finding their way to some large river from whence their ultimate destination, the sea, might be obtained.

IRRESOLUTION.-In matters of great concern, and which There is no doubt, however, that Eels will breed in must be done, there is no surer argument of a weak mind fresh-water ponds which have no communication with than irresolution; to be undetermined where the case is so the sea or river.

plain, and the necessity so urgent. To be always intending The Sharp-nosed Eel is that most commonly met

to live a new life, but never to find time to set about it;

this is as if a man should put off eating, and drinking, with in the markets; as its name implies, the snout is and sleeping, from one day and night to another, till he is much more pointed than that of the other species ; starved and destroyed.Tillotson. the head is flattened on the sides, and the eye is placed immediately over the angle of the mouth. In

LONDON: streams of pure water the belly of this Eel is clear JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. and bright; it is then called a Silver Eel. This Eel is PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTHLY PARTS found of a larger size than either of the other

Sold by all Booksellers and NewsTenders in the Kingdum.




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TAE Regent dying in 1572, was succeeded by his preserved. As far as regards the eating, drinking, nephew Frederic the Fourth, who added much to and hunting routine of the day, it doubtless is a bis residence, and one of the finest and most perfect faithful, and, therefore, interesting picture; but we portions, built in a style of florid architecture, cor- obtain from it no information, either local or historical, responding with the erections of Otho Henry, and concerning the Castle. Dying in 1610, he was sucembellished with the most gorgeous statues of the ceeded by his son Frederic the Fifth, subsequently electors, remains a monument of his taste. This king of Bohemia, who, from his alliance with Elizastructure, which forms the south side of the great beth, daughter of James the First of England, from Tournament Court, was devoted to the purpose of a his prominent position at the commencement of the chapel, with a fine ball-room above, and still hears thirty years' war, of which his cruel fortunes first the name of Friederich's Bau, or Frederic's Building. fired the fatal spark, and from the train of afflictions, The magnificent stone balcony overlooking the town public and domestic, which hunted him to an early was also the work of this period: here all travellers grave, has obtained a mournful celebrity in the are taken to see an indentation somewhat resembling annals of the Palatinate. With regard to the imthe impress of a human foot, in one of the flag- provement of the Castle, also, his name and that of stones; concerning which, the legend goes, that a his high-minded consort stand equally forward, and young princess who, in her ardour to join her lover, though its strength and importance declined with his leaped from a three-story-high window above, and fortunes, and never entirely rallied again, yet we being, we conclude, more nimble than the gentleman must not forget that he it was who raised it to that was dexterous, descended with such violence, as to splendour which still lingers over its ruined halls. imprint the shape of her foot in the solid pavement. Animated alike by a natural taste for magnificence, The thousands of curious feet, great and small

, which by a highly cultivated mind, and, above all, by the bave since measured their length in this place, have most ardent passion for his English bride, he spared maintained its shape, and swelled it to colossal di- no pains in rendering his Castle worthy her abode. In mensions. Whether the lady gave rise to the story honour of her, a palace in the Elizabethan style of of the stone, or vice versd, we leave our readers to architecture, and furnished on the model of English decide; we tell the tale as it was told to us.

comfort, quickly arose, and by the simplicity and But to return to Frederic the Fourth. In the lightness of its proportions, remains strikingly distinct University library, part of a journal kept by this from the massive gorgeousness of the surrounding Pfalzgraf between the years 1596 and 1599, is still I walls. Nothing could surpass the varied attractions of Vol. XII.


the gardens, of which an elegant archway, still exorbitant levies exacted, the state-papers purloined, called Elizabeth's gate, formed, and yet forms, a &c. These acts, however, were only introductory conspicuous ornament; while De Caux, architect to to the succeeding ravages, which commenced by the king of France, employed in these additions, the arrival of a company of French miners, who taxed his invention in the erection of grottoes, obelisks, pounced with the weapons of destruction upon fountains, &c. Our print of the Castle, is copied from the proudest portions of the castle. At the same a drawing taken in 1619.

time, the surrounding suburbs and villages were Scarcely were these improvements completed, and fired, and, as if they had only waited for this beacon the first years of happy royal wedlock flown over, to let loose the demons of carnage and plunder, when the election of Frederic to the crown of Bo- Heidelberg now became the scene of all the horrors hemia called this interesting couple from their beloved attending a town taken by storm. The approach of Heidelberg; and, as it subsequently proved, from all a body of German troops seemed only to sharpen permanent happiness and distinction. The dignity every diabolical purpose, the Town-house, the Marstall, of a crown was but short-lived; a few years saw and every building of importance, was reduced to them fugitives and pensioners in a foreign land, while ashes-the windows at the Castle were smashed, the their proud patrimonial castle and lands suffered all ornamental stuccoes knocked to pieces-all the wine the horrors of siege, famine, and spoliage, under the that was not poured out in licentious excess carried devastating influence of the thirty years' war. Our off to Manheim, and finally, before their evacuation, present royal family of England derives its descent as if to complete the sum of wanton destruction, the from this same Elizabeth Stuart, Countess Palatine, Exchequer-house, the Neckar-bridge, and the so-called and queen of Bohemia, through Sophia, the youngest splendid Thick-tower were remorselessly blown into of her numerous and ill-fated family, who became fragments. At length, on the 2nd of March, 1689, wife to the Elector of Hanover, and mother of George the invaders left the regions they had converted into the First.

a desert, taking with them, however, several persons Frederic the Fifth died in obscurity at Mayence, in of distinction as hostages. The castle was then 1632, and on the 7th of October, 1649, after a period occupied by an imperial and allied garrison, under of unexampled horror and public calamity, Charles the command of General Heydersdorf, and some Louis, his eldest son, was reinstated in the ruined show of reparation commenced. In the nean time, halls of his fathers. His first acts were to repair the Philip William had retired to Vienna, where he breaches of war and plunder, and although his lands died of apoplexy, in 1690, and was succeeded, or, at still groaned beneath their effects, he contrived to least, nominally so, by his son John William. Heicarry on his plans with solidity and expedition, and, delberg was now little more than a heap of stones; at the same time, to recruit the broken fortunes the new Elector, therefore, took up his residence at of the Palatinate. His only daughter, Elizabeth Düsseldorf, and merely visited the scene of the late Charlotte, he bestowed in marriage on the Duke of struggle to receive the fealty of the surrounding Orleans, and thereby unconsciously laid the foundation country. But the measure of affliction was not yet of that fearful struggle which once more laid his full-the vials of destruction not yet emptied over towns and villages in ashes, and gave the finishing the devoted castle and town. Although stationed in blow to the downfall of Heidelberg Castle. His only quality of protector to the town's-people, General son, by his royal consort, Charles Louis, studied, Heydersdorf scrupled not to extort money, and other and received a doctor's degree, at the University of supplies from them, and finding his protection but Oxford, a ceremony which was followed by the pre- another name for plunder, many families emigrated sentation of the order of the Garter from his cousin from the homes which no longer ensured their safety. Charles the Second. Receiving during his sojourn in Happy were they in comparison with those who still England, in 1680, tidings of his father's demise, he clung to the place of their birth ! hastened home and assumed the sovereignty. This On the 17th of May, 1692, a body of thirty thouprince also busied himself in the work of reparation. sand French troops, with General Melac at their

The favourite amusements of this Elector consisted head, marched direct upon Heidelberg, and summoned in theatrical and military spectacles, and a curious the town to surrender. On the 20th, fresh forces work still exists of the pageants and ballets performed arriving, General Melac mounted the hills above the at the castle. Having over-exerted himself, however, castle, took possession of the old ruined fortress, at á mock siege, a tedious illness was induced, which and dispersed his men on the adjacent mountains. terminated his life. Here the Palatinate line expires,Other divisions gathered round the town, cutting Charles Louis leaving no issue, and henceforward the fosses and throwing up embankments, to the no small history of the castle presents only a successive picture embarrassment of the German commander. Unapof treachery, violence, and final desolation.

palled by these preparations and the strength of their Philip William, of the house of Neuburg, was the foes, the garrison, composed of a motley group of first to claim and assume the seat of authority at citizens and soldiers, determined to defend the walls Heidelberg. Two antagonists, however, soon appeared to the last; but, whether paralyzed by fear, or disin the lists against him, in the persons of Leopold, armed by a foreign bribe, General Heydersdorf gave Count of Veldenz, and Louis the Fourteenth of France, such contradictory orders, spiking, for instance, the alliance of whose brother, the Duke of Orleans, twenty-three of his own cannon, and withdrawing with the late Elector's sister, we have already noticed. his troops from the most important posts, that it The pretensions of Veldenz were quickly satisfied, or soon became manifest what his intentions were. compromised; France proved a weightier foe, and Indignant at his treachery, the officers under him not finding the channel of political menace and ne- used every exertion in counteracting his influence, gotiation successful, deluged the devoted land with a and animating the soldiery; but their enemies had hostile force, and military resistance proving useless, gained too much ground—the suburb was taken, and the castle and town capitulated on the 25th of Octo- the occupation of the town soon followed. This time ber, 1688, but upon honourable conditions. No not even the semblance of humanity was shown ; sooner, however, were the French in possession, than and the pillage of the town was granted to five they began to abuse all authority, and to violate regiments, who too well availed themselves of the every treaty. The town's people were maltreated, barbarous licence. Mingled with grosser acts, every

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refinement of cruelty was practised. A crowd of which daily fetched its load from the royal fountains wretched fugitives were forced into the church of for the court at Manheim. the Holy Ghost, and there detained, whilst their per- Charles Philip, dying the 31st of December, 1742, secutors set fire to the roof above them, and taking Charles Theodore, of the house of Sulzbach, undera demoniacal pleasure in their distress, released them took the government, the 1st of January, 1743. only for fresh torments when the danger threatened to Twenty years elapsed before this Elector visited the become positive destruction. At length, when scarcely crumbling halls of his predecessors, when, charmed an article was left to plunder, nor a human being to with its regal grandeur and romantic beauty, he destroy, the whole town was given over to the flames. determined to repair a portion for a temporal resiAll that now remained was the castle, which, surren- dence. Again, though from a different quarter, were dering in a few days, fared no better than its unfor- the plans of restoration frustrated; that very night tunate neighbour. The valuable furniture was stolen a thunder storm broke over the ruins, and a flash or destroyed, the graves of the electors broken open, of lightning taking effect, reduced the castle to the chief towers and fortifications, surviving the previous | On Charles Theodore's death, Maximilian of Bastruggle, were undermined and blown up, the Otho varia assumed the Palatinate; but under the division Henry's building burnt to the shell it now presents, of Europe by that arch king-maker and deposer, and in short, every species of destruction adopted Napoleon, it was allotted to Charles Frederic, Grand which tyranny and brutality could suggest. On the Duke of Baden, then a man of seventy-two, who news of the destruction of Heidelberg, and the devas- directed that every care should be bestowed in pretation of the Palatinate, reaching the French capital, serving the beautiful ruins, and appointed the laying Louis the Fourteenth, the pride of modern chivalry, out of the gardens in the style they now present. In and model of every gallant, ordered a public Te 1811, he was succeeded by his grandson Charles, Deum in the principal churches, and caused a medal who dying in 1832, his eldest son, Leopold, a prince to be struck with the ruins of Heidelberg, with of the highest worth, was unanimously declared sucthe inscription, Rex dirit, et factum est.-(The king cessor. The charge of preserving the castle is vested said it, and it was done.)--General Heydersdorf, in the hands of the Heidelberg corporation, who, alwhose cowardice or treachery had involved such sad though doubtless worthy citizens and excellent memconsequences, was summoned by his countrymen bers of society, were the last men fitted for such a trust. before a council of war, and condemned to death. Big with self-importance, and guided neither by love of The Emperor, however, granted him his life, but antiquity, or feeling for the picturesque, they have conbanished him from the Austrian and Suabian circle, tinued year by year officiously picking at the castle, beyond the barriers of which he was transported in endeavouring to make old new, and crooked straight, a butcher's cart, with every mark of ignominy. In till much that had survived the violence of its foes, 1697, peace was signed at Ryswick, and the Palatinate has fallen before the scarcely less destructive civilities again began to raise her fallen head; the town of its friends. Such was the extent of the subter emerged from its ashes, the various public buildings ranean cellars, groined passages, chambers and duncommenced erecting, and the University, which had geons, that it were hard to say whether the castle existed but as an empty name around the ruins of its occupied most space above or below ground. The schools, at the beginning of 1700, once more became writer had personally explored this portion, and the resort of the youth of Germany

regretted the destruction of some of its most inte. John William was succeeded, 1716, by his brother resting compartments;—now, by a late corporation Charles Philip, who took up his residence at Heidel- edict, all the entrances to this lower world have been berg, and directed his attention to the restoration of beaten down or filled up, and thus it will probably the castle ; and financial records which still exist, remain, till the plough of some future generation show that much was laid out in repairing the again lay it open to the light of day. Further, the damages of this ancient palace. Not satisfied with gorgeous pillars, and architectural ornaments interthese necessary preliminaries, this elector entertained spersed in the building, and esp ally in the suite of magnificent plans for its further embellishment and apartments called the Knights' Hall, have been sawn increase, which, had they been prosecuted, would in pieces, and used for different purposes, and many have doubtless preserved it to this day, as the a wooden bench in the surrounding gardens, is supproudest of royal residences. But a fatality seemed ported upon a capital, whose exquisite elegance to attend all efforts for its re-instatement, and those reminds us, that its form was dictated by the taste of naturally most interested in its preservation, proved a Raphael. its greatest enemies. Among the improvements pro- Nevertheless, Heidelberg Castle still offers, and jected for the town, it was proposed to fit up the must for centuries offer, a powerful attraction to all church of the Holy Ghost, (which then, and to this true lovers of antiquity and beauty, and among

the day, by means of a trumpery partition-wall, serves for thousands who yearly throng through its empty both Catholic and Protestant services,) entirely for portals, not a few imbibe an impression of symmetry, the former worship; the Elector promising to erect strength, gorgeousness, and grandeur, which can in its stead a new church for the Reformed portion never be efi'aced. of the community. This, however, necessitating a trifling alteration in the Heidelberg catechism, and interfering with some old German dogmas, the Bur-He that does not know those things which are of use and ghers made every opposition, and Charles Philip, in necessity for him to know, is but an ignorant man, what a fit of disgust, removed his residence to Manheim,

ever he may know besides.- TILLOTSON. and employed the enormous sums appointed for Heidelberg, in the erection of a palace, and in EXCELLENCE is never granted to man, but as the reward making extensive additions to that city. Too late of labour. It argues, indeed, no small strength of mind did the citizens repent their shortsighted obstinacy;

to persevere in the habits of industry, without the pleasure the workmen were withdrawn from the castle, and clock, whilst they make hourly approaches to their point,

of perceiving those advantages which, like the hands of a n.uch traffic from their town; and the solitude of the

yet proceed so slowly as to escape observation.—Sir ruined walls was alone interrupted by the water-cart, Joshua REYNOLDS.


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THE BONDAGE OF THE ISRAELITES IN EGYPT. to the ear, not to the breast as was usual with the The interval between the death of Joseph and the Greeks and Romans; consequently, their bows were birth of Moses, was marked by an important change in the constitution of the Egyptian government, concerning which our authentic information is remarkably indirect and scanty. Several very able writers have laboured with more or less success to elucidate this very obscure period, and the following summary will be found consistent with the Scripture narrative, the Egyptian monuments, and the fragments of Manetho preserved by Josephus.

After the Israelites had settled in Goshen, they were engaged in active hostilities with the nomade tribes of Syria and Palestine. A singular record of these wars is preserved in the book of Chronicles, where we find enumerated among the sons of Ephraim, “ Zabad his son, and Shuthelah his son, and Ezer and Elead, whom the men of Gath that were born in that land slew, because they came down to take away their cattle.” (1 Chron. vii. 21.) From this interesting passage we obtain information respecting the condition of the Hebrews in Goshen, previous to their being reduced into slavery, which we find nowhere else recorded. We find that they loyally fulfilled the conditions of the tenure by which they held the land of Goshen, namely, checking the incursions of the eastern nomades; they not only did so, but carried the war into the enemies' country, and swept the plains of Palestine even to the distant city of Gath.

The bow was the favourite weapon of the Egyptians, and is so represented on the monuments. It deserves more powerful, and their arrows better aimed than also to he remarked, that the Egyptians drew the bow those of other nations. It may be added that the

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