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well warmed before the glue is applied, and the joint should of this notch is the fine mortise-hole intended to receive be close, or the parts accurately brought together.
the tenon. Besides the before-mentioned tools and materials, and The bars of the sash can, of course, only be made some others, such as hammers, axes, &c., which need not in one length in one direction, and the cross-bars which be described, carpenters and joiners use instruments for divide the long panels, formed by these continuous bars, into measuring and setting out their work, and for drawing on the sizes of the glass, are made of similar short pieces with the surface of the material the forms into which it is to be mitred ends; but these ends, where they frame into the reduced, or the shape and situations of portions of the long bars, hare no tenon, the thinness of the stuff not admaterial to be removed for the purposes of framing. The mitting of one, since the cross-bars come, end for end, oppoinstruments are compasses, squares, rules, levels, plumb- site each other, on the two sides of the upright bars. lines, and so on, common to all trades which form materials It is evident that the long bars must be put together with into artificial geometrical shapes: and, like the mason, the the outside frame, or else the tenons could not be inserted carpenter and joiner must be conversant with the more into the mortises made in this last. elementary problems of practical geometry.
In further explanation of joiners' work, we will briefly Having described the principal tools used by this work- describe the mode of making a drawing-board, requiring to man, we will return to the work performed by him, and in be true, plane, and square. Suppose the board is intended illustration of the subject, point out the mode of proceeding to be so wide as to require three boards side by side to in making a window-sash, which is one of the most delicate make it: these three boards being sawn out of the right operations in common joiner's-work. The outer part of the length, their edges are first planed perfectly straight and sash is made broader and stronger than the intermediate smooth, so that when any two are placed side by side, the cross-bars which receive the panes of glass, in order to give edges touching, those edges may touch or fit together accustrength and rigidity to the sash. This outer part is framed rately for their whole length; this accuracy of joint is ob together at the four angles by mortises and tenons, the tained by testing the edge after each time the plane is aplatter coming quite through the stuff, and having a small plied, by a straight-edge, or rule, known to be true. There sharp wedge driven into the middle of the tenon when in- are two inodes of proceeding to make these joints firm, one serted into the mortise : by means of this wedge, the tenon by dowelling, that is, by inserting short pieces of hard is expanded at its end into a wedge-shaped form, by which wood, as oak or wainscot, let for half their length into a it fits more tightly into the mortise and is retained in its mortise cut in the edges of the boards that are to fit togeplace, the wedge-shape not allowing the tenon to be with ther; these mortises being, of course, made opposite each drawn again. But it may be here remarked that, besides other, these dowels prevent the boards from rising up or this precaution, all small mortises and tenons are put toge- starting from their places when the work is finished. Inther with glue to ensure the stability of the joint.
stead of short dowels a strip, the whole length of the boards, The inner edge of this frame is formed by a plane into is let into each joint, half the strip lying in a ploughed the half moulding, of which the cross-bars present the groove, made in the middle of the corresponding edges of entire section, so that when the sash is completed, each the two boards. But, besides these precautions, the joints panel, as it were, which is filled in with the glass, is sur- are well glued up. rounded on its sides by a continuous moulding, and on the There are two modes by which this board may be other side of the frame each panel presents a rebate in strengthened, to prevent its warping or casting by the drywhich the glass lies. The annexed figure of the section of ing or shrinking of the wood.“ A cross-piece of deal, or part of the outer frame and one cross-bar, will make this better still of wainscot, is fixed across the ends of the boards, clear.
these ends being double rebated or tongued, to fit into a groove made in the cross-piece to receive the tongue; these cross-pieces prevent the long boards from warping, since the cross-pieces would have no tendency to alter their figure in the direction of their grain.
If, however, the board be larger, keying is better than this clamping. Clamping consists in attaching two stout cross-pieces at the back of the boards, the faces of which pieces are worked so as to fit, and are glued into a dovetailshaped groove cut across the direction of the boards at their back to receive the keys, as will be understood from the annexed sketch.
The cross-bars are made in lengths out of slips of wood, by a plane, which first forms the mouldings and rebate on
When the board is made, and the glued joints quite dry, one side, and then by turning the slip over the same plane, the face is planed perfectly smooth and level, and the edges finishes the other with an exact counterpart of the first. made truly square, or at right angles; if the board be These bars are framed into the outer part of the sash by keyed, the back must be planed smooth before the keys are delicate mortises and tenons put together in the manner before described; but it will be seen by reference to the
The flooring-boards in the better kinds of houses are figure, that the moulded part of the bar must unite to that often dowelled in the manner above described, and the of the outer frame, or of another bar, by a mitre joint, that ends of the flooring-boards are tongued and grooved to fit is, by one which allows of the lines of mouldings returning together, to prevent the boards from starting up from the on the second piece, at right angles to their direction on joists and becoming uneven. the first, without any interruption to the continuity of the surface.
This and all analogous mitre-joints are formed by planing the ends of the wood to form a face, making an angle of The seven days is by far the most permanent division of 45° with the axis or length of the stuff, and the joiner is time, and the most ancient monument of astronomical provided with a tool called a mitre-box, consisting of a knowledge; it was used by the Brahmins in India, with stock or frame, in which the stuff being put, resting against the same denomination used by us ; and was alike found in one another's surface, guides the plane so as to cut off the the calendars of the Jews, Egyptians, Arabs, and Assy; end obliquely at the requisite angle. It is clear that this rians. It has survived the fall of empires, and has existed mitre must be made on both faces of the bar, and there among all successive generations; a proof of the common fore the two mitre faces form a wedge-shaped termination origin of mankind. The division of the year into months, by meeting at a right angle, as shown in the last figure. &c., is very old, and almost universal, but not so ancient or Now as besides the mitre end a tenon is to be left to fit into uniform as the seven days, or week. -Mrs. SOMERVILLE. a mortise in the outer frame, it is clear that the whole must be a very nice piece of workmanship to be executed on so
LONDON: small a material as the thin bar of a modern sash. The bevelled mitred end of the bar is received into a
JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. corresponding shaped notch cut the depth of the half
PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PANNY, AND IN MONTHLY PASTA, moulding in the outer frame to receive it, and at the bottom
Sold by all Booksellers and Now svenders in the Kingdom.
QUEEN ELIZABETH; HER PROGRESSES AND PUBLIC PROCESSIONS. No. VI.
THE RESIDENCE OF THE PRINCESS ELIZABETH AT she begged to retire to a gentleman's house then at HATFIELD HER AMUSEMENTS WHILE THERE hand; but the extreme circumspection of Bedingfield -HER ACCESSION TO THE THRONE AND led him to refuse this request, so that the princess JOURNEY TO LONDON.
was obliged to replace her head-dress under a hedge In our last paper on this subject we related the cir- near the road. cumstances under which, in the year 1554, the Prin- On reaching Hampton Court, where the king and cess Elizabeth was imprisoned at the royal palace of queen were then residing, Elizabeth found that she Woodstock, under the charge of Sir Henry Beding. was still a prisoner. She was visited by Bishop field. After a confinement of many months she pro- Gardiner and others of the council, who endeavoured cured permission to write to the queen, but her impor- to persuade her to make a confesssion of guilt, and tunate keeper intruded and overlooked what she submit to the queen's mercy, wrote. At length, by the interposition of Mary's One night, when it was late, the princess was unexhusband, King Philip, she was removed to court. pectedly summoned and conducted by torch-light to the
This sudden kindness of Philip, (says Warton,) who queen's bed-chamber, where she kneeled down before the thought Elizabeth a much less obnoxious character than his queen, declaring herself to be the most faithful and true father, Charles the fifth, had conceived her to have been, subject. She even went so far as to request the queen to did not arise from any regular principle of real generosity, send her some Catholic treatises which might confirm her but partly from an affectation of popularity; and partly faith, and inculcate doctrines different from those which she from a refined sentiment of policy, which made him foresee had been taught in the writings of the reformers. The that if Elizabeth was put to death, the next lawful heir queen seemed still to suspect her sincerity; but they parted would be Mary, Queen of Scots, already betrotbed to the on good terms. During this critical interview. Philip had dauphin of France, whose succession would for ever join the concealed himself behind the tapestry that he might have sceptres of England and France, and consequently crush seasonably interposed to prevent the violence of the queen's the growing interests of Spain.
passionate temper from proceeding to any extremities. In the course of the first day's journey, which A week afterwards a change took place in the conextended from Woodstock to the house of Lord dition of Elizabeth. She was permitted to retire to Williams at Ricot, there came on a very violent storm Hatfield House, in Hertfordshire, then a royal palace, of wind, which two or three times blew off the prin- being placed under the care of Sir Thomas Pope. cess's hood, and the attire of her head. Upon this | At parting, the queen presented her with a ring worth VOL. XII.
seven hundred crowns; and at the same time recom- and twenty yeomen in green, "all on horseback, that mended to her Sir Thomas Pope as a person whose her grace might hunt the hart.” On entering the humanity, prudence, and other qualifications, were cal chase or forest she was met by fifty archers in scarlet culated to render her new situation perfectly agreeable. boots and yellow caps, armed with gilded bows, one
Elizabeth experienced great benefit from this of whom presented her with a silver-headed arrow, change of keepers; Sir Thomas Pope behaved towards winged with peacocks' feathers. Sir Thomas Pope her with kindness and respect," residing with her at had the devising of this show; at the conclusion of Hatfield rather as an indulgent and affectionate guar- which, the princess was gratified with the privilege of dian, than as an officious or rigorous governor." | " cutting the throat of a buck.” In the same month, That he was also not wanting on proper occasions in likewise, she was visited at Hatfield by the queen, showing her such marks of regard and deference as when the great chamber was adorned with a sumpher station and quality demanded, appears from the tuous suit of tapestry, called the hangings of the following anecdote. Two of the fellows of Trinity siege of Antioch, and after supper a play was perCollege, in Oxford, just founded by him, had violated formed by the choir-boys of St. Paul's. one of its strictest statutes, and were accordingly ex- In the summer of this year, the princess paid a pelled by the president and society. Upon this they visit to the queen at Richmond. She went by water repaired to their founder then at Hatfield with the from Somerset-place, in the queen's barge, which was princess, humbly petitioning to be re-admitted into his richly hung with garlands of artificial flowers, and college. Sir Thomas was somewhat perplexed; for covered with a canopy of green sarcenet, wrought although disposed to forgiveness, yet he was unwilling with branches of eglantine on embroidery, and poxto be the first who should openly countenance or pardon dered with blossoms of gold. She was accompanied an infringement of laws which he himself had made; | by Sir Thomas Pope and four ladies of her chamber. but perceiving a happy opportunity of adjusting the Six boats attended on this procession filled with her difficulty, by at the same time paying a compliment highness's retinue, habited in russet damask and to the princess, he with much address referred the blue embroidered satin, lapelled and spangled with matter to her gracious consideration ; and she was silver, with bonnets of cloth of silver, plumed with pleased to order that the offending parties should be green feathers. She was received by the queen in restored to their fellowships. Sir Thomas, in his sumptuous pavilion made in the form of a castle, letter to the president of the college, communicating with cloth of gold and purple velvet, in the labyrinth this determination, states, that it was “at the desier of the gardens. The walls or sides of the pavilion or rather commandement of my ladie Elizabeth her were chequered into compartments, in each of which grace," that he was content to "remytt this fault, and was alternately, a lily in silver, and a pomegranate in to dispence with thyem towching the same.”
gold. Here the party were entertained at a royal It appears also, that Sir Thomas Pope gratified the banquet, in which was introduced "a sottletie of a princess on some occasions with the characteristic pomegranate tree,” bearing the arms of Spain. There amusements of the times, and that he did so both at were many minstrels but there was no masking or his own expense and at the hazard of offending the dancing. In the evening the princess with all her queen,-as we learn from the following passage of an
suite returned as she had come, to Somerset-place ; old chronicle:
and the next day went back to Hatfield. In Shrovetide, 1556, Sir Thomas Pope mare for the
During the period of her residence at Hatfield, the ladie Elizabeth, all at his oune costes, a greate and rich Princess Elizabeth was also present at a royal Christmaskinge, in the greate halle at Hatfelde; wher the pa-mas, kept with great solemnity by Philip and Mary at geaunts were marvellously furnished. There were ther Hampton Court. On Christmas eve the great hall of twelve minstrels antickly disguised; with forty-six or more gentlemen and ladies, many of them knights or nobles, and curiously disposed. The princess supped at the same
the palace was illuminated with a thousand lamps, ladies, apparelled in crimsin sattin, embrothered uppon witth wrethes of golde, and garnished with bordures of table in the hall with the king and queen, next the hanging perle. And the devise of a castell of clothe of cloth of state ; and after supper, was served with a golde, sett with pomegranates about the battlements, with perfumed napkin and plates of confects by the Lord shields of knights hanging therefrom, and six knights in Paget; but she retired to her ladies before the revels
, rich harneis turneyed. At night the cuppboard in the halle maskings, and disguisings began. On St. Stephen's was of twelve stages, mainlie furnished with garnish of gold and silver vessul, and a baseket of seventie dishes, and after day she heard mattins in the queen's closet, adjoining a yoidee of spices and suttleties, with thirty spyse plates, to the chapel, where she was attired in a robe of white all at the chardgis of Sir Thomas Pope. And the next day satin, strung all over with large pearls. On the 29th the play of Holophernes. But the queen percase mysliked day of December she sate with their majesties and these folliries, as by her letters to Sir Thomas Pope hit did the nobility at a grand spectacle of jousting, when two appear, and so their disguisinges were ceased.
hundred spears were broken, half of the combatants On some occasions, however, the princess was being accoutred in the “ Almaine" and half in the allowed to make excursions, either for pleasure or for Spanish fashion. All these particulars, which are the purpose of paying her compliments at court. It minutely recorded by a chronicler of the day, are is related that on the 25th of February, 1557,- considered by Warton, the biographer of Sir Thomas
The lady Elizabeth came riding from her house at Pope, as affording a vindication of Queen Mary's Hatfield to London, attended with a great company of character in the treatment of her sister, and as lords, and nobles, and gentlemen, unto her place called proving that the princess, during her residence at Somerset-place, beyond Strand-bridge, to do her duty to llatfield, lived in splendour and ailluence, that she the queen. And on the twenty-eighth she repaired unto her grace at Whitehall, with many lords and ladies. (And
was often admitted to the diversions of the court, again, one day in March, the saine year,) aforenoon, she and “that her situation was by no means a state of lady Elizabeth's grace took her horse and rode to her palace imprisonment and oppression, as it has been repreif Shene, with many lords, knights, ladies, and gentlemen, sented by most of our historians." ind a goodlie company of horse.
It has been mentioned above, that Sir Thomas In April, the same year, she was escorted from Pope, during his attendance on the princess, was en: Hatfield" to Enfield-Chase, by a retinue of twelve gaged in founding Trinity College, at Oxford. An ladies clothed in white satin, on ambling palfries," undertaking of such a nature could not fail to attract
* Curious devices in cookery or confectionary. the attention of Elizabeth, whose learned education
Jaturally interested her in the progress of a work so I and nobles,—then the trumpeters,—then all the beneficial to the advancement of learning. It appears heralds in array, my Lord Mayor, holding the From a letter written by Sir Thomas Pope, that the Queen's sceptre, riding with garter,” and Lord Pem
new college often formed a subject of conversation broke bearing the Queen's sword. Then came her between him and his illustrious charge.
grace on horseback, apparelled in purple velvet, with The princess Elizabeth, her grace, whom I serve here, a scarf about her neck; the serjeants of arms being often askyth me about the course I have devysed for my about her person. Immediately after the Queen rode scollers : and that part of myne estatutes respectinge studie Sir Robert Dudley, (afterwards Earl of Leicester,) who I have shewn to her, which she likes well. She is not only was her Master of the Horse; and then the guard gracious but most learned, as yo right well know.
with halberds. There was "great shooting of guns," Elizabeth resided at Hatfield during the rest of the artillery in the Tower firing continually for almost Mary's reign ; she spent there four years, which, as half an hour; so that“ the like was never heard beWarton observes, were by far the most agreeable fore." In certain places stood children, who made part of her time during that turbulent period; for, speeches to her as she passed; and in other places although she must have been often disquieted with was “singing and playing with regals.” Thus, “with many secret fears and apprehensions, yet she was here great joie and presse of people, of whom all the streets perfectly at liberty, and treated with a regard due to were full as she passed, declaring their inward reher birth and expectations. In the mean time, to joisings by gesture, words, and countenance,” the prevent suspieions, she prudently declined interfering Queen entered the Tower. in any sort of business, and abandoned herself en- At the Tower Queen Elizabeth remained until the tirely to books and amusements. The pleasures of 5th of December, when she removed a little nearer to solitude and retirement were now become habitual to Westminster,—namely, to the Strand House, or her mind, and she principally employed herself in Somerset House, “ going by water, and shooting the playing on the lute or virginals, embroidering with bridge, trumpets sounding, much melody accompanygold and silver, reading Greek, and translating Italian. ing, and universal expressions of joy among the peoShe was now continuing to profess that character ple." On the 23rd she went to the palace at which her brother Edward gave her, when he used to Westminster, where she kept her Christmas, and call her his sweet sister Temperance! But she was resided for some time. soon happily removed to a reign of unparalleled The 15th of January had been appointed for her magnificence and prosperity.
Majesty's coronation ; and we are told that in ChristQueen Mary died on the 17th of November, 1558, mas week, “scaffolds began to be made in divers about eleven or twelve o'clock. Soon afterwards the places of the city for pageants against the day the lady Elizabeth was proclaimed queen by divers Queen was to pass through to her coronation, and heralds of arms, trumpets sounding, and many of the conduits to be new painted and beautified."
On the chief nobility present, as the Duke of Nor- the 12th of January the Queen removed from Westfolk the Lord Treasurer, the Earls of Shrews- minster to the Tower,—a change preparatory to her bury and Bedford ; also the Lord Mayor and his passage through the city. She went by water, and brethren the Aldermen, with many others. In the was attended by the Lord Mayor and Aldermen in afternoon the bells in all the churches of London their barge, and all the citizens, “with their barges were rung in token of joy, and at night bonfires were decked and trimmed with targets and banners of their made, and stalls set out in the streets, “ where was mysteries.” “The bacheller's barge of the Lord plentiful eating and drinking, and making merry. Maior's companie, to wit, the mercers, had their barge The next day, being Friday, a fasting day, there were with a foist trimmed with three tops, and artillery no public rejoicings, but on the Saturday, Te Deum aboord, gallantlie appointed to wait upon them, shootLaudamus was sung and said in the churches of the ing off lustily as they went, with great and pleasant metropolis. “ Thus,” says Strype, “the satisfaction melodie of instruments, which plaied in most sweet generally conceived by the people for this new queen, and heavenlie manner.” ller grace shot the bridge superseded all outward appearances of sorrow for the “about two of the clocke in the afternoon, at the still loss of the old one."
of the ebbe;" and landed at the privy stairs at the Elizabeth was at Hatfield when her sister died, and Tower wharf. she remained there for some days afterwards. On the Our engraving presents a view of old Somerset 23rd of November she removed to London, attended House, such as in all probability it appeared from by “a thousand or more of lords, knights, gentlemen, the water in the reign of Elizabeth. This structure ladies, and gentlewomen;" at Highgate she was met was erected in the reign of Edward VI., by his uncle, by the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Sheriffs, who con- the protector Somerset, who very unscrupulously deducted her to the Charter-house, then the residence molished several buildings, some of them ecclesiastiof Lord North
cal, as well to make way for his new palace as to proIn which removing and coming thus to the citie, it might vide materials for the same. The architect of the well appeare how comfortable hir presence was to them that edifice is supposed to have been John of Padua, the went to receive hir in the waie, and likewise to the great “ deviser” of buildings to Henry VIII.; and it furmultitudes of people that came abroad to see hir grace, nished one of the earliest specimens of the Italian shewing their rejoicing harts in countenance and words, with heartie prayers for her Majesties prosperous estate and style in this country. It passed to the crown upon preservation; which no doubt were acceptable to God, as the attainder of the protector; and doubts have been by the sequel of things it may certenlie be believed. expressed whether Somerset was not beheaded be
The Queen remained at the Charter-house until the fore its completion. Great alterations were made in 28th, when she removed to the Tower. All the streets this palace by Inigo Jones, in the reign of James I., through which she had to pass were new gravelled. in order to fit it for the reception of Prince Charles "She rode through Barbican, and, entering the citie at and his bride, Henrietta Maria of France. Our enCripplegate, kept along the wall as far as Bishopsgate, graving, however, shows the building as it appeared when she turned off to Leaden Hall, passed through
before those alterations. In the river is introduced Gracechurch Street and Fenchurch Street, and turning part of a royal procession on the Thames, from down Mark Lane, into Tower Street, reached the
authorities referring to the reign of James I., and, in Tower.” Before her rode many gentlemen, knights, all probability equally applicable to that of Elizabeth,
ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE BIBLE FROM THE MONUMENTS OF ANTIQUITY. No. XIV.
Nations shall hear and tremble greatly,
Then the leaders of Edom shall be alarmed: AFTER the children of Israel had been so signally The mighty of Moab-them shall a shuddering possess. delivered from imminent ruin, by the destruction of All those dwelling in Canaan shall melt away ; proud Pharaoh and his host in the Red Sea, Moses Upon them shall fall fear and terror : composed a hymn of triumph, which may be regarded By the might of thy arm they shall be still as a stone, as the earliest specimen of the sublime poetry of the Until thy people pass over, O Jehovah ! Hebrews. A more literal version of this noble hymn Thou shalt bring them and plant them in the mountain of
Until thy people pass over, which thou hast purchased. than that given in the authorized translation, will thine inheritance, probably be acceptable to our readers :
The place for thy rest, which thou, Jehovah, hast made; I will sing unto Jehovah because he hath been gloriously The sanctuary, O Lord, thy hands have established. exalted;
Jehovah shall reign for ever and ever. The horse and his rider he hath hurled into the sea.
For the horse of Pharaoh went with his rider and his chariots My strength and song is Jah, and he shall be to me for
into the sea, salvation;
And the sons of Israel walked on dry land in the midst of He is my God, and I will make him a dwelling ;
the floods. The God of my fathers, and I will exalt him.
This magnificent hymn appears to have been imJehovah is mighty in war; Jehovah is his name. The chariots of Pharaoh and his hosts he hath cast into the mediately adopted as a national anthem; the initial
letters of the Hebrew words in the line sea; His chosen charioteers are sank in the sea of weeds* :
Who among the gods is like unto thee, O Jehovah ? Depths have covered them: they sank to the dark recesses
were inscribed on the standards of the Maccabees, like a stone. Thy right hand, O Jehovah, hath been glorified in power :
and, indeed, gave them their name. The moment it Thy right hand, O Jehovah, hath dashed the enemy in pieces. was uttered, the Jewish maidens sang the hymn of And in the greatness of thy Majesty, thou hast thrown down triumph, with all the joy and exultation which so those rising against thee.
wondrous a deliverance naturally inspired. Thou sentest forth thy burning : it consumed them like
Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel stubble ; And by the breath of thy nostrils the waters were heaped timbrels and with dances. And Miriam answered them,
in her hand; and all the women went out after her with together.
Sing ye to the Lord, for he hath triumphed gloriously; the The floods erected themselves as a heap :
horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea. (Exodus The depths were congealed in the heart of the sea.
xv. 20, 21.) The enemy said, I will pursue :-I will overtake :I will divide spoil : my soul shall be satiated upon them. The engraving at the head of this paper, taken I will draw my sword : my hand shall repossess them from the Egyptian monuments, shows us that the Thou didst blow with thy wind: the sea hid them.
triumphal processions were generally, formed by They sank as lead in the mighty waters.
damsels, who danced in solemn measure, and acWho is like unto thee among the gods, 0 Jehovah : Who is like unto thee,-glorious in holiness,
companied themselves on the timbrels and cymbals
. Exalted in power,—doing wonders ?
also the custom among the Israelites. Thou didst stretch forth thy right hand : the earth swallowed Thus when Jephthah won such a signal victory over them.
the Ammonites, and rashly vowed that he would Thou hast led forth in thy mercy the people which thou hast sacrifice to the Lord “whatever came first out of the
redeemed. Thou hast guided them in thy strength to the dwelling of thy in her anxiety to head the choir of damsels who
doors of his house," his daughter presented herself
assembled to celebrate her father's victory. Yam Suph, that is, “ the Sea of Weeds,” is still the oriental name of the Red Sea
And Jephthah came to Mizpeh unto his house, and,