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may not know it is my desier ; but that et es the Kyng's, tion of a brick front towards the water side ; and plesure, and yours it should be so. Good my Lord, have Stow mentions his repairing the palace in 1501. my Lady's Grace, and us that be her poor servants, in your rememberance. And your Lordship shal have our harty
Henry the Eighth was born at Greenwich, on the prayers by the Grace of Jesu: ho ever preserve your Lord- 28th of June, 1491, and was baptized in the parish ship with long life, and as myche honer as your nobel hart church by Richard Fox, Bishop of Exeter, Lord Privy can desire. From Hunsdon with the evil hand of har that Seal; the Earl of Oxford, and Peter Courteney, is your daily bead-woman
Bishop of Winchester, being his godfathers. This
MARGET BRYAN. monarch, from partiality, perhaps, to the place of his The superscription is "To the ryght nobel and my birth, neglected Eltham, which had been the favourite syngeler good Lord my Lord Prive Sel, be thys residence of his ancestors, and bestowed great cost delyverd."
upon Greenwich, till he made it, as Lambarde says, Of the manner in which the Princess Elizabeth "a pleasant, perfect, and princely palaice." During was brought up during the remainder of her father's his reign it became one of the principal scenes of that reign, we have scarcely any information. There is festivity for which his court was celebrated. His extant a record of that period, which furnishes an
marriage with his first queen, Catharine of Arragon interesting memorial of her skill and industry at a
was solemnized at Greenwich on the 3rd of June, very early age. It is to be found among the Cot
1509. On May-day, and the following two days, in tonian Manuscripts, in a list of New Year's Gifts to the year 1511, tournaments were held there; the Prince Edward, in the 30th of Henry VIII. (1539.) king himself
, Sir Edward Howard, Charles Brandon, The king and his nobles gave principally plate. The
and Edward Neville, challenging all comers.
In Lady Mary's Grace gave a coat of crimson satten, 1512, the king kept his Christmas at Greenwich, embroidered with gold, with paunses of pearls, and
“with great and plentiful cheer;" and again in 1513, sleeves of tinsel, and four aglets of gold. The LADY
“ with great solemnity, dancing, disguisings, and ELIZABETH's GRACE gave a shyrte of Cam'yke, of mummers in a most princely manner,” among which AER OWNE WOORKYNGE." She was then only in her
was introduced the first masquerade ever seen in
England. Queen Catharine Parr, the last and most fortunate.
On the 13th of May, 1515, the marriage of Mary of Henry's queens, is said to have paid considerable' queen dowager of France, (Henry's sister) with attention to the education of both the young princesses Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, was solemnized Mary and Elizabeth. Their position was greatly bet- publicly at Greenwich. Tournaments were held there tered by the act which was passed for the settlement in 1517, 1526, and 1536 ; the king kept his Christof the Crown, soon after her marriage with the king mas there in 1521, “ with great nobleness and open in 1544, and by which they were both declared court," and again in 1525. In 1527 he received the capable of succeeding to the throne on certain con
French embassy at this place; and the same year ditions, after the failure of the king's male issue,
kept his Christmas here “ with revels, masks, disOur engraving represents the ancient palace of guisings, and banquets royal;" as he again did in Placentia at Greenwich, in which Elizabeth was born. / 1533, in 1537, and in 1543. In the last-mentioned Grenewic or Grenevic, as this place was called by the year he entertained twenty-one of the Scottish noSaxons, is literally the green village, meaning perhaps, bility whom he had taken prisoners at Solway Moss, as Lysons suggests, the village on the green.
We and gave them their liberty without ransom. Edward have traces of a royal residence at this place, as early the Sixth kept his Christmas at Greenwich, in 1552, as the year 1300, when Edward I. made an offering George Ferrers, Esq., of Lincoln's Inn, being “Lordé of seven shillings at each of the holy crosses in the of the merrie disporte.” It has been reasonably supchapel of the Virgin Mary, and the Prince made an posed that the festivities in which he indulged on this offering of half that sum. Henry IV. dates his will occasion, and which were of a character wholly unin 1408, from his manor of Greenwich. Henry V. suited to his age and constitution, contributed to bring granted this manor for life to Thomas Beaufort, Duke about his death shortly afterwards *; he died at of Exeter, who died at Greenwich in 1426. It was
Greenwich Palace on the 6th of July following. soon afterwards granted by Henry VI. to his uncle
Qucen Mary was born at Greenwich, in February, Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, ( the youngest son of 1516; and baptized there a few days after her birth, Henry IV.) who, in 1433, had the royal licence to Cardinal Wolsey being her godfather, and the Lady fortify and embattle his manor house, and to make a
Catharine and the Duchess of Norfolk her godpark of two hundred acres. Soon after this, the mothers. Of Elizabeth's birth at this palace, and of duke rebuilt the palace, calling it Placentia, or the the solemnities which accompanied her christening, Manor of Pleasaunce; he enclosed the park also, and
we have before spoken. When she ascended the erected within it a tower on the spot where the Obser- throne, Greenwich became her favourite Summer vatory now stands. Upon the Duke of Gloucester's residence; she also visited it occasionally at other death, which happened in 1447, this manor reverted
seasons of the year. Of the manner in which she to the Crown. Edward IV. took great pleasure in kept her court there, and of other particulars confinishing and enlarging the palace; and for that cerning this spot, we shall speak hereafter. purpose, expended a considerable sum. In 1466, he
No part of the Palace represented in our engraving granted the manor with the palace and park, to his in now standing Charles the Second pulled it all queen, Elizabeth, for life.
In his reign, the marriage down, it having become much decayed; "he intended of his youthful son Richard, Duke of York, ( after- to raise a nobler structure on the same spot, but sucwards murdered with his brother, Edward V., in the ceeded in erecting only one wing, which forms that Tower,) with Anne Mowbray, daughter and sole heir part of the present Hospital, commonly called King of the Duke of Norfolk, was solemnized at Greenwich Charles's Building. with great splendour. Henry VII. resided much at this * " Their dangerous excitement, their fatiguing joyousness, their palace; his second son, Prince Henry, ( afterwards late hours and table indulgences, were immcuiately followed by a Henry VIII.,) and his third son, Edmund Tudor, misrule and his merry tumults may be more justly s'pposed to have
consumptive cough, so alarming and exhausting, that the lord of created Duke of Somerset, were born there. Lam- produced the fatal change in the king's ever-delicate health, than barde, the author of the Perambulation of Kent, says that nosegay of sweet flowers which was presented to him as a great
either grief for his lost uncles, or poison from Northumberland in that this monarch beautified the palace by the addi- dainty on new year's day.'”_Sharon TURNEN
We may refer with pride, as well as pleasure, to the four portions, each a miniature life-boat, when sepaalmost innumerable contrivances and plans, which rated carefully from the fruit. If either of these have from time to time been proposed by ingenious pieces are thrown into a vessel of and scientific persons of our own country, for water, it will be seen that, although the purpose of preserving life in cases of danger, by overloading it may be sunk, it whether from shipwreck, fire, or other sudden never can be overturned by any calamity; in the present paper we shall notice a weight placed within it. Its shape few of the principal means employed to save the then giving the boat this property, to lives of shipwrecked mariners. On account of the guard against its sinking, the sides, exhausted state of the poor creatures on board a from the under part of the gunwale wreck, it is natural to look for the greatest amount along the whole length of the regular shear, extendof assistance from persons on shore, and accordingly ing twenty-one feet six inches, are cased with layers we find that, although many lives have been saved by of cork, to the depth of sixteen inches downwards, the exertions of the crew themselves, much larger the thickness of this casing being four inches. numbers owe their preservation to the perilous exer- The boat being of the same form at both ends, can tions of adventurous men on the coast.
be rowed in either direction; the rowing oars are The Life-boat of Mr. Greathead, of South Shields, short; but those employed for steering, for there is has been the most successful of these inventions. A no rudder, are one-third longer. model of this boat was sent to the Society of Arts, The cork weighs nearly seven hundred weight, and and in 1802 this Society presented the inventor with from this it may be well understood, what an immense their gold medal and fifty guineas. So highly was it accession of buoyancy is gained; so light is she, and appreciated by government, that a reward of 12001. so well formed, that even when full of water she is was subsequently voted by Parliament, besides other rowed with ease, and obeys the helm with the greatest rewards by the Trinity House and Committee of quickness. Lloyd's; this latter institution devoted also 20001. to the purpose of building boats on Mr. Greathead's plan. Since this time most of the dangerous parts of our coasts bave been furnished with life-boats on the same construction.
The length of the life-boat is thirty feet, the breadth ten feet, the depth, from the top of the gunwale to the bottom of the keel in midships, three feet three; but from the gunwale to the platform, or boarding within, it is but two feet four inches. The form of this boat is very different to that of those in Second in importance to the Life-boat alone, in common use, and from its construction it is impossible the humane cause of saving life from shipwrecks, it can upset. It is said that its peculiar figure was are the ingenious inventions of the veteran philansuggested by the properties possessed by the sections thropist, Captain Manby. This worthy gentleman of an oblate spheroid, a globular figure, flattened has devoted ia considerable portion of his long and on two of its opposite sides, a form exactly resemb. active life to devising and perfecting the means ling that of an orange. Indeed the figure and power of forming a communication between the crew of of this boat may be popularly illustrated by means of a vessel in danger and the persons on shore, by cona simple operation upon this fruit. Take an orange, veying a rope from the shore to the ship, or from the and divide the skin by two circular incisions, as ship to the shore. This Captain Manby accomin the annexed figure; this will divide the rind into plishes by affixing a shot to a rope, discharging it
from a gun, a mortar, or some other piece of each extremity of the cot, so that it may be hauled ordnance, so that the rope should become entangled on board the ship and back again to shore : this cot with the rigging of the ship, and thus lay the is intended more particularly for women and children, foundation for a more secure communication. His and is furnished with lashings all round, while the first object was to coil the rope in such a manner, bottom is made of strong netting to allow the water that, in uncoiling, there shall be no danger of en- to run out. tanglement, as a very slight hitch would alter the In order to render the passage of the shot visible direction of the shot, or, perhaps, break the rope. at night, a shell instead of a shot is fixed to the
The following method, fig. i, is recommended as rope ; this shell has four holes, in which are fixed one of the best, particularly on account of its allowing the eye to run rapidly over the coils, for the purpose of ascertaining whether it has been disturbed by the storm. The rope is arranged in what
as many fuzes. The shell itself being filled with the what are called French fakes, or tiers. Other methods most brilliant combustible composition, its effect when are also resorted to, as a whale-laid coil, or a chain- passing through the air, is surprisingly bright. fake, fig. 2. But as all these methods require time and care, they are likely to fail in the hurry of the moment, and a rope kept ready coiled in a basket, so
THE ATMOSPHERE. that it could be carried on the back of a man like a
The Atmosphere is an element which we cannot see, knapsack, is considered the most certain. The diffi- but which we feel investing us wherever we go; culty of fixing the shot so that the flame of the gun whose density we can measure to a certain height; powder might not burn its attachment to the rope, whose purity is essential to existence; whose elastic was next to be overcome, and it was found that a thong of stout platted hide, woven extremely close, pressure on the lungs, and on and around the frame,
preserves man in that noble attitude which lifts his was capable of most resistance, being, at the same head towards the skies, and bids him seek there for time, not easily inflamed and very elastic, for chains
an eternal home. The atmosphere is neither an evaof every description were snapped in two by the poration from earth nor sea, but a separate element sudden jerk.
bound to the globe, and perpetually accompanying it The shot employed was of two sorts, round shot in its motions round the sun. Can we for an instant
imagine that we are indebted for the atmosphere only to some fortuitous accident? If there were no at. mosphere, and if we could possibly exist without one, we should be unable to hear the sound of the most
powerful artillery, even though it were discharged at with a loop, to which to affix the platted hide, and the distance of a single pace. We should be deprived barbed shot; the advantage of this last is, that it of the music of the sea, the minstrelsy of the woods,
of all the artificial combinations of sweet sounds, and of the facinating tones of the human voice itself. We might make our wants and our feelings perceptible to each other, by signs and gesticulations, but the tongue would be condemned to irremediable silence. The deliberations of assemblies of men, from which
laws and the order of society, have emanated, could more readily entangles itself with the rigging. If never have taken place. The tribes of mankind the rope has reached its destination, one much would wander over the earth in savage groups, incastronger is fixed to it by the people on shore; to this pable of civilization, and the only arts which they thicker rope a block is fixed, through which a smaller could ever know, would be those alone that might rope is rove, the two ends being left on shore so as to enable them to destroy each other. --Quarterly Reform a running tackle : when all is secure at either view.
THERE are habits, not only of drinking, swearing, and lying, and of some other things, which are commonly acknowledged to be habits, and called so, but of every modification of action, speech, and thought; man is a bundle of habits. There are habits of industry, attention, vigilance, advertency; of a prompt obedience to the judgement occurring, or of yielding to the first impulse of passion; of extending our views to the future, or of resting upon the present; of apprehending, methodizing, reasoning; of indolence, dilatoriness, of vanity, self-conceit, melancholy;
partiality ; of fretfulness, suspicion, captiousness, censoriend, a cot, a kind of cradle, which is part of the life- intriguing, projecting; in a word, there is not a quality of
ousness; of pride, ambition, covetousness ; of overreaching, preserving apparatus, is slung upon the thick rope, function, either of body or mind, which does not feel the the two ends of the smaller rope being fastened to influence of this great law of animated nature. —Paley.
EASY LESSONS ON CHRISTIAN EVIDENCES. by Pagans and Mohammedans, but also (to our shame No. XIII.
be it spoken,) by Christian nations; and still remainMODERN Jews.
ing a distinct people, though without a home.
One of the most remarkable points relative to these One of the difficulties with which the minds of some predictions respecting the Jews, and their present Christians are perplexed, is, that Jesus Christ should condition, is this; that the judgments spoken of by have been rejected by the greater part of his country- Moses, were threatened in case of their departing from men, the Jews; and that they who had been, accord- the law which he delivered, and especially, in case of ing to our Scriptures, for so many ages, God's their worshipping false gods; and yet, though in forfavoured and peculiar People, should be now, and for mer times they were so apt to fall into idolatry, they above seventeen centuries, without a country, and have always, since the destruction of Jerusalem, steascattered as outcast strangers through the world. dily kept clear of that sin ; and have professed to be
Their present condition and past history are indeed most scrupulous observers of the law of Moses. And something very extraordinary, and quite unlike what what is more, all the indignities and persecutions that has befallen any other nation. But though we may any of them are exposed to, appear to be the consenot be able to explain all the circumstances relative quence of their keeping to their religion, and not of to this wonderful people, it will be found on reflection their forsaking it. For a Jew has only to give up his that they furnish one of the strongest evidences for religion, and conform to that of the country he lives the truth of the very religion which they reject. in, whether Christian, Mohammedan, or Pagan, and
You know that when the Jews received the law lay aside the observances of the law of Moses, and he through Moses, they were promised success and immediately ceases to be reproached as a Jew, and an prosperity as long as they should obey the Lord; and alien, and is mingled with the people around him. So that heavy judgments were denounced against them that the Jews of the present day seem to be suffering in case of disobedience. It was foretold that they for their observance of the law, just the penalties should be defeated by their enemies, driven from their threatened for their departure from it. country, scattered abroad, and continually harassed At first sight this seems very hard to explain; but, and oppressed. These threats are set forth in various on reflection, you will find the difficulty cleared up, parts of the books of Moses, and most particularly in | in such a way as to afford a strong confirmation of the twenty-eighth chapter of Deuteronomy. “ Thou your faith. First, you should observe, that the Jews shalt become an astonishment, a proverb, and a by- themselves admit that a Christ or Messiah was proword among all the nations whither the Lord shall mised them; and that to reject Him on his coming lead thee. The Lord will make thy plagues wonderful, would be an act of rebellion against the Lord their and the plagues of thy seed, even great plagues of God. Moses foretold that the Lord should raise up long continuance. And the Lord shall scatter thee from among them a Prophet like Moses himself; and among all people, from the one end of the earth even whosoever should not hear that Prophet,” God unto ihe other.”—v. 37, 59, 64.
“ would require it of him ;” and “that he should be And the same is to be found in various parts of destroyed from among the people.”—(Deut. xviii. the writings of several of the prophets, who lived 15—19; Acts iii. 22, 23.) This is generally undersome ages after. In particular, there is one in Eze- stood (as it is applied in the Acts) to relate to the kiel, which agrees most remarkably in one very curious Messiah, or Christ; whom the other prophetical particular, with the state of the Jews at this day ; writers of the Old Testament (as both Jews and namely, where he declares that they should, in the Christians are agreed,) more particularly foretold and midst of their sufferings, remain a distinct people, described. Now we hold that the Jews have been unmixed with, and unlike other nations; although guilty of this very act of disobedience, in rejecting it appears that in his time, they were very much dis- the Christ. And though they, of course, do not conposed to unite themselves with the rest of mankind, fess themselves thus guilty, because they deny that so as to become one of the Gentile nations, and to Jesus of Nazareth was the true Christ, yet they so lay aside all the distinctions of their own race. “That far agree with us as to acknowledge that the rejecting which cometh into your mind shall not be at all, that of the true Christ on his coming would be such a sin ye say, We will be as the heathen, as the families of as would expose them to the judgments which Moses the countries, to serve wood and stone." (Ezekiel threatened. xx. 32.)
To us, therefore, who do believe in Jesus, this Now we find in the Old Testament, that, in several affords an explanation of their suffering these judginstances, these judgments did fall on the Jews; and ments.
to Babylon. And some persons may suppose that these looking more closely, that the Jews of these days do instances were all that Moses and the prophets had in not really observe the law of Moses, though they view. But whatever any one's opinion may be, it is a profess and intend to do so. They have, indeed, kept fact, of which there can be no doubt, that the Jewish to the faith of their forefathers; but not to their nation are actually suffering, at this day, such things as religious observances. For, the chief part of the Moses and the prophets predicted. Whether Moses Jewish worship consisted in offering sacrifices disand Ezekiel had in view what is now taking place, or tinctly appointed by the Lord Himself, in the law not, may be a matter of opinion; but it is a matter of delivered by Moses. There was a sacrifice appointed fact, that what is now taking place, does agree with to be offered up every day, and two on the Sabbath; their predictions. Jerusalem and its Temple were besides several other sacrifices on particular occasions. taken and burnt by the Romans, about forty years Now, the modern Jews, though they abstain from after the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. The Jews were certain meats forbidden in their law, and observe driven from their country, and never allowed to settle strictly the Sabbath and several other ordinances, yet in it again. Hundreds of thousands were sold as do not offer any sacrifices at all; though sacrifices slaves ; and the whole people were cast forth as wan- were appointed as the chief part of their worship. derers among the Gentiles; and they have ever since The reason of this is, that they were strictly forremained a nation of exiles, unsettled, harassed and bidden to offer sacrifices except in the one place oppressed in many instances most cruelly, not only which should be appointed by the Lord for that purpose. And the place last fixed on for these offerings
THE EEL. having been the Temple at Jerusalem, which was
Although the Eel is a fish with which we are so destroyed about seventeen hundred years ago, and has familiar, and one which comes so frequently under never been restored, the Jews are now left without any the notice of most people, until of late years very place in which they can lawfully offer the sacrifices little was known of its habits and general economy. which their law enjoins.
Mr. Yarrell has thrown much additional light on the The Jews, accordingly, of the present day, plead that history of the Eel tribe; and in the following account it is not from wilful disobedience that they neglect
we have borrowed largely from his splendid work on these ordinances, but because they cannot help it.
British Fishes. According to this naturalist, there are But to say that it is not their own fault that they do three well-ascertained species of fresh-water Eels, to not observe the ordinances of their religion, is quite a which he has given the following names,-the Sharpdifferent thing from saying that they do observe nosed Eel, (Anguilla acutirostris); the Broad-nosed them. They may explain why they cannot keep the Eel, (Anguilla latirostris); and the Snig, (Anguilla law of Moses; but they cannot say that they do medirostris); the Grig is also considered a separate keep it. Now Christians hold that the ceremonies of that species by Baron Cuvier. In addition to this there is
the Conger Eel, which inhabits the coasts of the sea. law were not originally designed to be observed by
The form of the Eel, resembling that of the serpent, all nations, and for ever"; that “the law had only a
has long excited a prejudice against it, which exists in shadow of good things to come,” (Heb. x. 1,) that is, some countries even to the present time; and its similarity of the Gospel; and that it was designed that the to snakes has even been repeated by those, who, from the sacrificing of lambs and bullocks should cease at the advantages of education, ann their acquirements in natural coming of the Christ. A Jew, on the contrary, will history, might have been supposed capable of drawing not allow that these were designed ever to cease: but
more accurate conclusions. There is but little similarity in he cannot deny that they have ceased, and that, for body; the important internal organs of the two animals,
the snake and the Eel, except in the external form of the above seventeen centuries. Let a Jew explain if he
and the character of the skeleton, are most decidedly can, how it is, that, for so long a time, Providence different. has put it out of the power of the Jews to observe Eels are, in reality, a valuable description of fish; their the principal part of their religion which they main
flesh is excellent as food; they are very numerous, very tain was intended to be observed for ever.
prolific, and are found in almost every part of the world. And this is also very remarkable; that the religion easily preserved. In this country they inhabit almost all
The various species are hardy, tenacious of life, and very of the Jews is almost the only one that could have
our rivers, lakes, and ponds; they are in great esteem for been abolished against the will of the people them- the table, and the consumption in our large cities is very selves, and while they resolve firmly to maintain it; considerable. The London market is principally supplied their religion, and theirs only, could be, and has from Holland, by Dutch fishermen. There are two combeen, thus abolished in spite of their firm attachment panies in Holland, having five vessels each; their vessels to it, on account of its being dependent on a par- Eels are preserved alive till wanted.
are built with a capacious well, in which large quantities of
One or more of these ticular place, the Temple at Jerusalem. The Chris- vessels may be constantly seen lying off Billingsgate ; the tian religion, or again, any of the Pagan religions, others go to Holland for fresh supplies, each bringing a could not be abolished by any force of enemies, if cargo of 15,000 to 20,000 pounds' weight of live Eels, for the persons professing the religion were sincere and which the Dutch merchant pays a duty of £13 a cargo for resolute in keeping to it. To destroy a Christian his permission to sell. Eels and salmon are the only fish place of worship, or to turn it into a Mohammedan
sold by the pound weight in the London market. mosque, (as was done in many instances by the Eels are not only numerous, but in great request in Turks,) would not prevent the exercise of the Christian many other countries. Ellis, in his Polynesian Rereligion. And even if Christianity were forbidden searches, says,by law, and Christians persecuted, (as has in times In Otaheite, Eels are great favourites, and are tamed past been actually done,) still if they were sincere and fed until they attain an enormous size. The pets are and resolute, they might assemble secretly in woods kept in large holes two or three feet deep, partially filled
with water. or caves; or they might fly to foreign countries to
On the sides of these pits they generally reworship God according to their own faith; and Chris
mained, excepting when called by the person who fed them. tianity, though it might be driven out of one country, has sat down by the side of the hole, and, by giving a shrill
I have been several times with the young chief, when he would still exist in others.
sort of whistle, has brought out an enormous Eel, which And the same may be said of the Pagan religions. has moved about the surface of the water, and eaten with If it happened that any temple of Jupiter, or Diana, confidence out of his master's hand. or Woden, were destroyed, this would not hinder the The habits of Eels induce them to make two miworshippers of those gods from continuing to worship grations in the course of the year, one in Autumn, to them as before, and from offering sacrifices to them the sea, and the other in Spring, or the beginning of elsewhere.
Summer, from the sea. The Autumn migration is But it was not so with the Jews. Their religion performed by the adult Eels, and is supposed to be was so framed as to make the observance of its ordi- for the purpose of depositing their spawn; and it is nances impossible, when their Temple was finally said that these fish never return up the river: the destroyed. It seems to have been designed and con- Spring migration is supposed to consist entirely of trived by Divine Providence, that as their law was to
young Eels. Mr. Yarrell is inclined to think there is be brought to an end by the Gospel, (for which it an error in the belief that the old Eels do not return. was a preparation) so, all men were to perceive that
The passage of countless hundreds of young Eels has it did come to an end, notwithstanding the obstinate
been seen and described as occurring in the Thames, the rejection of the Gospel by the greater part of the Severn, the Parrett, the Dee, and the Ban. I am, however, Jews. It was not left to be a question and a matter of opinion, that the passage of adult Eels to the sea, or of opinion, whether the sacrifices instituted by Moses rather to the brackish water of the estuary, is an exercise were to be continued or not, but things were so
of choice, and not a matter of necessity; and that the ordered, as to put it out of Man's power to continue parent Eels return up the river with the young fry.
All authors agree that Eels are extremely averse to cold. them.
There are no Eels in the Arctic Regions, none in the rivers of Siberia, the Wolga, the Danube, or any of its tributary