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abatement according aggregate amount amount of Income Annual Value arising Assessed Taxes attainable for charge average burthen Capital Cent chargeable classes of Income Commissioners conceived consideration considered Country Crown Officers deduction degree derived from Property direct Tax ditto Dividends effect equal Estates estimated exempted expedient expence Expenditure extent fixed Funded Property Fundholders graduated Scale greater highest class Income derived Income or Property Income Tax increase individual Interest Labor Land Tax Redemption Landlord late Act late Property Act late Property Tax less millions mode National Debt necessary neral number of Persons object Owners paid Parties payment perty present Taxes principle proceedings produce Profits proportion proportionate Public Creditors purchase rack rent raised Rate of Charge Real Property Redemption render Rent respect Returns Revenue rules Scale of Charge Sinking Fund sources Stock Tax Accounts Tax on Income Taxation Tenant tion Tithes total amount total Income Wages whole wholly
Seite 126 - The subjects of every state ought to contribute towards the support of the government, as nearly as possible, in proportion to their respective abilities; that is, in proportion to the revenue which they respectively enjoy under the protection of the state.
Seite 127 - Thirdly, by the forfeitures and other penalties which those unfortunate individuals incur who attempt unsuccessfully to evade the tax, it may frequently ruin them, and thereby put an end to the benefit which the community might have received from the employment of their capitals. . . . Fourthly, by subjecting the people to the frequent visits and the odious examination of the tax-gatherers, it may expose them to much unnecessary trouble, vexation, and oppression...
Seite 127 - Secondly, it may obstruct the industry of the people, and discourage them from applying to certain branches of business which might give maintenance and employment to great multitudes. While it obliges the people to pay, it may thus diminish, or perhaps destroy, some of the funds which might enable them more easily to do...
Seite 126 - The tax which each individual is bound to pay ought to be certain and not arbitrary. The time of payment, the manner of payment, the quantity to be paid, ought all to be clear and plain to the contributor, and to every other person.
Seite 155 - Such rents are always more hurtful to the tenant than beneficial to the landlord. They either take more or keep more out of the pocket of the former, than they put into that o'f the latter. In every country where they take place, the...
Seite 184 - It is perfectly agreeable to the other three. It is perfectly certain. The time of payment for the tax, being the same as that for the rent, is as convenient as it can be to the contributor. Though the landlord is in all cases the real contributor, the tax is commonly advanced by the tenant, to whom the landlord is obliged to allow it in the. payment of the rent.
Seite 163 - ... any care or attention of his own. Though a part of this revenue should be taken from him in order to defray the expenses of the State, no discouragement will thereby be given to any sort of industry. The annual produce of the land and labour of the society, the real wealth and revenue of the great body of the people, might be the same after such a tax as before. Ground rents, and the ordinary rent of land, are therefore, perhaps, the species of revenue which can best bear to have a peculiar tax...
Seite 51 - ... the violation of the revenue laws, and to the perjury which almost always attends it, would, in most countries, be regarded as one of those pedantic pieces of hypocrisy which, instead of gaining credit with any body, serve only to expose the person who affects to practise them, to the suspicion of being a greater knave than most of his neighbours.
Seite 126 - Every tax ought to be so contrived as both to take out and to keep out of the pockets of the people as little as possible, over and above what it brings into the public treasury of the State.
Seite 343 - When national debts have once been accumulated to a certain degree, there is scarce, I believe, a single instance of their having been fairly and completely paid. The liberation of the public revenue, if it has ever been brought about at all, has always been brought about by a bankruptcy ; sometimes by an avowed one, but always by a real one, though frequently by a pretended payment.