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according advantages afford agriculture ancient appears arts capital chap circulating medium circumstances commerce concerning connexion consequence consideration considered corn cowries cultivation currency degree demand division of labour doctrine Economists effects employed England equal Essay Europe exchangeable value fact farms farther favour former France gold and silver Government greater human Hume idea illustration important improvement increase industry land laws Lectures less mankind manner manufactures marriage means ment merchants modern Montesquieu nature necessarily necessary number of inhabitants object observations occasion operation opinion particular passage Pays de Caux Political Economy Polygamy population precious metals present principles profits proportion quantity question rate of interest reason regulate remarks respect revenue Scotland Sir James Steuart Sir William Petty Smith society species speculations Stewart subsistence supply supposed tenth edition tion trade truth unproductive value of money Wealth of Nations wheat whole writers
Seite 328 - The wisdom of a learned man cometh by opportunity of leisure: and he that hath little business shall become wise.' - 'How can he get wisdom that holdeth the plough, and that glorieth in the goad; that driveth oxen; and is occupied in their labours; and whose talk is of bullocks?
Seite 350 - The value of any commodity, therefore, to the person who possesses it, and who means not to use or consume it himself, but to exchange it for other commodities, is equal to the quantity of labour which it enables him to purchase or command. Labour, therefore, is the real measure of the exchangeable value of all commodities.
Seite 17 - What the state ought to take upon itself to direct by the public wisdom, and what it ought to leave, with as little interference as possible, to individual discretion.
Seite 391 - The natural price, therefore, is, as it were, the central price, to which the prices of all commodities are continually gravitating. Different accidents may sometimes keep them suspended a good deal above it, and sometimes force them down even somewhat below it. But whatever may be the obstacles which hinder them from settling in this center of repose and continuance, they are constantly tending towards it.
Seite 407 - When the stocks of many rich merchants are turned into the same trade, their mutual competition naturally tends to lower its profit; and when there is a like increase of stock in all the different trades carried on in the same society, the same competition must produce the same effect in them all.
Seite 353 - Labour was the first price, the original purchase-money that was paid for all things. It was not by gold or by silver, but by labour, that all the wealth of the world was originally purchased; and its value, to those who possess it, and who want to exchange it for some new productions, is precisely equal to the quantity of labour which it can enable them to purchase or command.
Seite 353 - The real price of everything, what everything really costs to the man who wants to acquire it, is the toil and trouble of acquiring it. What everything is really worth to the man who has acquired it, and who wants to dispose of it or exchange it for something else, is the toil and trouble which it can save to himself, and which it can impose upon other people.
Seite 64 - ... the human species would increase as the numbers 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, and subsistence as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. In two centuries the population would be to the means of subsistence as 256 to 9; in three centuries as 4096 to 13, and in two thousand years the difference would be almost incalculable.
Seite 276 - The sovereign, for example, with all the officers both of justice and war who serve under him, the whole army and navy, are unproductive labourers. They are the servants of the public, and are maintained by a part of the annual produce of the industry of other people.
Seite 354 - As soon as stock has accumulated in the hands of particular persons, some of them will naturally employ it in setting to work industrious people, whom they will supply with materials and subsistence, in order to make a profit by the sale of their work, or by what their labour adds to the value of the materials.