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tion, derived from a correspondence with some of the first geographers and most successful navigators of those days. The grounds on which he projected his great undertaking have not been accurately record. ed. It has been supposed he was struck with the circumstance that the South American continent trends still more to the westward in proportion as the higher latitudes are attained ; that he concluded from this, that in shape it was probably similar to Africa ; and that its southern extremity must be washed by an open sea, through which there would necessarily be an entrance into the ocean beyond. There have not been wanting persons, however, to ascribe the honour of this discovery to Martin Behem-a distinguished geographer of that age, to whom also has been given the merit of having anticipated Columbus in finding the New World. But the pretensions set forth in behalf of this individual have been traced to an error in attributing to him the construction of a globe made many years after his death, which took place in 1506.* This date is fatal to his claim, as at that time the South Sea itself was not discovered. It must be remembered, likewise, that for many years afterwards, the best mariners of Spain searched unsuccessfully for the strait in question, which they could hardly have missed, if, as is alleged, it had been laid down in the charts of Behem.
Magellan first made an offer of his service to his own sovereign, who, says Fray Gaspar,t“ did not choose to hear it, nor to give it any confidence, but dismissed him with a frown and singular disgrace, very different from what was due to the proposal of Magalhanes, and the reputation he had acquired for his valour.” Thus did Portugal, after having rejected the greatest honour in the career of discovery,—the finding of America,—spurn away the second,—the glory of the first circumnavigation of the globe. Magellan, accompanied by Ruy Falero, a native astrologer who was associated with him in the enterprise, then determined to go to the Spanish court and tender the fame and profit of his undertaking to the Emperor Charles V. He arrived at Valladolid, where his majesty then was, about 1517, and his proposals were listened to with attention and respect.
* Irving's Columbus. Appendix, No. xii. vol. iv. P.
205_212. See also Burney's Discov. in the South Sea, i. 45-48.
+ Conquest of the Philippine Islands. The principal authorities for the yage of Magellan are Herrera, Barros, and Pigafetta. This last author, a native of Vicenza in Italy, accompanied the expedition. From an imperfect copy of his narrative, an account was compiled by Purchas, vol. i. book i. chap. ii. The first perfect
We are told by Herrera that he brought with him a globe fairly painted, on which he had described the lands and seas, and the track he meant to pursue, but carefully left the strait blank, that they might not anticipate his design. This precaution (if the tale is to be credited) was a bitter satire on the little faith to be reposed in the honour of princes, but it was not used without good reason ; for Magellan had before him the example of John II. of Portugal, who, having gathered from Columbus the theory of his great project, with singular edition was published from a manuscript in the Ambrosian Library, by C. Amoretti :-“ Primo Viaggio intorno al globo terracqueo. Milano, 1800.” This has since been translated into the French and English languages. In the “ Historical Collection of the several Voyages and Discoveries in the South Pacific Ocean, by Alexander Dalrymple,” London, 1769, will be found translations of Herrera, Barros, and Gaspar, arranged in a manner that much facilitates a comparison between their varying statements. It is to be regretted that Dalrymple has only treated of the voyage of Magellan down to his try into the Pacific. Burney has diligently examined all the authorities with his usual acumen and perseverance, and has woven the whole into a comprehensive and discriminating narrative.
meanness, secretly despatched a vessel to make the attempt, and rob the discoverer of his honours.
The emperor, on considering the proposals of Magellan, was so much gratified as to confer on him several distinctions. Articles of agreement were drawn out to the following effect :- The navigator, and his countryman, Ruy Falero, agreed to reach the Moluccas by sailing to the west; it was stipulated that they were to enjoy a ten years' monopoly of the track which they explored, and to receive a twentieth part of all the revenue and profits, which, after deducting the expenses, should accrue from their discoveries. He was also to enjoy the title of Adelantado over the seas and lands he should happen to make known. Certain privileges of merchandise were conceded to him and his associate, including a fifth part of all that the ships should bring home in the first voyage: the emperor agreed to furnish for the expedition five vessels, two of 130 tons, two of ninety, and one of sixty; and this fleet was to be victualled for two years, and provided with 234 men.
These articles were concluded in Saragossa, and Magellan then repaired to Seville, where, in the church of Santa Maria de la Vitoria de Triana, the royal standard of Spain was formally delivered to him; and he took a solemn oath that he would perform the voyage with all faithfulness as a good vassal of the emperor. His squadron was composed of the Trinidad, the San Antonio, the Vitoria, the Concepcion, and the Santiago; but the period of sailing was retarded by the interference of the Portuguese king, who threw every obstacle in the way of the enterprise which he himself had not either the spirit or the generosity to encourage. He even endeavoured to entice Magellan from the Spanish service by promises of more advantageous terms. Fail. ing in this, he is supposed to have countenanced various reports which were circulated against the fame of the adventurer; while others among his countrymen predicted, that “ the King of Spain would lose the expenses, for Fernando Magalhanes was a chattering fellow, and little reliance to be placed in him, and that he would not execute what he promised.”
At length this renowned leader sailed from San Lucar on the 20th, or, according to some accounts, on the 21st of September 1519. His first destination was the Canary Islands, where he stopped to take in wood and water; and on the 13th December following he came to anchor in a port, which was named Santa Lucia, in 23degrees of south latitude, and on the coast of Brazil. This has sometimes been supposed the Rio de Janeiro of the Portuguese ; but modern observation does not confirm the opinion. The natives appeared a confiding, credulous, goodhearted race, and readily gave provisions in exchange for trifling wares; half-a-dozen fowls were obtained for a king of spades, and the bargain was considered to be equally good by both parties. Pigafetta says,
They were very long lived, generally reaching 105 and sometimes 140 years
Weighing anchor on the 27th, the squadron sailed southward, and, on the 11th January 1520, reached Cape Santa Maria on the Rio de la Plata, where they took in supplies. Near this place Juan Diaz de Solis about five years before had been murdered by the natives, on which account they kept at a distance from their visiters. Putting again to sea,
* Herrera, dec. ii. lib. iv. cap. x.
and touching at different places, the fleet, on Easter Eve, came to anchor in a port which was named San Julian; and there Magellan remained five months. Discontent, and at last open mutiny, broke out in his ships, the ringleaders being certain Spanish officers, who felt mortified at serving under a Portuguese commander. The first step taken to restore order, however much it might accord with the character of that rude age, cannot be reconciled with our notions of honourable conduct: a person was despatched with a letter to one of the captains, with orders to stab him whilst he was engaged in reading it. This commission being unscrupulously executed, and followed up by measures equally prompt in regard to the other mutineers, the authority of the captain-general was soon fully re-established.
While the fleet lay in this harbour, the Santiago, one of the ships, made an exploratory cruise; and on the 3d May, the anniversary of the Finding of the Holy Cross, discovered the river named Santa Cruz. Having advanced about three leagues farther to the south, the vessel was wrecked, though the crew, after suffering very great hardships, ultimately rejoined the squadron. The long period which they passed on that coast enabled the Spaniards to form an intimate acquaintance with the natives. They had at first conduded that the country was uninhabited; but one day an Indian, well made and of gigantic size, came capering and singing to the beach, throwing dust upon his head in token of amity. A seaman was forthwith sent on shore, and directed to imitate the gestures of this merry savage, who was of such immense stature, says Pigafetta, that a middle-sized Casti. lian only reached to his waist. He was large in