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The WONDERS of the PEA K. Jan. pliment, My lord, when I return to my own run thro' the adjacent meadows. Near country, and come to reckon up the days of my this place are marble stones, orderly dircaptivity in Englard, I shall leave out those I pored in several rows by mere nature. bave spent at Ck atsworth.

These are by some reckoned another won2. Main-Tor, or Mam-Tor, a moun- der of the Peak. Carleton, mot far from tain near Castleton, under which are se- hence, has a castle on the top of a steep veral lead-mines.' This hill almost per- rock, but of no use for ornament or depetually shivers down earth and great A fence. stones with such a noise, be the air never 5: Wendon-Well, near Tiddeswell, a do calm, that it often frightens the inha- yard broad and deep, but cbbs and flows bitants ; yet they never observe the hill ;

irregularly 3 quarters of a yard, as the to grow less, which is ascribed to its air is suppored to push the water from the great breadth, that tho' it is daily dimi- subterranean cavities; and when it ebbs; nished, it is not discernible. By this it makes a noiic. continual falling of earth and stones, 6. Pool's-Hole, a cave at the foot of a another hill is formed at the bottom, and large mountain, with a very shallow enboth together they call the Mother and B trance : But those who have crept in fay, the Daughter.

that after some paces it opens to a vast 3Elden-Hole, a frightful and terrible height, like the roof of a large cathedral; chasm, 7 yards broad, and 14 long. Its and in a hollow cavern on the right hand, moutli is very craggy, and it is reckoned called Pool's Chamber, there is a confibottomless, the depth having never yet

derablc echo. In this cavity are great been found, tho often attempted. Wa- ridges of stone, and many surprizing reter tickles down from its top, which pre- presentations of art and nature, produced fently congeals into icicles; and stones, C by the petrifying water continually dropwhen thrown in, make a noise like thun- ping from the rock; as, the figures of der for a long time, which leffens by de- fret-work, organ and choir-work, of men, grees, till the sound is loft. Mr. Cotton, lions, dogs, and other animals. Here is in his poem on the wonders of the a column, called Mary queen of Scot's Peak, tells a most dismal story of a gen- pillar, because she went in so far : It is as tleman who got two guides to conduct clear as alabaster ; and beyond it there is him thro' this country (as is the common a steep ascent for near a quarter of a mile, way of travelling here) and they being that terminates near the roof in an holallured by his portmantua, imagining D low, called the Needle's-Point, in which there was something valuable in it, under when the guide places his candle, it looks pretence of his travelling more safely in to those below like a star in the sky. If this craggy country, advised him to alight a pistol be fired near the queen's pillar, from his horse, and so conducting him to it is resounded by the rocks as loud as a Elden-Hole, which he knew nothing of, cannon. Those who go in, return by pushed him hcadlong in; as one of them, another way, over many small currents of being ftung by the agonies of his consci

Near this place is a small clear ence on his death-ved, voluntarily con- E brook of hot and cold water, fo united feffed. The same author, concerning the into one stream, that a man may put tlie unfathomable depth of this hideous chasm, thumb and finger into both at once. has there words :

7. The Devil's-Arse, or the Peak'sI myelf, with half tbe Peak surrounded,

Arre, a wide cavern under the hill near Ligbi burdred fourfcore and four yards bave

Cattleton : It is large at the entry, but founded;

more contracted within : The top is very And ibo' of ibefe fourfcore came up wet,

high, and resembles a graceful arch, cheThe plunimet drew, and found no bottom yet. F and continually drops water, which pe

quer'd with tones of different colours, 4. Buxton-Wells, so called from the trifies. Here are several small buildings, town, where they rise out of a rock, where poor people live, with candles and within 8 or 9 yards of one another. They lanthorns to show ftrangers the place. are medicinal springs, S of them warm, The cave, after one is in a little, is dark fulphurous and saline, and the gth very and Nippery, because of a curreut of wacold. They are palatable, create appetite, ter under foot ; and the rock hangs so open obstructions, are good in fcorbutick low, that one is forced to stoop. Having rheumatisms, ditempers of the nerves, G passed this place, and a brook, that someand most diseases. They are inclosed times cannot be waded, the arch opens with a fair stone building, and form a bath again, and here is a second current with of a temperate heat, much frequented in large banks of fand. Then onc comes to summer; and here are good accommoda- a third current, which is impatlable, and tions for those of quality. The waters the rock closes.



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g JOURNAL of the Proceedings and Debates

in the POLITICAL CLUB, continued from the APPENDix of last Year's MAGAZINE, Page 590.



ally been burdened with this expence. ifhall now give you a Debate which Now, as the provision for the staff is

we had in our Club upon this Quef- generally brought in, as an article in tion, Whether the Sum of 16000l. gross, in our estimate for the army Thould be granted for the Pay of and as I last year observed, that this the General and Staff-officers for article exceeded what has formerly his Majesty's Land - Forces * ? A been granted in time of peace for Which Debaté was opened by T. this purpose, I thought it was inSempronius Gracchus, in Substance cumbent upon this house to inquire as foliows.

into the cause of this exceeding,

which was the reason for my moving Mr. President,

to have this article of the staff par.

ticularly fiated, and brought in as an S the estimate now under B estimate by itself alone. consideration was at my As to the civil part of the staff I have

desire brought in separately, nothing to say against it, Sir, I shall and as it was too late, when this reso. at pretent make no objection to it ; lution was agreed to in the commit- but as to the military, I think it not tee, to trouble you with what I had only unnecessary but dangerous. To to say upon the subject, I now think have in time of peace a captain ge. myself obliged to give my reasons C neral, with all the parade attending for having it brought in distinct from

that high office, looks more like a any other article, and my reasons military than a civil government ; for thinking that this resolution ought and may now, as it has done hereto. not to be agreed to. This branch of fore, put an end to our constitution, publick expence, which is called the by drawing in all the other parts of itaff, confiits, as gentlemen will see

our government within the whirl, by che estimate now before us, of D pool of its own power. I have not two parts, which are in their nature seen this captain general's commission very different, the one being a civil, nor would I move for it, because of the other a military establishment. the ill luck I had last session in my mo. The civil establishment consists of a tion for the commission of the master provision for certain officers, who, general of the ordnance t. But though they have a concern with whatever his commission may be, his our army, yet are by their employ. E power will be much the same with ment mere civil officers ; and this that which the lord high constable of continues in time of peace as well as England had of old, only it will be war, and amounts to a little above much more dangerous : The high 10,000 l. a year. The other is a constable had by his office the power provision for a captain general, feve- over the military ; but what was ral inferior generals, aid-de-camps then our military, Sir? It confitted and the like, which can be of no use F of our great barons, or lords of in time of peace, and therefore in

great manors, and their tenants : such a time this nation has not usu- These were then our officers, there E of E

were then our soldiers : Of chete our January, 1752.


armies See Lorder. Mæazine for last year, p: 367; 410.

# See London Magazine for 1759, p. 459.

10 PROCEEDINGS of the POLITICAL CLUB, &c. Jan. armies consisted ; and as the officers cuting all the sentences of the court; were not removeable at pleasure, and but our captain general has not only the men under their command had a the nomination of all the judges in natural dependence upon them, they our modern courts-martial, but the could dispute the commands of the execution of all their sentences, withconstable, they could disobey, if they out controul. Then as to the men thought his commands contrary to A subject to our modern courts martial, law, or inconsistent with the safety who are they? They are either offiof the sovereign. And what made cers whose commissions depend enthis office still less dangerous, was, tirely upon the pleasure of the capthat it was often hereditary; and tain general, and who have no naconsequently might often happen to tural influence upon the men under be in a man who had no military their command ; or they are soldiers knowledge or character, nor any B who dare never dispute, much less influence in our armies. Yet, not- disobey the orders of the captain withstanding all these disadvantages, general, let them be never so illegal, fuch was the power of this high let them be of never such dangeroffice, that it often became oppressive ous consequence to their sovereign, upon the people, so oppressive, that If he should order a party to go and at lafè an act of parliament became bring the fovereign from St. James's neceiiary, in the reign, I think, of C to the head quarters, no man comRichard II. for circumscribing its manded upon that party durft dispower; which act, in the preamble, obey : If any did, they might be recites, that the commons had made tried and condemned by a courtgrievous complaint of the incroach- martial, and shot by the captain ments made upon the common law, general's orders, in a few hours. In by the court of the constable and Ihort, by a dexterous management, marshal

. And tho the jurisdiction D and a sudden modelling of the army, of this court was by this act confined the captain general might bring his to military affairs only, yet the sovereign into the same condition power of this high officer continued that Henry III. was in the army of to be so extenfive, that it was thought the earl of Leicester, or Henry VI. to be of dangerous consequence to the in the hands of the Yorkists; and crown itself, for which reason it was the same pretence can never be at last, in the reign of Henry VIII. E wanting, which was that of taking entirely laid aside, and never since or keeping the king out of the hands granted but for a particular purpose, of evil counsellors. and for that purpose alone.

Let us consider, Sir, what an exNow, Sir, with regard to our tenfive power the captain general captain general, he has the same has by the nature of his office : He power, I suppose, over the military, must have the sole disposal of, or at that the high conftable had of old , F least the chief recommendation as to but his power will be much more all commissions in the army: He absolute and arbitrary both over our may treat with enemies, pardon courts-martial, and over every man rebels, appoint courts.martial, and subject to those courts. As to courts. sign the dead warrant for the exemartial, the conttable's power was cution of the highest officer under limi:ed by the lord marshal of Eng. his command ; and then, by the naland, who was likewise a great ofi-G ture of our modern discipline, every cer entirely independent of the con- man in the army mult shew the 1table, and who with the consta- highest respect to his person, and the ble as a judge in the court, and was molt implicit obedience to his comthe proper supreme officer for exe. mands. No man dare so much as


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