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As it never was the interest, so neither was it in fact the inclination, of the English people to break the bonds of union with their American brethren, until seduced thereto by the arts of designing men. Their motives I leave to themselves; they will be revealed in their day. Had the English people been equally represented in an annual Parliament, that Parliament, acting in strict conformity with the interests of its constituents, would have seen, that every consideration required, that the bond of union between the countries should be preserved in violate. It would have perceived, that those restrictions, which were the offspring of the occasion, or suggested by narrow systems of policy, ought to have been removed, the moment that they occasioned the first murmur of complaint. But, unhappily for England, the love of arbitrary sway so far operated upon those, who most are exposed to its temptations, as to engage them in the desperate measure of deluding one half of the empire, in order to subjugate the rest.

The period of this delusion, however, is now rapidly advancing to its termination. Calamity has brought home the perception of the consequences, attendant upon national error, to every private breast. It has taught us wisdom, and has begun to humanize our hearts. The many are now ready to exclaim, in the expressive language of Scripture, “We are verily guilty concerning our brother, in that we saw the anguish of his soul when he besought us, and we would not hear; therefore is this evil come upon us." But although the people are disposed to accommodation, a mighty power continues to oppose itself to the general wish. And, were the aristocratic strength of our constitution to prevail in its conflict with that power, I am far from being satisfied, that a general and permanent pacification would be the result. The restoration of the English constitution to its primeval purity appears to be an essential preliminary to an honorable and lasting peace.

Peace and war are relations, which the inhabitants of different countries stand in to each other. In this sense the people of America are not at war with the people of England. The latter, having lost their power of self-government, are merely the instruments of administration. The present war is a war between the people of America and the administration of this country. Were the inhabitants of this country restored to their elective rights, and other constitutional franchises, a state of peace would immediately ensue.

l'pon this idea alone can America have a proper security for the due observance of that solemn compact, which I should rejoice to see established between my native country, and her free and independent States. The supporters of the septennial bill, at the time that ruinous and unconstitutional measure took place, strong. ly insisted upon the advantage that would ensue from that increased confidence, which foreign nations would thenceforth repose in us, on account of the consequent stability of our public counsels. Experience has shown this measure to have been founded in policy the most unwise. Reason surely dictates, that the confidence, which nations repose in each other's public counsels, must be the greatest, when the agents speak the real sentiments of their constituent bodies.

It is also to be considered, that the changes of sentiment, in the constituent body of the nation, must unavoidably be gradual, as general interest, always slowly unveiling itself, shall direct. Whereas the agent, who has a permanent estate in his office, will vary his conduct in conformity to the quick revolutions of those

numerous temptations, to which views of private interest, and prospects of power, hourly expose him. For England therefore to be free, and to regain the confidence of nations, her Parliaments must be free and independent; and the same measure, which gives independency to the English Parliament, will, under God's providence, restore to us peace with America and with all the world.

I write not thus, induced thereto solely from an attachment to my native soil; the world is my country; and the region, which is the seat of freedom, has in my eyes charms more attractive than my native soil. I write not thus from an attachment to a favorite measure, but from a full conviction, that such a preliminary as I have mentioned, being inserted in every proposition for peace on the part of America, would lay a lasting foundation for that peace; and would be a perpetual security that the independence, which America so justly claims, and in the establishment of which every nation under Heaven is interested, would never be brought into question to the end of time.

The sum and substance of what I urge is this; that, as a more equal representation of the English people, in annual Parliaments, is a point essential to the restoration of our freedom; it is equally essential, as a foundation for a federal union with the American States.

After all, the changes in the affairs of men, whether they be revolutions in the fortunes of nations, or of individuals, are in the hands of Providence; and are directed by its resistless power to the general good. That good will finally prevail, whatever the hearts and heads of politicians may devise. The only differences will be, a difference in the time and manner in which the ends of Providence are brought to pass; and a


difference in the final fate of those, who are employed as the means of their accomplishment. The fell destroyers of their species shall see their measures, though planned with Machiavelian policy, and for a time successful, finally abortive, failing in the attainment of the evil wished for, and productive of the good they hate.

On the contrary, if virtue, honor, zeal for the interests of our country and of human kind, form the outline of the character, the agent of Heaven will be renowned in his day; and long futurity, through every successive age, shall impart increase of glory. The joys of self-complacency shall gild the evening of his days. They will also be the earnest of a happiness,

which will know no bounds. I am, &c.

FROM JOHN ADAMS TO B. FRANKLIN, Amsterdam, 4 November, 1780. SIR, M. de Neufville this morning brought to me a number of bills of exchange, drawn upon Mr. Laurens, in the month of July, amounting to seven or eight hundred pounds sterling, and informed me, that your Excellency had declined becoming responsible for them, and referred him to me. I have inquired of Mr. Searle, who informs me, there are about twenty thousand pounds in such bills now on their way. If there were only seven or eight hundred pounds, I would accept them for the honor of the United States, and run the venture of being able to pay them, by borrowing, or some way or other; but twenty thousand pounds is much beyond my private credit. I have been and am, pursuing all those measures to which I am advised by gentlemen in whose judgWOL. VIII. 65

ment I can justi.y placing confidence, and am not without hopes of succeeding in some measure; but I have not as yet been able to obtain any money, nor any certainty of obtaining any in future. I write this, therefore, to your Excellency, that, if you could see your way clear to become responsible for these bills for the present, I will engage to see them paid with the money I may borrow here, if I borrow enough before the term for their payment expires, or as much of them as I shall be able to borrow; but in this case, if I should not succeed in obtaining the money, your Excellency will be answerable. I should be sorry that the credit of the United States should suffer any stain, and would prevent it if I could ; but at present it is not in my power.

The successes of the English at the southward, added to the many causes that obstructed our credit in this republic before, some of which it would not be prudent to explain, will render a loan here difficult; but I still hope not quite impracticable. I have the honor to be, &c.




Requesting Relief for Mr. Laurens, Prisoner in

the Tower.

Passy, 7 November, 1780. SIR; I understand that Mr. Laurens, an American gentleman, for whom I have a great esteem, is a prisoner in the Tower, and that his health suffers by the closeness and rigor of his confinement. As I do not think

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