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was followed to the grave by a procession said to be a quarter as counsel for the defence; but at length John Adams, a of a mile long, and every circumstance was employed to repre- young lawyer, undertook the office, and made the case so sent the affair as one in which the English were concerned. plain, that not only captain Preston, but all the soldiers
Lieutenant-governor Hutchinson exerted bimself to form were acquitted, except two, who had fired without orders, an association amongst the traders in opposition to these and these were convicted only of manslaughter. The five anti-importers, but he tried in vain. Upon the death of judges concurred so fully in the verdict, that judge Lynde, Snider, which took place in February, the compulsory pro- in their behalf, declared from the bench that he was happy ceedings of the mob paid for by the leaders becaine more to find the conduct of captain Preston so excellent, and, at stringent than ever. They insisted that the merchants the same time, “deeply concerned that the affair turned who had imported goods in their shops and warehouses out so much to the disgrace of every person concerned should be compelled to ship them back to those who had against him, and so much to the shame of the town in sent them. One merchant, more stubborn than the rest, general." was immediately waited on by a deputation, headed by an The arrival of the news of lord North's repeal of all the axeman and a carpenter, as if prepared to behead and bury duties, except tea, produced little effect on the minds of the him; and he was told that a thousand men awaited his people of Boston. They declared that the unconstitutional decision, and they could not be answerable for his safety if principle was the real offence, and that it was still retained. he refused to comply.
The people of New York, however, had long inclined to Under this reign of mob tyranny there was nothing for it gentler measures They agreed to import all other articles but compliance. Yet, amid all this, it was whispered that except tea. Pennsylvania and other colonies followed their John Hancock, and others of the very firmest opponents to example; and they declared that they who wanted tea must importation, were secretly importing themselves, or were smuggle it. The more fiery patriots declared against this allowing others to do it in their vessels. The people of New lukewarmness; but the desire for the English goods was so York, who would willingly have followed a gentler course, great that, during the years 1770 and 1771, the importaand had been sharply upbraided for it, and styled back- tions were greater than they had ever been. Nevertheless, sliders and no patriots, now retorted on the Bostonians re- though the colonies appeared returning to order and proaches as vehement, coupled with the name of “pedlars." obedience, the efforts of the republican party never relaxed,
The animosity against the soldiers at Boston was actively and, especially in Massachusetts, there was a tone of sullen kept up. The sentinel could not stand at his post with discontent. “Liberty poles” were still erected; exciting out insult. Every day menaced a conflict. The fictitious harangues were delivered on the anniversary of "the masaccount of an affray betwixt the soldiers and the people of sacre," and the assembly continued to manifest a stubborn New York was circulated at Boston, in which the soldiers resistance to the will of the lieutenant-governor. were beaten. This gave immediate impetus to the aggres- On the 19th of May the parliament was prorogued; but, sive temper of the Bostonians. On the 2nd of March, a before the prorogation, alderman Beckford, now again lord soldier, insulted by the men at Gray's rope-walk, resented mayor, heading the corporation of London, presented a it; they came to blows, and the soldier was overpowered. strong petition to the king at St. James's. Wilkes, who was He fetcbed up some of his comrades, who, in their turn, beat now out of prison, was soon an alderman of the city, and a and chased the rope-makers through the town. The passions new impulse was given to the popular tendencies of the metroof the mob were inflamed, and they began to arm themselves politan corporate body. The petition now presented prayed for an attack on the soldiery. In a few days the crowd as- that parliament might be dissolved, and contained a protest sembled and assaulted a party of them in Dock square. The against every vote of the commons as invalid since the officer prudently withdrew them to the barracks. As the rejection of Wilkes. It complained also of a secret and evening advanced, the mob increased. They cried, “ Turn malign influence at court. The reply of the king, as preout, and do for the soldiers !” They attacked and insulted pared by the minister, was one of firmness and displeasure. a sentinel at the Custom House. A party of soldiers was The commons resented the language of the corporation to sent by Captain Preston to the officers on duty to protect the throne, and passed a strong vote of censure on the prothe man. The mob pelted them with pieces of wood, lumps ceeding. But this only roused the corporation to present a of ice, &c., and denounced them as cowards, red-lobster rascals, second address and remonstrance on the 23rd of May, when bloody-backs, and the like. The soldiers stood to defend no parňament was sitting to comment on it. In this the Custom House till they were fiercely attacked, and at address they expressed theinselves extremely loyal, and length they fired in self-defence, killed three persons, and regretted that the king should feel displeasure towards them wounded several others—one mortally.
for the discharge of their duty. The king, in his prepared To prevent further carnage, a committee of the townsmen reply, answered that the sentiments he had uttered conwaited on the governor and council, and prevailed on them tinued unchanged. to remove the soldiers from the town to Castle William. At the close of the royal reply, Beckford, contrary to all The successful rioters carried the bodies of the killed in pro- custom, and to the consternation of the courtiers, stepped cession, denounced the soldiers as murderers, and spread the forward, and addressed the king in an extempore speech. most exaggerated accounts of the affray through the news. The king was taken by surprise ; and Beckford went on papers, under the name of the massacre." Captain Preston expressing, on the part of the city, the most profound and his men were arrested and put upon their trials before a loyalty and affection; and adding that, should "any man jury of the irate townsmen. Nobody, for a time, would act dare to insinuate to the contrary, or attempt to alienate his majesty's affections from them, that man is an enemy to your Spain regarding the Falkland Islands, which led to the very person and family, a violator of the public peace, and a verge of war. These islands, situated in the South Atlantic, betrayer of our happy constitution, as it was established at to the east of the Straits of Magellan, consist of two larger the glorious revolution."
ones, called East and West Falkland, and eighty-eight The king, who had no written answer to this abnormal smaller ones. The Western Falkland is much the largest, address, remained silent, but offered the corporation the being nearly one hundred miles long by fifty wide. The two usual civility of kissing hands on their retirement. No larger isles are divided by a channel called Falkland Sound. sooner were they gone, however, than an order was issued They were probably seen by Magellan, but Davis is deemned through the medium of the lord chamberlain, that lord mayors the discoverer of them in 1592, and they were further exin future would confine themselves to their written ad-amined by sir Richard Hawkins in 1694. The French paid dresses. The court complained in high language of the loud them a visit in 1710, and called them after their native and insolent tone in which Beckford had pronounced his port, St. Malo, “Isles Maloinnes." In 1764 the French, startling speech, whilst Beckford himself protested to his under Bougainville, made a settlement on them on Falkfriend, lord Chatham, who was supposed to have written land Sound; but Spain putting in a claim that these isles the first outspoken address, that he had expressed himself were part of her South American territory, Choiseul, the with all duty and humility. Chatham warmly applauded French minister, abandoned the settlement, and the Beckford's bold and unusual conduct, and his speech was Spaniards changed its name from Port Louis to Port Soledad. wonderfully admired in the city. The corporation, offended The very next year, 1765, commodore Byron was sent to at the king's language to them, were much inclined to omit form a settlement on another of the islands, which he the usual compliment of an address on the birth of the named Port Egmont, in honour of lord Egmont, first lord princess Elizabeth, which occurred on the 22nd of May; but of the admiralty. The islands are cold and miserable, and Chatham strongly urged them to comply, both from as we had no Australian settlements at that time for them loyalty and good policy, with the custom. The presentation to serve as a place of resort in distress to our traders of this address, however, was immediately followed by one to returning by the Pacific, they appeared as useless a possesChatham, for his patriotic conduct in parliament, which sion as could possibly be imagined, and were maintained at took place on the 1st of June.
what appeared a most unprofitable charge. This was the last public act of alderman Beckford. The Such were the distant islets to which, in 1769, Spain began agitation of his feelings at his daring breach of etiquette on to assert her claim, probably to provoke England to a war the 23rd of May, is said to have hastened the breaking up of with the whole house of Bourbon again, which they imagined, his health. On the 15th of June, Calcraft informed Chatham from our quarrel with our North American colonies, and the that he was dangerously ill, and on the 21st he died. Beck- assertions of the opposition regarding the inefficient condiford's enormous wealth passed to his son, then a boy, and tion of our navy, that we were not much disposed to enter the god-son of Chatham, who lived to distinguish himself in upon. The governor of Port Soledad sent repeated messages a very different way to that of his father. He was the to Captain Hunt, of the Tamar, stationed at Port Egmont, builder of the fantastic but princely Fonthill, the decorator of requiring the abandonment of the place. Captain Hunt Ramalhao, and the writer of the strange eastern story, replied by asserting the right of his Britannic majesty to * Vathek," and other works; equally noted for his eccen. the islands. When the notices were succeeded by threats, tricity and luxury.
Captain Hunt sailed home to lay the matter before his Alderman Trecothick was appointed to supply Beckford's government. He landed at Portsmouth in June, 1770, and place during the remainder of the mayoralty-a man of made known the Spanish interference to the cabinet. nearly as democratic a character as Beckford himself, and, Meantime, the Spaniards, taking advantage of Hunt's what was equally significant at this juncture, an American absence, had, about the time that he arrived in England, merchant. The corporation ordered the statue of Beckford dispatched to the Falklands Buccarelli, the governor of to be placed in the Guildhall, and his words, addressed to Buenos Ayres, with five frigates and one thousand six the king on the 23rd of May, to be inscribed on the pedestal, hundred men. Having entered the port on pretence of which was done.
wanting water, and finding the Tamar absent, and only two Beckford was soon followed to the grave by the marquis armed sloops there, and a mere handful of soldiers, Bucof Granby and George Grenville, who died in the autumn of carelli landed his force, and, after the firing of a few shots this year. The latter did not live to see the result of that for form's sake, the English surrendered, and were permitted policy of taxation on the Americans which was begun with to depart with all the honours of war. This departure, his stamp act, and, if we are to believe his last speech on that however, was delayed till Spain had time to convey the subject, the pernicious nature of which he was fast gathering news to London in their own way. This was, that the a consciousness of. In the month of March previous to his Spanish court had taken no concern in this little affair, but death, he said, “Nothing could ever induce me to tax that the governor of Buenos Ayres had thought proper to America again but the united consent of king, lords, and insist on the English quitting an island which rightfully commons; and, supported by the united voice of the people belonged to Spain. This was the mode in which prince of England, I will never lend my hand towards forging Masserano, the Spanish ambassador in London, communicated chains for America, lest, in so doing, I should forge them the matter to the English court. In the month of October, for myself.”
captain Maltby, of the Favourite, sloop of war, arrived During the recess of parliament, a dispute occurred with with the real account of the matter and the little garrison.
The excitement, both at court and in the country, was Chatham hotly opposed this : the utmost noise and confusion far beyond the then apparent value of the islands ; but there ensued, amid which the motion was carried. The same day had been an insult to the English flag, and both government a similar motion was made in the commons, to clear it of and opposition demanded expiation. Lord North displayed peers and all, but was negatived, as was a motion by a bold and determined tone on the occasion. Orders were Dunning to search the journals of the lords, to see what sent over to the British ambassador, at Madrid, to demand was done on the days that they cate with closed doors. The an instant disavowal of Buccarelli's act, and instant people were excessively indignant at the attempt to deprive measures were taken for war, in case of refusal. Ships them of the publication of the debates in parliament, and were refitted, their commanders named ; stores were put Chatham and the opposition fomented this feeling as much on board, and orders for pressing men, according to the as possible. On the 15th of December lord George Sackcustom of the time, were issued. But in London these ville, now lord George Germaine, moved for a conference preparations met with resistance from the opposition spirit with the lords on this head, but without effect, though of the corporation. Wilkes and his confederates then supported by Dunning, Burke, Barré, lord George Cavendeclared that press warrants were as gross an invasion of dish, &c. He then moved that all sons of peers, king's the liberty of the people as general warrants. Alderman sergeants, masters in chancery, &c., who were members, Trecothick was not of the opinion of Wilkes, but his term should be summoned to attend their places every day at two of office just now expired, and Brass Crosby, who became o'clock, to assist in carrying bills to the lords. Lord George lord mayor, joined the Wilkes party. The corporation, declared that this was for the honour of the nation, wherewhich had generally found Chatham ready to support them upon governor Johnstone said, he wondered why lord in their opposition to the court, now applied to him for his George should trouble himself so much about the honour of advice. But Chatham, in all cases where the honour of the the nation, when he had been so remarkably negligent of country was at stake, forgot his opposition, and returned his own—alluding to lord George's dismissal from the army, them an answer which startled them. "The city," he said, for his conduct at the battle of Minden. This led to a duel, " respectable as it is, deems of itself as I do not, if they in which nobody was hurt. At this very time, lord George, imagine themselves exempt from question.” And no sooner | as well as Wedderburn and others of the opposition, were in did parliament meet, on the 13th of November, than he treaty with lord North to go over to him. On the 19th advised in his speech in the peers, that the refractory alder- lord Sandwich came into the ministry in place of lord men should be called to the bar of the house and reprimanded. Weymouth, who resigned the seals of secretary of state. That had an instant effect: the corporation submitted, and Lord North, in issuing his budget, announced that we signed the warrants. The warrants, indeed, would never should require nine thousand additional seamen; three have been required, but the sailors remembered too well millions of money if we remained at peace, and nine how shamefully they had been cheated of their prize-money millions if we went to war, so that the land-tax must still at the taking of Havanna.
remain at two shillings in the pound. Chatham, at the same time, managed to maintain his Things, however, seemed tending strongly towards war. popularity in the city, and to strengthen the opposition in Our chargé d'affaires at Madrid, in absence of the ambasmatters where the war was not concerned, by recommending sador, was Mr. Harris, the son of the author of "Hermes." sergeant Glynn, Wilkes's friend, to the recordership, instead He was but a youth of four-and-twenty, but already disof Sir James Eyre, who had greatly offended the city by played much of the talent which raised him to the title of declining to go up with alderman Beckford with the address Malmesbury. He wrote home that the king of Spain and to the king. Chatham also recommended that the freedom some of his ministers were averse to the idea of war, and of the city should be given to Dunning, who, when unprepared for it; but that others were influenced by solicitor-general, had defended the right to petition and Choiseul, the French premier, and demanded a vigorous remonstrate, and through Calcraft, alderman Sawbridge, attack on England. Under the circumstances Harris was and sheriff Townshend, he still commanded a paramount recalled. influence in the city.
But the king of France did not partake the feeling of In opening parliament, the king made the Falkland Choiseul. He wrote to the king of Spain about this time, Islands the prominent topic of his speech, and called upon “My minister wishes for war, but I do not !” In fact, parliament for their advice and assistance. The opposition changes had taken place in the court of France which were complained of remissness in the ministers in not having about to precipitate Choiseul from his long-enjoyed favour. prepared ships earlier to avenge the insult. On the 20th Madame de Pompadour was dead, and the king had become of November the duke of Richmond moved for the produc- deeply enamoured of madame du Barry, now called, from tion of all papers regarding this transaction, and Chatham her extreme beauty, madame L'Ange, but who, in her old rapported the motion in a vehement speech. The debate age, so miserably perished on the scaffold, in the Place de la became extremely hot, but the motion was rejected, and a Concorde. Choiseul was impolitic enough to despise her similar one in the commons on the same day.
influence, and treated her with undisguised hauteur. He So loud were the voices of the opposition on the neglect soon felt the consequence in an order from the king to resign of the ministry of all the naval and military conditions of his office and retire to his estate at Chanteloupe, in offence and defence, of the neglected state of our foreign Touraine. The shock to the insolent minister, who had so outposts, Gibraltar, Minorca, Jamaica, &c., that lord Gower long ruled absolutely in the French court, was the more moved that all strangers be removed from the house of lords. 'unlooked for, because he thought himself now all the more safe from having secured the marriage of the king's heir, his the arbitrary fines and commitments of the house of lorria eldest grandson, with the Austrian archduchess, Marie and court of King's Bench; the mercy of a chaste and pious Antoinette, now in the blaze of beauty, but also doomed prince extended cheerfully to a willing murderer, because to fall by the guillotine. Choise :] was succeeded by the that murderer is the brother of a common prostitute” (Miss triumvirate d’Aiguillon, as foreign minister; Terray, as Kennedy), “would, I think, at any other time have excited minister of finance; and Maupeou, as minister of jurispru- universal indignation. But the daring attack upon the dence; but all subject to the supreme influence of madame constitution, in the case of the Middlesex election, makes us du Barry. Louis XV. thenceforth became a cipher. callous and indifferent to inferior grievances."
The spirit of Choiseul having departed from the French For these daring censures, Woodfall, the printer of the administration, and the king having so unequivocally ex- “Public Advertiser," was tried, and also Almon, the publisher pressed his intention not to go to war, the Spanish court of the “London Museum," a monthly periodical, for reprivt. hastened to lower its tone and offer conciliatory terms. In ing the libel there. Almon was convicted of publishing, December they had proposed, through prince de Masserano, and sentenced to pay a fine of ten marks, and give security to disavow the expedition of Buccarelli, if the English court for his good behaviour for two years, himself in four would disown the menaces of captain Hunt. This was hundred pounds, and two sureties in two hundred pounds promptly refused, and orders were sent to Mr. Harris to each. He moved in vain for a new trial. Woodfall was quit the capital of Spain. He set out in January, 1771, convicted of "printing and publishing only;” but he obbut was speedily recalled ; the expedition of Buccarelli was tained an order for a new trial, on the ground of the phrase disavowed; the settlement of Port Egmont was conceded, “only" being ambiguous. But the circumstance which whilst the main question as to the right of either party to excited the attention and turned the reseptment of both the Falklands at large was left to future discussion. So liberal statesmen and the people was, that lord Mansfield little value, however, did this country attach to the on these trials had instructed the juries to confine themFalkland Isles, that it abandoned them voluntarily two selves to the facts alone, and to leave the question of legality years afterwards. For many years they were forsaken by to the judges. This was properly declared a dangerous both nations ; but in 1826 the republic of Buenos Ayres infringment of the rights of juries, and calculated to make adopted them as a penal colony, and in 1833 the English their verdicts merely the servile echoes of the dicta of the finally took possession of them.
judges. Lord Chatham, on the 28th of November, deWhilst these events had been progressing, the ministry had nounced in the peers this dictation of the judge to the juries. entered into a combat with the grcat unknown political essay- Serjeant Glynn, at the same time, moved in the commons ist, Junius. Junius had advanced from sir William Draper to for an inquiry into the administration of justice in Westthe duke of Grafton, and from the duke of Grafton to the minster Hall, where such unconstitutional instructions could king in his sweeping philippics. In his letter of April 3rd, be given. This occasioned a warm debate, in which Burke, 1770, though addressed ostensibly to the printer of the Dunning, and others, ably defended the public rights. “Public Advertiser," he directly apostrophised the king, and The motion was negatived. The power of the attorneyin that letter, and the following, of May 28th, he was general to file ex-officio information in cases like that of extremely severe on the conduct of the king in sanctioning Almon was strongly called in question by Burke, who, in the prosecution of Wilkes—for sacrificing the affections of the course of a very eloquent speech, drew the following his people merely to surround himself with such creatures as striking character of Junius:—"The myrmidons of the “ North, Barrington, Weymouth, Gower, Ellis, Onslow, court,” he said, “have long been pursuing this Junius in Rigby, Jerry Dyson, and Sandwich," whose names he vain. They will not spend their time upon me, or upon declared to be a satire upon all government. In the letter you, when the mighty boar of the forest, that has broke of May 28th he drew the following daring portrait of the through all their toils, is before them. But what will all king and a picture of the unconstitutional use made of such a their efforts avail ? No sooner has he wounded one, than he character by the ministry :-"A faultless, insipid equality in strikes down another dead at his feet. For my own part, when his character, is neither capable of virtue nor vice in the I saw his attack upon the king, I own my blood ran cold; extreme; but it secures his submission to those persons I thought he had ventured too far, and that there was an whom he has been accustomed to respect, and makes him end of his triumphs. Not that he had not asserted many a dangerous instrument of their ambition. Secluded from bold truths. Yes, sir, there are in that composition many the world, attached from his infancy to one set of persons bold truths by which a wise prince might profit. It was and one set of ideas, he can neither open his heart to new the rancour and venom with which I was struck. But connections nor his mind to better information. A charac- while I expected, from this daring flight, his final ruin and ter of this sort is the fittest soil to produce that obstinate fall, behold him rising still higher, and coming down souse bigotry in politics and religion which begins with merito- upon both houses of parliament. Not content with carrying rious sacrifice of understanding, and finally conducts the away our eagle in his pounces, and dashing him against a monarch and the martyr to the block. At any other period, rock, he has laid you prostrate, and king, lords, and I doubt not, the scandalous disorders which have been commons thus become but the sport of his fury.” Junius, in introduced into the government of all the dependencies of his murderous concealment, was never destined to be hunted the empire would have roused the attention of the public. out by all the incensed orders of the state. The odious abuse and prostitution of the prerogative at The year closed by various changes in the ministry home; the unconstitutional employment of the military; Wedderburn abandoned the opposition, and became solicitor
general; the swearing and blaspheming Thurlow was made consequently the stimulus of both fame and real usefulness attorney-general in the place of Mr. De Grey, who was made was at an end. Chatham says, in a letter :-" The house chief-justice of common pleas. The great seal was taken being kept clear of hearers, we are reduced to a snug party from the temporary grasp of Mansfield, and given to the of unhearing and unfeeling lords, and the tapestry hung honourable Henry Bathurst, who was created baron up.” In the commons, the desire of the ministry to reduce Aspley. Lord Sandwich was placed at the head of the that popular arena to the same condition of insignificanca board of admiralty, sir Edward Hawke resigning; lord produced a contest with the city as foolish and mischievous Halifax succeeded Sandwich as secretary of state, and the in its degree as the contests then going on with Wilkes and earl of Suffolk succeeded Halifax as privy seal. Some of America. George Onslow, nephew of the late speaker, and
tliese changos gave great disgust, but no astonishment to member for Guildford, moved that several printers, who had the opposition, who were but too well accustomed to the dared to report the debates of the house of commons, should ambition of lawyers, and their consequent easy abandon- be summoned to the bar to answer for their conduct. Acment of friends and principles, in the act of climbing. cordingly, these mediums of communication betwixt the
The year 1771 opened under circumstances which greatly people and their representatives were summoned and repridiminished the interest in parliamentary proceedings. As manded on their knees. One of their number, named all reporting was excluded from the house of lords, the chief Miller, however, declared that he was a liveryman of London, speakers there felt that they were no longer addressing the and that any attempt to arrest him would be a breach of the nation, but merely a little knot of persons in a corner, and privileges of the city. The sergeant-at-arms dispatched a
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