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friend of Priestley, at Easy-hill, which they set fire to, and nine gallons. The special constables dispersed the mob for maddened themselves with the wines in the cellar, valued at a time; but going away, to endeavour to save Ryland's three hundred pounds. Whilst drinking, the burning roof house, they left Hutton's unguarded, and the mob broke fell in, and killed several of them. Ryland had been a man into Hutton's warehouse, and ransacked it, and then into active for the best interests of the town, but this had no his house, to which it was attached, gutted it, throwing the weight with the drunken mob; it was enough that he was furniture into the street, and demolishing a very good a dissenter, and must suffer to the cry of “ Church and library. Hutton himself had retired to his suburban villa at king!” Bordesley Hall, the house of another dissenter, Mr. Bennett's Hill, where he was not long safe, but his son Jolin Taylor, was the next assailed. There a gentleman remained on the spot, and did all he could to buy off the cried out that he would give the mob a hundred guineas to mob, and save the property, but in vain. go away and do no harm ; but they shouted “No bribery!! From his house at Bennett's Hill, William Hutton saw bo bribery!" and fell to work. It was soon in full blaze, Bordesley Hall, the mansion of Mr Taylor, in full flames; with the outbuildings and a number of hayricks, after the and, about four o'clock of the morning, now the 16th, house had been plundered. They then marched away, broke arrived the mob at Bennett's Hill. The attempts to burn open the town prison, and liberated the prisoners. About down his house in the town had been prevented by the three o'clock in the afternoon they appeared, drunk and tradesmen, who feared for their own adjoining ones, and who raging, before the paper warehouse of William Hutton, the beat off the rabble ; but at the villa they were more successful. historian of the place, of Derby, and the author of several They broke up the furniture, piled it into heaps, and thus set antiquarian treatises. Hutton was a man who had raised fire to and burnt down this pleasant mansion, with its hiinself from the deepest poverty, for his father was a poor coach-house and stables. Whilst these were burning, the stocking-weaver of Derby. He had found Birminglam mob employed themselves in laying waste liis gardens without a paper warehouse ; had opened one, and, by that and shrubberies, cutting down his trees, which the old man shrewdness and carefulness in business, which are so con- had carried to the spot on his back, and planted with his own spicuous in his Autobiography, and afford a most valuable hands, and trampling on the ornamental grounds which he s'udy for young men, had acquired a competence. He had laid out with love. Amongst the devastators were was not only an honour to the town by his upright throngs of women, swearing that they would not do their character, and great reputation as a self-taught author, but work by halves, and they left the place a desert. They then he had been an active benefactor to it. He had been the adjourned to another country-louse belonging to Mr. John first to establish a circulating library in the town; was Taylor, Moseley Hall, inhabited by lady Carhampton, the always an advocate and co-operator in works and institu- mother of the duchess of Cumberland, a lady very old and tions of improvement, and was the most active and able blind. To show that their vengeance was intended for the commissioner of the court of requests. It was William dissenter, John Taylor, and not for the titled lady, they llutton's constant aim to reconcile the parties that came allowed her to have her furuiture removed; and then they before him, and, without any salary for his trouble, he had burnt down the house, as they had done Bordesley Hall and often the satisfaction of sending away litigious parties the villa at Bennett's Hill. They attacked two other houses reconciled, and that at free cost. But all this did not screen at Moseley Wake Green, and pillaged them, burnt the house him; it was enough that he was a dissenter, and an advocate of Mr. William Russell, a rich dissenter at Showel Green, and of toleration and of liberal principles. Besides, as be observes plundered and damaged the houses of Mr. George Humphries, in his Life," the fatal rock upon which I split was, I never of Mr. Coates, another unitarian minister, of the presbycould find a way to let both parties win!” Accordingly, a terian minister on Balsarr Heath, of a Baptist minister, &c. gentleman, whom Hutton well knew, said to the mob, “If During these disgraceful days, the church -and-king you will pull down Hutton's house, I will give you two party took no measures to prevent the destruction of the guineas to drink, for it was owing to him that I lost a cause property of dissenters. Noblemen, gentlemen, and magisin court."

trates rode in from the country, on pretence of doing their Hutton had been on friendly terms with all parties, and duty, but they did little but sit and drink their wine, and the preachers of both church and chapel were often to be enjoy the mischief. They could have called out the nilitia found at his house. So far was he from sympathising with at once, and the mob would have been scattered like leaves Priestley's controversial zeal, that he says, in his Autobio- before the wind; but they preferred to report the outbreak graphy, that the ardent desire of making proselytes had been to the secretary-at-war, and, after the time thus lost, ibree the bane of the world; and that, if Dr. Priestley chose to troops of the 15th light dragoons, lying at Nottinghiain, furnish the world witb candles, it certainly conferred a lustre were ordered to march thither, which, though they lodo on him, but there was no necessity to oblige every man to thither, fifty-nine miles in one day, to the great damage of carry one; that it was the privilege of an Englishman to their horses, did not arrive till the evening of Sunday, the walk in darkness, if he chose. Yet the mob broke into his 17th, this frightful state of things having lasted five days. warehouse, and demanded money; he gave them all he had, The magistrates, meantime, had contented themselves wih but they insisted on more, and began to carry off his goods issuing very gentle proclamations, in the blandest tenus, and break his windows. He then borrowed more money telling the rioters, whom they styled “friends and brother from his neighbours; but, when the mob had that, they churchmen," that they had done enough; that thưsu demanded drink, dragged him away to a public-house, and gentlemen of the church-and-king party, the real true ran up a score, in his name, of three hundred and twenty- blue," would, by any further violent proceedings, more

offend their king and country than serve the cause of him declared to be no better than selfish murderers. Whilst and the church. They mildly assured them that the losses they attended at the assizes, their lives scarcely seemed safe. already sustained would not have to be ultimately borne by They were publicly abused in the streets, or wherever they the individuals victimised, but by the county at large ; appeared, menaced and cursed. In the very assize-hali that the damages would at least amount to one hundred there were persons who, on seeing Priestley, cried, “ Damn thousand pounds, which “the rest of the friends of the him! there is the cause of all the mischief !” He was church would have to pay.” The whole of their language followed in the streets, especially by an attorney, who tacitly admitted that these drunken demons had really been cursed him furiously, and wished he had been burned with doing acceptable work for the king and country. No riot bis house and books. The favourite toast of the church-andact was read, and even the services of two recruiting parties king party was, “May every revolutionary dinner be in the town, which were offered, and would soon have followed by a hot supper !" and sermons were preached of protected property, were rejected.

the most rampant kind, in which all the old passive On the Sunday, many of the rioters bad drunken them- obedience and non-resistance principles were revived, as if selves into sheer stupidity. Mr. Hutton now venturing the days of the Stuarts and Sacheverel were come back. to return from Tamworth, to which town he had fled, The damages awarded to the sufferers were, in most cases, found the high road and fields scattered with them, like far below their real amount. Hutton was a heavy loser; the dead of an army. Others, however, were still in full | Priestley received three thousand and ninety-eight pounds, activity, and, in their inebriated fury, were mistaking the but he complained that this was two thousand pounds short houses of good churchmen for those of dissenters. They of the extent of his loss. But this deficiency was made up were in the act of breaking into the house of Dr. Wither by the contributions of many sympathising friends. His ing, at some distance from the town, when the light brother-in-law settled on him an annuity of two hundred dragoons arrived. Other parties were ranging about at pounds a-year, and made over to him ten thousand pounds greater distances; they burnt down the dissenting chapel invested in the French funds-a very doubtful security, and the minister's house at Wharstock; at King's Wood, notwithstanding the doctor's admiration of French printhey burnt the meeting-house, and so far had they nowciples. Priestley became, through this persecution, the lost their nicety of distinction, that they there burnt the central object of two violently-opposed parties. On one church parsonage too. In the parish of King's Norton, a hand, he was regarded as a martyr by those of his own manor belonging to the king they professed to be serving, religious and political views. Addresses poured in upon they destroyed pine houses. Other parties were reported to him filled with terms of the warmest condolence and be up in the country, especially towards Hagley and admiration. There were addresses from the committee of Hales-Owen. The colliers of Wednesbury were out, and deputies at Birmingham; from the members of his own were pouring in to Birmingham to join in the plunder. But congregation at the new meeting-house ; from the young the arrival of the light dragoons showed what might have people belonging to it; from the congregation of Mill Hill, been done at first, if the magistrates had been so minded. The Leeds, where he had once officiated, and from many other mob did not stay even to look at the soldiers; at their very places. But those which gratified him most were from the name they vanished, and Birmingham, on Monday morning, Philosophical Society, at Derby, of which Dr. Darwin was was as quiet as a tomb. Government itself took a most president, and from the Academy of Sciences, in Paris, the indifferent leisure in the matter. It did not issue a procla- address of which was written by Condorcet. In this he mation from the secretary of state's office till the 29th, when was termed their “ most illustrious associate," and he was it offered one hundred pounds for the discovery and treated as a great and dauntless opposer of the tyranny of apprehension of one of the chief ringleaders!

kings and aristocrats. The address of the Academy of At the ensuing assizes in August, those rioters who had Sciences was speedily followed by similar ones from almost been apprehended were tried ; some for participating in all parts of France; from the jacobins of Nantes, of Lyons, the outrages near Birmingham, at Worcester, where, how- of Marmande, on the Garonne, of Clermont, in Auvergne, ever, only one was committed. Of those tried at Warwick, of Toulouse, and from the great mother-club of the Rue St. on the 25th of that month, four received sentence of death. Honoré, in Paris. When the national convention met, one Of these five rioters condemned, only three actually suffered; of its first acts was to name him a citizen of the French two received his majesty's pardon. The sufferers by this republic. The revolutionary societies in London and the riot thought the penalty much too trivial. Hutton tells us provincial towns were equally enthusiastic in hailing the that the solicitor of the treasury, who was sent down to great martyr of Birmingham in most eulogistic addresses. conduct the trial, very civilly showed him the list of the These, on the other hand, inflamed all the more the jurymen summoned, and told him he and his friend might hatred of the rampant church-and-king party; and the select any twelve men from it that they chose ; but, on most bitter philippics were fulminated against him. Even looking it over, he found them all church-and-king tories to the methodists, who were always very loyal, and always a man, and returned the paper, saying, “They are all of a professed themselves part of the church, took up the cry sort; you may take what you please.".

against him. He was accused of having said that he would Such, in leed, was the state of public feeling in and never rest till he had pulled down Jesus Christ, as his aroun Birmingham, that the sufferers in the riots were adınirers in France had done. It was natural that the regard d as men seeking the lives of innocent men, who had Birmingham patriot should feel complimented by the vas. only shown th ir loyalty to church and king. They were l importance into which he was raised, but it is difficult to

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imagine, at this time of day, low far even persecution having passed the decree that the clergy should take an oath, could have blinded him to the real character of the serment civique, binding them to obey the civil constitution French revolution. We find him writing, “ How different in all things, proceeded on the 2nd of January of this year are the spectacles that are now exhibited iu France and in to enforce it. A violent discussion took place. The bishops, England! Here bigotry has been potent, and has acquired and vast numbers of the curés, refused to take the oath. new strength. There it is almost extinct. Here the friends The bishops contended that the assembly, in abolishing the of the establishment are burning the meeting-houses of the old provinces and re-adjusting the country in departnıents, diesenters with all the rage of crusaders; while in Paris one had no right to interfere with the ancient boundaries of the of the churches has been obtained by the protestants. It bishoprics. The bishop of Clermont proposed a clause being was opened by one of their ministers to a crowded audience, introduced into the oath expressly exempting the clergy among whom were many catholics, all in tears of joy for the from swearing to obey the civil power in spiritual matters; happy change. The preacher's text was, “The night is far but, though the assembly declared that it was not interfering spent; the day is at hand.' Here we must rather preach with spirituals, it would not consent to this, and passed an from Isaiah 1x. 2: ‘Behold, darkness shall cover the land, order that the bishops and clergy should take the oath pure and gross darkness the people.'"

and simple. Four bishops only took the oath, of whom were The ignorance and bigotry of the English populace, and Lomenie de Brienne, archbishop of Sens, and Talleyrand; all the gross bigotry of the church-and-king party in this the rest, one hundred and thirty-two in number, refused, as country, were disgraceful enough, but they stopped short of well as about eighty thousand curés, and other ecclesiastics, blood. The intolerance of the French mob had already wade professors in colleges, teachers in schools, and other functionmany sanguinary exhibitions, and was on the eve of making aries. The abbé Georgel asserts that not above one in ten many more. The French legislators, though they could of the priests would abandon what hc believed to be his melt into momentary fits of weeping sentiment, held their conscientious duty to the church, and take the serment king with an iron grasp, that was far from an example of civique. Amongst the abbés who took the oath were generous liberality; and everything portended a night of Gregoire, who became bishop of Blois; Lindet, who became terrors, instead of a joyful morning — portended this in bishop of Evreuse; Gouttes, one of the fiercest democrats in symptoms so unequivocal that they did not require the pre- the assembly, who soon succeeded Talleyrand as bishop of science of a Burke to perceive them.

Autun; and Lamourette, who, though he had written Priestley quitted Birmingham and its bigotry, and became “Meditations of the Soul with its God," was not supposed the successor of his deceased friend, Dr. Price, at Hackney: to be very strict in his religious notions. The bishops being there he did not find it much better. His opinions were not elected, it was necessary that they should be consecrated, acceptable to the learned and scientific in London, especially but here arose a difficulty. It had always been considered to the members of the Royal Society, who shunned him. necessary that bishops should be consecrated by a metroHe determined, therefore, to quit England, and take up his politan or archbishop; and of these, only one, Brienne, had residence in America, where he expected more sympathy. taken the oath; and this man, who had scraped together, In this, however, he was deceived. He found very little during his premiership, an enormous fortune by the most religious sentiment in the States; and few, especially, were unscrupulous means, but was not by any means satiated with inclined to his ultra-unitarian notions. His enthusiasm for wealth or dignity, demanded that, in reward for this service, France and French democracy were as little responded to. he should be made primate of the new-modelled church. The Americans had won their independence, and the demo- The assembly, which did not contemplate any such dignity, cratic ardour had subsided. France had shed its blood and refused, and decreed that the services of a metropolitan were spent its money for their enfranchisement, when France had not at all necessary, but that any bishop who had taken the really no money to spare; but all this seemed already oath might consecrate the newly elected ones; for every forgotten, and Priestley was regarded as a spy in the interest district elected under this arrangement its own bishop and of France. “The change," he wrote, in a letter dated curés. Talleyrand was selected to perform this function, September, 1798, “that has taken place is, indeed, hardly and, as he had no fancy for making a laborious journey into credible, as I have done nothing to provoke resent- every quarter of France for this purpose, he ordered them ment; but being a citizen of France, and a friend to that all to attend in Paris; and there, having a tricoloured sash revolution, is sufficient. I asked one of the more moderate over his canonicals, and the bishops elect the same, he couparty whether he thought if Dr. Price, the great friend of secrated them, and sent them down to their new dioceses to their own revolution, was alive, he now would be allowed to ordain the curés who had sworn. The whole matter was come into this country. He said, he believed he would carried through in good earnest. The bishops were installed not." Priestley's latter years were thus darkened: he lost in their cathedrals and their palaces, and the curés in their his wife in 1796, as well as his youngest son; his own health parishes, by detachments of national guards. Once insoon after failed, and he died in 1804 ; expressing, on his stalled, they issued pastoral letters, and, in their sermons, death-bed, his satisfaction in the consciousness of having led praised the national assembly, and represented its proceeda useful life, his confidence in a future state and a happy ings as inspired by God. immortality. An éloge was read by Cuvier before the But it is not to be supposed that the ejected prelates and National Institute, on the news of his death reaching Paris. curés submitted to all this without resistance. They were

Whilst these things had been passing in England, the revo- all in motion to agitate the people, and raise a party lution in France had made great strides. The assembly I amongst them to maintain them in their livings, or to

A.D. :791.)

631 restore them when ejected. They hawked about pamphlets the guards at defiance, and insulted and abused those who from house to house; they entreated, conjured, threatened. persisted in going there. This was probably the church To some they represented the clergy triumphant, the which Dr. Priestley averred that the dissenters had obtained, assembly dissolved, the prevaricating ecclesiastics stripped citing it as a brilliant example of French toleration. of their benefices, and confined in their houses of correc- The two aunts of the king, who were aged and pious tion: the faithful ones covered with glory and loaded with women, were not only alarmed at the position of things in wreaths. The pope was about to launch his anathemas at France, but they were horrified at this desecration of the a sacrilegious assembly, and at the apostate priests. The church, and were anxious to get out of the country, and people, deprived of the sacraments, would rise; the foreign take up their residence at Rome, near the head of their powers would enter France; and that structure of iniquity religion. They knew that the king and the rest of the royal and villany would crumble to pieces. And, indeed, the family were actually contemplating a similar flight, and pope soon issued his anathema against the innovation. they, therefore, applied to Louis for passports, and proposed

The assembly had decreed that the new bishops should to take along with them Madame Elizabeth, the king's not apply to the pope for his bull of recognition of their new sister. Elizabeth, however, was too devoted to the interests appointments; but it permitted them, on the recommend- of her brother and his family to quit him, and Louis, thinkation of Cannes, to send a formal letter to the holy see, ing that his own passports would avail little in protection of announcing the fact, recognising the papacy as the centre of the old ladies, applied to Bailly for municipal passports. catholic unity, and demanding its sanction. To prevent the Bailly refused, and such was the alarm at the idea of the effect of an adverse reply, the assembly interdicted all appeals aged princesses quitting France, that Bailly and a deputato Rome without the authorisation of itself, and declared tion hastened to the king, and represented to him the that all bulls, briefs, or rescripts coming from Rome without agitation amongst the people of Paris, and the necessity of such authorisation, were null and void. But the expelled calming it by forbidding their departure. The city was clergy had sent a vehement appeal to Rome against their filled by the most extravagant rumours. The jacobins ejection; and the pope, in "a doctrinal answer," had declared that some of them had lately reconnoitred Verpromptly replied that the serment civique was impious; that sailles, the Trianon, and the Belle-Vue, the residences of the the whole of the new civil constitution of the clergy was princesses, and that they had found things all in readincss heretical and destructive of the authority of the church; for a general flight. In the stables at Versailles, they said, that the new jurisdictions and appointments were utterly they found seven hundred horses all saddled and bridled, out of order, and the consecrations by the bishop of Autun and prepared for an instant command ; royal portmanteaus sacrilegious. The ejected bishops printed this doctrinal and imperials packed, and the royal arms erased from the answer, and circulated it throughout their dioceses. The king's carriages. They declared that they had positive innational assembly ordered the suppression of this document, formation that the count d'Artois and the emperor Leopold, under the severest penalties against all such as dared to the king's brother, were on the frontiers, waiting to receive circulate it. The interdicted clergy declared that the pope the king, and then march into France with Louis at their was in the hands of the emperor of Austria, and that these head. The jacobin journals sounded a loud alarm. Marat, were not his real sentiments; but the doctrinal letter was never backward in publishing the most daring lies, on the not without effect. A considerable number of country 14th of February, in his L'Ami du Peuple, exclaimed, curés, on reading it, declared that they had been deceived, “These aunts of the king are playing the devil to get away. and retracted the oath they had taken. On a proposition It would be excessively imprudent to let them. In spite of Mirabeau's, it was decreed that all such priests as took of all that has been said by imbecile journalists, these the oath, and then abjured it, should be treated as traitors, women are not free. We are at war with the enemies of the and deprived of their curés; and, accordingly, they were revolution ; we must keep these old nuns as hostages, and seized by the municipalities and thrown into prison. This triple our guard over the rest of the family. It is of the occasioned a fresh rush of emigration, and the ejected greatest importance that a circular letter be immediately bishops, abbés, and curés were soon scattered all over written to all the municipalities to stop them. Citizens ! Europe, many of them came to England, seeking their bread remember that these king's aunts are going to leave behind by teaching their language. In La Vendee, in some of the them debts to the amount of three millions of livres, and to southern departments, and remote districts, where the old earry with them twelve millions in gold. They are going church and royalist notions prevailed, the people resisted to carry off the dauphin, and there will be hoisted up in thu the new law and the soldiers, and maintained their pastors Tuileries a little boy, of the same age and appearance, who in their pulpits, where they continued to declaim fiercely has been in training these eighteen months, for the express against the sworn clergy as heretical intruders, and to purpose of deceiving the public." maintain the good old cause of monarchy. Even in Paris the Roused to fury by these bold invectives, all the patriotesses ejected clergy obtained the church of the Theatin monks, which of Versailles, Sèvres, Meudin, and that neighbourhood, order, like all the rest, had been suppressed; and those turned out and besieged Belle-Vue, the residence of the priests who had not taken the oaths officiated. This excited royal aunts, night and day. The patriots and patriotesses the jacobin club and the mob, who looked on all unsworn of Paris were all in agitation too, and every means were priests as rank rebels ; and, though the assembly assented adopted for stopping these ladies on their journey, by to this use of the Theatin church, and granted a guard of sending information for their arrest all along their route to militia to protect the worshippers, they broke in, setting Lyons, and from Lyons to the frontiers.

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