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quitted the hall, inviting the deputies of their party to dispose of it; but this was not the case. Probi'sly, in the follow them; or, if they stayed, they called out to them to unsettled state of everything, capitalists thought there take no part in the deliberation. The clubbists, forming might yet be some reverse turn of the wheel, and that the through this dereliction of duty a majority of the assembly, church might again reclaim its own. At all events, there carried every resolution that they pleased. The bishops and were few purchasers; but the greater part of those who nobles, firmly believing that the new order of things would farmed the church lands were both indisposed to purchase not last, bastened, with a sort of impatience as it determined it, or to pay rent for it. Probably, like the capitalists at to accelerate both the ruin of the monarchy and their large, they feared that if they paid the rent to the assembly, own. With this senseless conduct they combined an the church might ere long be in a position to demand it a insulting disdain, both of the assembly and the people second time. Under these circumstances, the municipality who attended the sittings. Instead of listening, they of Paris ventured to bid for large quantities of these church laughed and talked aloud, thus confirming the people in the lands. They had themselves but small funds, but they unfavourable opinion which it had conceived of them; and, issued paper money in payment, to be redeemed when they instead of striving to recover its confidence and esteem, they should sell the lands. Provincial municipalities took the strove only to gain its hatred and contempt. All these hint, and purchased in like manner, paying by local notes, follies arose solely from the mistaken notions of the bishops which government circulated in payment of demands upon and nobles, who could not persuade themselves that the it—these demands for the coming year ainounting to four revolution had long been effected in the opinion and in the hundred millions of livres. The government, also taking heart of every Frenchman. By this impolitic obstinacy this hint, issued national notes, called assignats. They they forced the revolutionists beyond the goal which they struck off assignats to the required sum for the year 1790, had set up for themselves. The nobles and bishops then some four hundred millions of livres, and made the church exclaimed against tyranny and injustice. They talked of the property security for the repayment. Thus the seizure of antiquity and legitimacy of their rights to men who had the church property introdaced the famous assignats. The sapped the foundation of all rights."
abbé Maury, the determined and eloquent champion of the Nor were their exertions confined to the assembly out of church, made a violent resistance to this measure, but in doors, but throughout the whole of the kingdom they main- vain. The only effect was to make him so obnoxious to the tained the inveterate opposition. The Breton Club, which, at populace, that he was obliged to carry loaded pistols whenthe time that the king and the assembly had removed to Paris, ever he appeared abroad for self-defence, and, indeed, many had taken possession of the great ball of the convent of the of the anti-popular members of the assembly did the same. Jacobins, in the Rue St. Honoré, and there assumed the Under such circumstances closed the year 1789. The name of the “ Jacobin Club," was in renewed activity, and intense excitement which the rapid course of these French took every advantage of the schism betwixt the popular events had produced in England had nearly superceded deputies and the clergy and noblesse in the assembly. By all other topics of interest. At first, there was an almost this division, and their own daring, they soon subjected the universal jubilation over this wonderful revolution. The assembly to the club, to the Palais Royal, and to the mob. dreadful state of misery and oppression to which France bad The mob found that having the king in their keeping did not been reduced ; the fearful exactions; the system of popular produce any increase of bread, and they continued as turbu- ignorance maintained by priestcraft; the abominable feudal lent as ever. The discontented nobles and clergy fomented insolence; the abuse of lettres de cachet; and the internal the discontent of the people. The officers of the army, who obstructions of customs and barriers betwixt one province belonged to the aristocracy, were easily influenced, and and another, made every friend of freedom desirous of seeing violent quarrels took place betwixt them and the soldiers all these swept away. The early progress of their deswho belonged to the people; and the soldiers frequently truction was hailed with enthusiasm in England. Even the gave up the officers to the mob, who murdered them. In retired and timid poet, Cowper, sang a triumphal note on the provinces the leaven of priestly and aristocratic influence the fall of the Bastille ; but soon the bloody fury of the produced demonstrations in the parliaments against the populace, and the domineering character of the assembly, national assembly. Such was the case at Rouen, Nantes, which did not deigu to stop at the proper constitutional Rennes, Metz, and other places. They deplored the ruin of limits, began to create distrust and aların. Amongst the the ancient monarchy, the restraint put upon the king, and first to perceive and to denounce this work of anarchy rather the violation of the ancient laws. The king appeared to than of reform, was Burke. In common with Fox, and Pitt, favour this policy. The queen complained that the king and many other statesmen, he had rejoiced in the fall of the was not free, and that the life-guards were sent away from corrupt government of France; but he soon began to perceive their proper duty, and that that was done by the national that the people were displaying the same ferocious character guards. La Fayette promised that the life-guards should as in all their former outbreaks. "If," he wrote to M. Menonbe restored, and procured an order from the municipality for ville, a moderate member of the assembly, “any of these this purpose; but the king would not have the life-guards horrid deeds were the acts of the rulers, what are we to think back, lest, as he said, they should be murdered ; but, un of the armed people under such rulers ? But if there be no doubtedly, from the true reason, that he wished to appear a rulers in reality, and the chiefs are driven before the people captive.
rather than lead them; and if the armed corps are comThe national assembly having laid their bands on the posed of men who have no fixed principle of obedience, and enormous church property, thought they should easily I are moved only by the prevalence of some general inclin,
ation, who can repute himself safe amongst a people so was left helpless. Fox replied that he had been mistaken by furious and so senseless ?” As he continued to gaze, he was his most venerated and estimable friend ; that he was no compelled to confess that he saw no great and wise principles friend to anarchy, and lamented the cruelties that had of legislation displayed by the assembly; but that it went on been practised in France, but he considered them the destroying without knowing how to rebuild in a manner likely natural result of the long and terrible despotism which had to last, or to work any one any good. The whole of the con- produced the convulsion, and that he had the firmest hopes stitution-making, which annihilated the royal power, which that the French would yet complete their constitution with erected no second chamber, but absorbed all authority into wisdom and moderation. Here the matter might have the assembly, a mixed and heterogeneous body, he declared to ended, but Sheridan rose and uttered a grand but illbe a bungling and monstrous performance. On theother hand, considered euloguim on the French revolution, and charged Dr. Price, Dr. Priestley, and numbers of equally enthusiastic Burke with being an advocate of despotism. Burke highly men, saw nothing but what was animating in the progress of resented this; he made a severe reply to Sheridan; and, the French revolution. " The Revolution Society," including instead of the benefits which he prognosticated, Burke, with many of the highest names of the whig aristocracy, which a deeper sagacity, declared that the issue of that revolution was accustomed to meet on the 4th of November, to celebrate would be not only civil war, but many other wars. the anniversary of the landing of William III., and the The whig party were in the greatest consternation at this English revolution of 1688, this year presented a glowing sudden disruption of the union of the heads of their party. address of congratulation to the French national assembly, A meeting was held on the night of the 11th, at Burlington which was carried over by lord Stanhope and Dr. Price. House, which did not separate till three o'clock in the mornOf course, they and the address were received with great ing. The result did not appear to have been very satisfactory, acclamation by the assembly. The admiration of the French and the fears of the whigs were greatly augmented by findrevolution spread over this country. Clubs were established, ing Pitt, who had hitherto praised the revolution, now both in London and in the country, in sympathy with it, and express the great obligations of the country to Mr. Burke, the press became very Gallican and republican in its tone, and for the able warning which he had given against revolutionthere was much corresponding with admirers of the revolu- 'ary principles. The king made no secret of his abhorrence tion in France, especially with Thomas Paine, who had now of those principles. He considered the French revolution as transferred himself from America to this new scene of the the direct result of the American one; and, having come to proclaimed “Rights of Man," with a political fanatic des- the conclusion that he had himself erred by too much contined to acquire considerable attention, calling himself Ana- cession, he now censured the concessions of Louis XVI., as charsis Clootz, the orator of mankind, a Mr. Christie, and fraught with certain calamity. All this boded a decided others.
resistance to the spirit of reform at home. There was a We must open the year 1790 by reverting to the affairs of new schism amongst the organs of the press. Many of the England, and of other countries having an influence on newspapers still fostered in their columns the wildest hopes of English interests. The parliament met on the 21st of universal advantage to the cause of liberty from the French January; and, in the course of the debate on the address revolution; but others adopted the opinions and views of in the commons, Fox took the opportunity to laud the Burke—and no few of the whig and Foxite papers were of French revolution, and especially the soldiers for destroying this class. The effect of the alarm at the wild conduct of the government which had raised them, and which they had the French was speedily seen in the refusal to consider the sworn to obey. Burke, in reply, whilst paying the highest repeal of the test and corporation act, which was brought compliments to the genius of Fox, and expressing the value forward by Fox, on behalf of the dissenters, and a motion for which he placed on his friendship, endeavoured to guard the parliamentary reform, introduced by Mr. Flood. Both honse and country against the pernicious consequences of such were strongly opposed, on the ground that this was not the an admiration as had been expressed by Fox. He declared the time to make any changes whilst so riotous a spirit of change conduct of the troops disgraceful; for, instead of betraying was near us, and was so warmly admired by many of our the government, they ought to have defended it so far as to own people. Both motions were rejected by large allow of its yielding the necessary reforms. But the so- majorities. called reforms in France, he said, were a disgrace to the On the 10th of March, by a majority of one hundred and nation. They had, instead of limiting each branch of the fifty-four against twenty-eight, the salary of the speaker of government for the general good, and for rational liberty, the house of commons was raised from about three thousand destroyed all the balances and counterpoises which gave the pounds, which it had hitherto been, through allowance and state steadiness and security. They had pulled down all fees, to six thousand pounds—a very handsome income for things into an incongruous and ill-digested mass; they had sitting on a chair, and crying order! order!" occasionally; concocted a digest of anarchy called the Rights of Man, which especially as, besides this, the speaker, was, as a matter of would disgrace a schoolboy; and had laid the axe to the root custom, presented, on the commencement of a new parliaof all property by confiscating that of the church. To ment, with one thousand pounds for equipment-money, two compare that revolution with our glorious one of 1688, he thousand ounces of plate, and also annually one hundred said was next to blasphemy. They were diametrically pounds for stationery, and two hogsheads of claret. Addingopposed. Ours preserved the constitution and got rid of an ton, the son of Chatham's physician, who was now speaker, arbitrary monarch ; theirs destroyed the constitution, and expressed himself as particularly gratified, as well he might. kept a monarch who was willing to concede reforms, but who ! On the 31st of March Dandas introduced the Indian
budget, and drew one of those incessant rose-hued pictures United States' vessels to remain unmolested. The English of Indian finance and Indian prosperity which this country crew were partly shipped in one of the American vessels to continued to receive, spite of all warnings and all demon-China, and partly suffered to depart in one of their own strations to the contrary, till it was the other day com- ships, after it had been plundered. The Spanish compelled to take the government from the company, and with mander then settled himself in the new colony, and Spain it a tremendous insurrection, and a debt of seventy millions set up a general claim to all coasts and islands, and the sterling!
whole Pacific as far as China. Dundas declared that we had now no rival in India, native Pitt, on the day mentioned, announced these facts, and or foreign, that we need in the least fear, though at the declared that his majesty had demanded satisfaction from very time Tippoo Saib was forming a fresh league with the the court of Spain for the insult to our flag, and for the French, and was determined, if possible, to root the English usurpation of our settlement; but that considerable out of India. He described the finances as in the most armaments were making in the ports of Spain. He called flourishing condition, and referred to a letter of Lord upon the house to address his majesty, imploring him to Cornwallis, the governor, lying on the table, for a promise take all necessary measures for the vindication of our honour of the utmost peace and prosperity. Rising in his imagin | and our rights. Fox naturally expressed his surprise at this ative flight, he declared that England had, according to announcement, after the high assurances of such profound every appearance, a long career of peace and prosperity be- prospects of peace little more than a fortnight before. He, fore her. Never were prophecies of peace, either in India or moreover, asserted, that not only were the ministers fully in Europe, ever more empty and false. Francis rose and aware of all these circumstances at the very moment when told a different story. He declared that the statements of the premier made these statements, but that he had himself Dundas were a most impudent imposture; that there was, been aware of them a considerable time before that. Pitt in fact, no money return from India; that the company endeavoured to explain that all the circumstances were not was increasing its debt rapidly, which, ultimately, would known when he professed such confidence in peace; but fall upon England - a great truth; that the letter of these assertions were clearly as little true as the former, Cornwallis spoke only of hopes of the future; but described for the English government hail received information from the present state of Bengal as most ruinous.
the Spanish government itself, so early as the 10th of the This flourish of trumpets by the chief commissioner of the previous February. Notwithstanding, the house supported board of control was succeeded by a similar one from Pitt, as the government warmly in its determination to resist the it regarded the general affairs of the kingdom. He congratu- enormous claims of Spain, and to compel her to make lated the country on the fact that, so far from the American satisfaction. Lord Howe was desired to have a fleet in war having injured the trade or the power of England, the readiness, and the Spanish court having taken a high tone fact was, that our shipping had increased considerably more to Mr. Merry, our minister at Madrid, Mr. Fitzherbert was than one-third since 1773, and we had been continually dispatched thither as our plenipotentiary. He arrived at gaining strength even during the American war, and had Madrid in the beginning of June. At first, the Spanish relieved ourselves of a load of expense always incurred by court were very high, and applied to France for co-operathe government of the states. This was an admirable argu- tion, according to treaty ; but France, in the throes of the inent for declaring all our colonies independent, if it meant revolution, had po money to spend in such armaments, and, anything; but Pitt went on seconding, and even sur- on second thoughts, Spain dreaded introducing French passing Duudas in the prognostications of a long peace. revolutionary sailors amongst their own. They soon, What such ministerial speeches are worth, was shown on the therefore, lowered their tone ; agreed to surrender Nootka 5th of May, only a month and five days since the prophecy Sound, make full compensation for all damages, and of Dundas, and not three weeks since his own prophecy, by consented that British subjects should continue their Pitt announcing that the peace was already disturbed with fisheries in the South Seas, and make settlements on any Spain. It appeared that the high prices obtained by the coasts not already occupied. Captain Vancouver, who had crews of captain Cook's ships, the Discovery and Resolution, been with Cook as a midshipman in his second, and third, at Canton, on his exploring voyages in the south seas, for and last voyages, being present at his tragical death, was the ill-selected, half-worn surs brought from the north-west sent out in the following year, to see that the settlement of coast of America, bad attracted the attention of adventurers Nootka Sound was duly surrendered to England. He saw under the direct protection of the East India company. Mr. this done, the Spanish commander, Quadra, behaving in a Mears, who had been a lieutenant in the royal navy, and a very friendly manner; and he proceeded then, during the Mr. Tippin, were sent out in command each of a vessel. years 1792 and 1793, to make many and accurate surveys Tippin was wrecked on the coast of Kamtschatka ; but Mears of the western coasts of North and South America, in reached Prince William's Sound, and wintered there, open which the Spaniards gave him every assistance. The ing a good trade with the natives. In the spring of 1788, English took formal possession not only of Nootka Sound, he discovered Nootka Sound, a fine bay on the west side of but of the fine islaud called after Vancouver, which is of a small island on the west coast of Vancouver's Island. equal extent with Ireland, and now become of such importThere he formed a settlement, making a bargain with the ance from the discovery of gold in the neighbouring chief for it. He went to Canton with furs, and was open- territory of New Columbia. Pitt was highly complimented ing a fine trade, when the Spaniards came down on the for his firmness and ability in the management of this settlement, seized four British vessels, but permitted two l business, though both the ministers and the people at large regarded the assertion of our rights rather as a matter In Ireland, the influence of the free notions of France was of national honour than of territorial and mercantile advan- already become broadly manifest, and though it proceeded tage. Time has shown that it is far more important in to no unconstitutional act, it wonderfully invigorated the these latter respects than any of the actors in the dispute resentment of the Irish against corruptions of government. knew.
| These truly demanded reprehension and reform ; but the Whilst the negotiations on this subject were in progress, government of Pitt was strong, and set both Ireland and the house of commons passed a bill, confirming the grant reform at defiance. The marquis of Buckingham, the made by the king of a pension of one thousand pounds lord-lieutenant, was recalled, because he bad not been able a-year, for twenty-one years, on Dr. Willis, for his attend- | to repress the movement in the Irish parliament on the ance on the king during his derangement. During the regency question. The earl of Westmoreland was sent in same period, too, Wilberforce, on the 27th of January, had his place; but the parliament still showed its resentment as obtained a committee of inquiry into the slave trade. strongly as ever, and proceeded to delve vigorously into the Wilberforce, Clarkson, and the anti-slavery committees, both sink of government corruption, and demand numerous in London and the provinces, were labouring with inde- corrections of abuses. Direct motions on the subject were fatigable industry in collecting and diffusing information on made in both houses ; in the peers by lord Portarlington, in this subject. The committee of the commons found strong the commons by Grattan, and, in truth, the ministerial opposition even in the house, and, on the 23rd of April, abuses of the Irish government were disgraceful. Grattan, lord Penrhyn moved that no further evidence should be on the 1st of February, pointed out the increased number of heard by the committee; but this was overruled, and the commissioners of revenue, and moved that his majesty be hearing of evidence continued through the session, though addressed to inquire by whose advice this was. Next no further debate took place on the question.
| the increase of the pension-list came under discussion; then The trial of Warren Hastings was still dragging its slow the granting of no less than fourteen government offices length along in Westminster Hall. On the 16th of recently to members of the Irish commons. Lastly, was February, which was the fifty-fifth sitting of the court, Mr. noticed the paltry withdrawal of lord Strangford's pension Anstruther went through the charge respecting the corrupt of four hundred pounds, which had been granted him at the receipt of presents. Disputes immediately arose about the request of the Irish house of lords, in consequence of his evidence proper to be admitted; the lords, as usual, retired small income, because he had voted against ministers on to consult, and the counsel for Hastings threw in all the the regency bill, at the same time that there were numbers obstructions that they could, reading, at full length, of men who were not Irishmen, and had never done anything enormous documents, and cavilling at every step. Burke, for Ireland or any other country, saddled on the Irish who saw, as everybody else did, that they were resolved on revenue in a variety of sinecure posts and pensions. All tiring everybody out, and quashing the trial, complained, on these motions, however, were rejected by large ministerial the 11th of May, to the house of commons. He “proposed majorities. that the house should take into its consideration the interrup-| Before returning to the progress of the French revolution tions occasioned by the lords; and should also authorise the the most momentous of all modern events-we must pass managers to insist only on such charges as should bring the a hasty glance over the affairs of the Netherlands and the trial speedily to an end." Major Scott, Hastings' unblush- north of Europe. On the accession of Leopold, the brother ing champion, published a letter in a newspaper, charging of Joseph, a sweeping change was made in Austrian policy. all the delays on the managers. This was taken up as a Leopold had ruled his dominions, as grand duke of Tuscany, breach of the privileges of the commons, and Scott was with remarkable wisdom and benevolence. He had introcalled to stand up in his place, and receive a reprimand duced many admirable reforms, and had abolished the from Pitt; which was done. Burke complained of the punishment of death—a grand example to the other nations bribery, both of the press and of individuals, by Hastings, of Europe, and proved to be as sound as it was striking by to blacken the characters of the managers, and get rid of the its results. He now made haste to assure the Netherlanders prosecution. He declared that not less than twenty thousand that all their grievances should be redressed, and their old pounds had been spent on the press by Hastings for these charters and constitution restored. There had always been purposes; and it was well known that major Scott himself a considerable party in favour of the imperial government, had received from him another twenty thousand pounds for and this party was now greatly increased by these wise his bullying the managers, both in parliament and in the assurances, which were relied on from the known magnaninewspapers. Such were the infamous means by which mous character of the emperor. A congress met at ReichenHastings sought to avoid a fair verdict on his crimes, and bach to endeavour to make a peace betwixt Austria and the so effectual were they, that the court never got, this session, sultan, and this was accomplished by the mediation of farther than the charge by Anstruther, and its summing up | England, Prussia, and Holland. The ministers of the three by Fox on the 7th and 9th of June. There were only powers who had brought about this peace of Reichenbach, thirteen days occupied in the trial during this session of next guaranteed to Leopold all the possessions of Austria in parliament, and the court then adjourned to the first the Netherlands, on condition that he should restore all the Tuesday in the next session. On Thursday, the 10th of ancient privileges and constitution. On the other hand, June, parliament was adjourned by a speech from the the democratic party had a congress of the United Belgic throne, in which nc mention whatever was made of the state States, and this congress, infected by the French republican of affair, in France.
principles, declared still for independence. They were for
having a strange monstrosity of a government, combining Dumouriez, Vandernoot and Vaneupen, the leaders of the all the political licence of France with the most thorough revolutionary party appeared regular adventurers and priestcraft of Rome, for there was, and probably is now, no impostors, most grossly imposing on the people; the people country in Europe where the populace was, and is, so thoroughly to be most grossly ignorant and bigoted ; and the army, under the spell of the catholic priests. Another party pro- though full of courage, yet destitute of good officers, money, posed to have the duke of Orleans as the grand duke of clothing, and discipline. Dumouriez, therefore, shrewdly Flanders and Brabant, and Montmorin, the French minister, concluded that France had better make no present engageappeared to favour this scheme, from a desire to rid Paris ments with the Belgian reformers, but leave the destinies of of his presence. When the duke was banished, and came to the country to be decided by the congress at Reichenbach,
England, this scheme fell to pieces, and La Fayette and where the English, Dutch, and Prussian ministers had Montmorin reverted to the idea of a republic in the Nether- guaranteed the restoration of the government to Leopold. lands, which should form a barrier betwixt Austria and on the renewal of the ancient institutions. France, in case that Austria should attempt to invade France The Pitt ministry continued to display a most blind and and crush the revolution, as appeared probable. Dumouriez selfish policy as regarded the encroachments of Russia on was sent to Brussels to inquire into the real state of the the Turkish empire. The undisguised policy of Catherine Netherlands, as the Belgians had sent deputies to Paris to was to press on her operations against Turkey till she hal make certain overtures. The result of Dumouriez's inquiries planted herself in Constantinople. No man having the was so extremely unfavourable that the French government least pretence to a statesmanlike sagacity could be ignorant gave up all idea of meddling in Netherland affairs. To of the calamitous consequences of having this semi-barbarous