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document very grand and sublime, would not abandon the aristocracy. It was decided that there should be no second word rights. Malouet and others pointed out the inevitable chamber. Then came the question, whether the king should mischief of proclaiming to the uneducated people the dogma have a veto on decrees sent up to him from the assembly, or of utter freedom and equality, but in vain; the declaration only the function of promulgating them, as the executive was passed, and the people soon showed in what sense they power. It was soon seen that not a shred of power would be understood it, and, carrying it to the extreme application, left to the crown; that all would be absorbed into the assembly, proceeded to destroy all ranks, properties, and principles, on and used not independently by them, but at the dictation of the authority of the assembly; and would, in time, have the sovereign people. The people were declared to be all

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reduced France to a desert, scattered with dead men's bones, free and equal, and why should they be hampered by the had not a military dictator stepped in and stopped their resolutions of even their own deputies? They were resolved imagined right to do just whatever they pleased.

to rule not merely through the assembly, but over the From the rights of man the assembly passed to the assembly. The very proposal to give the king a veto, constitution, and entered on the important question, whether roused all France. The Palais Royal was in a fiery ferment. there should be two legislative chambers or only one. There, Camille Desmoulins, and the old marquis St. Mounier, Lally-Tollendal, Rochefoucauld, Liancourt, and a Huruque, who had been imprisoned for family quarrels, few others, including Necker, were for a second chamber, were indignant at the very idea of a veto. They declared like the English house of peers. But the absurdity of an that the national guard was becoming an aristocracy; upper house, after the declaration of the perfect equality of La Fayette, a Cromwell. It was necessary, then, to go to all men, was too preposterous. Barnave, Duport, and the Versailles, and call both the king and the assembly to Lamethes, were opposed to more than one chamber, and account. On Sunday, the 30th of August, they met, and Mirabeau was of the same opinion, from his hatred of the accused Mounier, menaced Mirabeau, and set out in march

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to Versailles. La Fayette pursued them with the national stalking through the country, and bankruptcy was menacing guards, and forced them to come back. But this only the the exchequer. The first loan of thirty millions bad proved more exasperated the people. The whole of town and a total failure; a second of eighty, according to a fresh plan country was buzzing like a hive at swarming time, with the of Necker's, was equally a blank. “Go on discussing," said excitement against the veto. They imagined that it was | M. Degouy D'Arcy, one day, “throw in delays, and at the only another name for absolutism. They dubbed the king expiration of those delays, we shall no longer live! I have Monsieur Veto. Many of them believed that the veto was just heard fearful truths.” “Order! order !” exclaimed an abominable tax of some kind; others, an enemy that some. “No! no! Speak!” rejoined others. A deputy ought to be hung on the lamp-post. “Dost thou know," | rose. “Proceed," he said to M. Degouy, “spread around asked one countryman of the other, “what the veto is?" | alarm. What will be the consequence? We shall give part “ No, not I." "Well, then, thou hast thy basin full of our fortune, and all will be over.” M. Degouy continued: of soup; the king says to thee, 'Spill thy soup,' and thou | " The loans which you have voted have produced nothing; art forced to spill it."

there are not ten millions in the exchequer !” There arose On the 31st, Mounier, in the assembly, denounced a a wild hubbub. The speaker was surrounded, and reduced deputation which had reached him from the Palais Royal, to silence. Necker appeared. He confirmed the state. menacing him for supporting the veto, and stating that ments of M. Degouy. He reproached the assembly with twenty thousand men were about to march, to compel the doing nothing for the finances for five months. Necker enemies of the people to silence on the veto. Mirabeau also represented that people, alarmed by the state of the country, read letters, of a most menacing nature, addressed to him. had concealed vast sums of money; foreigners, for the same The assembly ordered the arrest of St. Huruque, who had reason, had held back from the loan; travellers had ceased written some of these letters, and the question of the veto to venture into it; and emigrants had carried their cash was continued. Mirabeau had long before declared that, away with them. The circulating medium had been so without the king had a veto on the acts of the assembly, he much reduced by these means that there was not enough for would rather live in Constantinople than in Paris, and he daily use. The king and queen had been obliged to send now maintained the same doctrine ; but on the proposal their plate to the mint; the treasury was empty, and the being made that the royal veto should not be absolute, but members began to wonder where their daily pay was to coine merely suspensive, Mirabeau conceded to this compromise ; from. Necker declared that loans were unattainable, and and the suspensive veto, to be limited to two sessions, was that it was a stern necessity that one-fourth of the income passed by six hundred and seventy-three votes against of every individual, except the poor, should be at once voted three hundred and fifty-five for the absolute veto. The and contributed to ward off national bankruptcy. A comking and the ministers were not particularly averse to the mittee was appointed to examine this plan, and, in three suspensive veto, for they trusted that if a measure were days, reported its full approval. suspended two years, it would not often be revived. | Meantime, the distresses of the country, as detailed by the

The next questions were the hereditary transmission of the minister, had produced a fit of patriotism. French sentiment crown and the inviolability of the royal person. These were was touched, and a deputy proposed that every one should passed without division; but, on the inviolability of the heir offer something at once to his country. The deputies then presumptive being proposed, it was rejected, as giving to a laid down the money in their pockets; those who had not disloyal heir immunity in any atteinpt against the reigning any took off their buckles from their shoes. All was to be prince. Mirabeau, to ascertain what was the strength of the entered in a register, and, vanity aiding sentiment, people party of the duke of Orleans in the assembly, proposed that flocked in with silver spoons and forks, gold rings, and other there should be a clause providing that none but a Frenchman ornaments, so that the assembly looked rather like a jeweller's should succeed to the throne, nor even be appointed on a or pawnbroker's shop than a manufactory of laws. The regency, as that might open the way to the relatives of the women of the town, from Paris and Versailles, brought in a royal family, Spanish or Austrian, and expose the country to large proportion of their peculiar earnings, which were foreign domination. There were loud outeries at these accepted without scruple, for, indeed, the very rich and words, and Mirabeau noticed carefully the opposers of his honourable, after all, were not very liberal. One landmotion, for he was certain that they preferred, in case of a owner gave a whole forest. Necker gave one hundred regency, an Austrian or Spanish prince to the duke of thousand livres ; but still the fund was but moderate, and Orleans. He did not press his motion, for he had attained the fit was speedily over. Then Mirabeau called on the his object; but he had won ky it the firm persuasion in the assembly to pass the demand of Necker without delay or mind of the public that he was a partisan of the duke, which, examination. As Necker had been recalled as the only man in fact, he was not. Mirabeau was familiar with Orleans, who could save the country, Mirabeau now ironically insisted as he was with men of all parties, because he was thus enabled that the assembly should agree literally to his plan, and, if it to penetrate often into their opinions and designs; but he succeeded, should let him have the glory of it. Mirabeau knew was properly of no party. The duke was rich, and Mirabeau that it could not succeed, and that Necker, for whom he had extremely poor and extravagant; consequently, it was readily a great contempt, would only expose his incompetence by believed that he was paid by Orleans; but, on the contrary, being permitted to follow his own schemes. There were Mirabean continued as poor as ever till his connection with those who penetrated his object, and M. de Virieu esclaimed, the court.

“You murder the minister's plan ; you crush him under the In the midst of this constitution-making, famine was I whole weight of responsibility!” Mirabeau admitted that

A.D. 1789.]
THE COUNTRY ON THE VERGE OF BANKRUPTCY.

405 he had rather that Necker should show himself a driveller price. This only made dealers the more careful not to bring than the assembly should proclaim a national bankruptcy their supplies into the city. The state of the people became by hesitating to vote the necessary supplies. He then painted desperate. The national guards were all under arms to the horrors of a national bankruptcy; he represented it as a prevent their gutting the bakers’and flour dealers' shops and ruinous tax, which did not reach all, but fell only on some, warehouses. But they could not prevent them seizing and and crushed them to death; as a gulf into which · living hanging the mayor at St. Denis. Bailly employed seventeen victims might be thrown, but which could neither be filled thousand men in digging trenches on Montmartre, and exerted thus, nor made to close again; “for," he observed, “we owe himself wonderfully to procure four for them; but it was none the less, even after we have refused to pay.” Then, reported that Bouillé, who had already corn enough for his raising his voice to a terrible pitch, “The other day, when a army, and who, spite of Necker's refusal, was delivering part ridiculous motion was made at the Palais Royal, some one of it for popular consumption, was seizing and laying up all exclaimed, Catiline is at the gates of Rome! and you he could find; and, finally, that the king, and queen, and deliberate !' but, assuredly, there was neither Catiline, nor royal family were about to fly toMetz to join Bouillé, and danger, nor Rome; but, to-day, hideous bankruptcy is here, there, joined by the Austrians, to raise the standard of civil threatening to consume you, your honour, your fortunes- war. And in this last piece of intelligence they were and you besitate!”

correct. This was actually in preparation, and, had the The assembly, electrified at the picture which he drew, king been half as energetic as the queen, would have been rose with shouts, and voted the tax. But of what avail? already accomplished. D’Estaing, the admiral so much The so-called rich, on whom the burden would chiefly employed in the West Indies, and on the coast of America fall, were no longer rich. Their houses had been burned, during the war there, was now commander of the national their estates ravaged; they could truly state their incomes guard at Versailles. D'Estaing learnt the secret from as almost nil; those who had plundered them were not La Fayette, and wrote to the queen, detailing the whole ready to tax their booty to this extent; and this grand communication. He implored an interview to counsel her scheme failed, as Mirabeau and every thinking man knew majesty on the importance of the subject; but the queen from the first that it must. To proclaim that the country passed lightly over the matter. was on the verge of bankruptcy was the certain way. But the court was soon alarmed by the report that the to induce every man to conceal his money with double old French guards intended to march from Paris to Verdiligence.

sailles, and, after removing the body-guard and the Versailles With the necessities of the government, the necessities of national guard, to do the duty at the palace themselves, in the people kept pace. The whole country was revolution order to prevent the royal family escaping to Metz. These ising instead of working; destroying estates instead of French guards had deserted the king's service, and had become cultivating them. Farmers were afraid of sowing what incorporated with the national guard of Paris, under the they might never reap; trade and manufactures were at an name of Centre Grenadiers. La Fayette, on the 17th of end, for there was little money and no confidence. The September, wrote to St. Priest, one of the ministers, to country was not become unfruitful, but its people had gone assure him that there was no truth in this report, and theremad, and the inevitable consequence was an ever-increasing fore no danger; but he placed a detachment of soldiers famine. This, instead of being attributed to the true causes, at the bridge of Sevres to prevent any such march, and was ascribed by the mob-orators to all kinds of devilish prac. | managed to stop the French guards. D'Estaing, however, tices of the court and the aristocracy. Danton, Marat, i to whom La Fayette's letter was communicated by St. Desmoulins, in journals and speeches, propagated the most Priest, did not feel satisfied, and proposed to bring the absurd stories. One orator exclaimed, “Three days ago the regiment of Flanders to Versailles, and the assembly being king got that veto suspensif, and already the aristocrats applied to for its sanction, declared it was no business of have brought up all the suspensions, and sent all the corn out theirs; and thus, neither encouraging nor discouraging the of the kingdom." The ignorant audience declared, “ Ah!! measure, it was sent for. It arrived on the 23rd of that is it! nothing but that !” Others said the queen was September; and, at the sight of the long train of tumbrils sending all the corn to the Austrian army, to encourage and wagons that followed, great alarm seized both the them to invade France; others that the government agents people of Versailles and the assembly. Mirabeau, who, by had thrown vast quantities into the Seine. Necker, in his a word, could have prevented the coming of the regiment, despair, applied to Pitt to send over twenty thousand sacks now denounced it as dangerous. News flew to Paris that of Eoglish flour. Pitt quietly declined to send it, on the plea a counter-revolution was preparing, and that the foreigners of need of it at home, of the prospect of a deficient harvest, would be marched on the city. All this terror of one single &c.; this refusal at such a moment excited a deep feeling regiment showed a disposition to feign alarm, rather than of resentment amongst the French. Yet it was nothing the real existence of it; but the court committed the great more than the French governinent might have expected folly of administering fresh reasons for jealousy. The after its conduct towards England in her struggle with her officers of the life-guards showed a most lively desire to American colonies. Nevertheless, at the same time, Necker fraternise with those of the Flanders regiment, and the refused the offer from marshal Bouillé of the corn laid up courtiers were equally attentive to them. The officers of for his troops at Metz.

the Flanders regiment were not only presented at the king's The authorities at the Hôtel de Ville appointed purveyors levee, but invited to the queen's drawing-room, and treated to hunt out corn, and compel the owners to sell it at a fixed ' in the most flattering manner. The gardes du corps gave a

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grand dinner to welcome them; and, what was extraordi- Antoine to the Place de Grève, where they found a detachnary, they were allowed to give it in the theatre of the ment of the national guards posted before the Hôtel de palace. This took place on the 2nd of October. The boxes Ville. The guard presented bayonets, and bade them keep were filled by people belonging to the court. The officers of off ; but, crying that they would see Father Bailly, they the national guard were amongst the guests. After the wine rushed on, throwing volleys of stones ; and the guard, not had circulated some time amongst the three hundred guests, prepared to kill women, opened, and left a passage to the the soldiers, both of the Flanders regiment and of the other hotel. This virago army burst into the hotel; but, finding corps, the company, with drawn swords, and heated by none of the authorities sitting, they ranged over the whole champagne, drank the health of the royal family; the toast house, and, finding some clerks just jumping out of bed in of the nation was rejected or omitted. The grenadiers in their fright, they called for bread, seized the books and the pit demanded to be allowed to drink the royal healths, papers on the bureau, swearing that they would burn them and goblets of wine were handed to them, and they drank all, for the commune were only fit to be hanged, and Bailly the health of the king, the queen, the dauphin, and the rest and La Fayette before all the rest. That their words were of the royal family amid mutual shaking of hands and loud not mere bravados they showed by seizing the abbé Lefevre, shouts of " Vire le Roi! Vive la Reine !" The band of the who had distributed the powder so boldly on the night of Flanders regiment struck up the very expressive and the attack on the Bastille, and hanging him to a beam; but, celebrated song of Blondel when seeking his captive king, leaving him there, he was fortunately cut down before he Cæur de Lion

was dead.

The women had refused to allow the men to join them, O Richard ! ô mon roi!

declaring that they were not fit for the work they were going

to do; but numbers had followed them, better armed than « 0, Richard ! O, my king! all the world abandons thee!” | themselves, and they now assisted them to break open doors, The whole company caught the royal infection. They vowed where they obtained seven or eight hundred muskets, three to die for the king, as if he were in iniminent danger. Cock- bags of money, and two small cannon. As they were pro. ades, white or black, but all of one colour, were distributed ; ceeding to made a bonfire of the papers, which would and it is said the tricolour was trodden under foot. In a probably have burnt the whole place down, the commander word, the whole company was gone mad with champagne of the national guard gave up the matter in despair; but and French sentiment, and hugged and kissed each other in one Stanilas Maillard, a riding-messenger of the municipality, a wild frenzy. At this moment a door opened, and the king with more address, called out to them to desist; that there and queen, leading the dauphin by the hand, entered, and at was a much better thing to do to march at once to Verthe sight the tumult became boundless. The cries of " Vive le sailles, and compel the court to furnish bread, and that he Roi! Vive la Reine ! ” were redoubled ; " O Richard! ô mon would be their leader. He seized a drum and beat it; the Roi!and “ Peut-on affliger ce qu'on aime ?"_“Can we women cried lustily, “To Versailles !” Some ran to the afflict what we love ?"-were played, amid tears and sobs tower of the hotel and sounded the tocsin. The bells soon from every side. Numbers flung themselves at the feet of the began to ring out from every steeple in Paris; the whole royal pair, and escorted them back to their apartments. population was afloat; and men and women, armed with all

The following morning the life-guards gave a breakfast sorts of weapons, followed their new leader, who had been to the officers of the Flanders regiment, and similar mad one of the heroes of the Bastille, and he marched them to the scenes took place. They were afterwards admitted to the Champs Elysées. There he arranged his motley and everpresence of the queen, who said she had been delighted with increasing army: the women in a compact body in the the dinner of Thursday. All this was little less than mad- middle, the men in front and rear. Horses, wagons, carness on the part of the royal family. They knew that the riages of all kinds, were seized on wherever they were seen ; army at large was disaffected to royalty, and of what avail was some of these were harnessed to the cannon, and then Mailthe drunken follies of two regiments ? If they really sought to lard, drumming at their head, put his army in motion, and escape to Metz, it could only have been done by the utmost on they went towards Versailles, stopping every carriage quiet and caution. The Flanders regiment could have guarded that they met, and compelling even ladies to turn again and them thither. But now the certain consequence must be to accompany them. rouse all the fury of Paris, and bring it down upon them. Meantime, La Fayette and Bailly, summoned by this This was the instant result. Paris, in alarm, cried, “ To strange news, had hurried to the Hôtel de Ville, where they Versailles !" On the night of the 4th of October the streets found the national guards and the French guards drawn up, were thronged with excited people; the national guards and demanding to be led to Versailles. The French guaris were under arms everywhere, and maintained some degree of declared that the nation had been insulted by the Flanders order. On the morning of the 5th the women took up the regiment—the national cockade trampled on; and that they matter. They found no bread at the bakers', and they col- would go and bring the king to Paris, and then all would be lected in crowds, and determined to march to the Hôtel de well. Bailly and La Fayette attempted to reason with them; Ville, and demand it of the mayor. They seized on any but they, and thousands upon thousands of armed rabble weapons that came to hand-broomsticks, old muskets, again collected there, only cried, “Bread! bread! lead us to bludgeons, or cutlasses. A girl seized a drum and beat it Versailles!" There was nothing for it but to comply; and, before them. Thus drumming and shouting, they collected at length, La Fayette declared that he would conduct them an ever-increasing number on the way from the Faubourg St. there. He mounted his white horse, and this second army,

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