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intimidate the king, nearly all the officers of the army, the campaign of 1788 against Turkey greatly chagrined, and fleet, and the civil department, threw up their commissions with fast-failing health. Had he been wise, he would bare ac. and appointments, believing that they should thus completely cepted the overtures for peace made to him by the sultan, and paralyse his proceedings. But Gustavus remained undaunted. have spent the few remaining days of his existence in tranHe filled up the vacancies, as well as he could, from the other quillity. But his ambitious and persuasive ally, Catherine, orders of the state ; he brought the nobles and officers to prevailed upon him to make another effort. He mustered trial, and numbers of them were condemned to capital pun- fresh troops. A hundred and fifty thousand men were ishment, for treason and abandonment of their sworn duties. marched against the Turkish frontier, early in the year of Had Gustavus been a bloody-minded sovereign, Stockholm 1789, in different divisions. The chief command was conwould have been deluged with blood. Some few examples fided to marshal Haddick, a very old man, with the witty were made ; the rest, after a shurt confinement, were liberated, prince de Ligne as second under him. The duke of Saxe and they hastened to their estates in the country. Not a Coburg, the prince of Hohenlohe, and marshal Laudohn, noble or a noble lady would appear at court, and, if Sweden also now very old, took each their separate directions. It had depended on so-called noble blood for its management, was a circumstance very much in their favour that the able it must have been lost. But it was found there, as every- sultan, Abdul Hamet, died suddenly in April, and was sucwhere else, that rank confers no monopoly of talent. The ceeded by his nephew, Selim, a young, rash, and un principled three other orders warmly supported Gustavus, and he man. The acts of Selim, in murdering and dismissing his remodelled the diet, excluding from it almost all the most father's best ministers and commanders, and the unruly conpowerful nobles, and giving greater preponderance to the dition of the janissaries, rendered Turkey especially open to other three orders. In return for this, these orders sanc- the attacks of its enemies. Marshal Laudohn, supporting tioned an act called the Act of Safety, which conferred on the his earlier fame, took the fortress of Gradiska, and stormed king the same power which is attached to the English crown, Belgrade. But this was not accomplished till the 8th of namely, that of making peace or war. They granted him liberal October, and an attempt was then made to reduce Orsova, supplies, and he quickly raised an arıny of fifty thousand but this failed. Coburg and Suvaroff having joined, won a men. As he considered the reduction of the restless and great victory over the new vizier, Martinitzi, in Wallachia, lawless power of Russia was equally essential to England, on the 22nd of September, and the remains of the Turkish Holland, and Prussia, as to Sweden, he called on those army retired to the pass of Shumla, on the Balkan mounpowers to second his efforts. Had this been done, the blood tains. Potemkin, on his part, had greatly increased his of thousands, the expenditure of millions sterling at Sebas- forces after the reduction of Oczakoff, and after a desperate topol to-day would have been spared. But Pitt adhered to resistance took Bender, famous for the abode of Charles XII. his blind half-measures. He would do nothing more than of Sweden, after the battle of Pultawa. Before winter, the guarantee the neutrality of Denmark; and even this guarantee Russians had made a decided progress in their inroads into he permitted to become nugatory, by allowing the Danish the Turkish dominions on the Red Sea. They had gained fleet to give protection to the Russian fleet in the Baltic. A possession of Bialogrod, or Ackermann, at the mouth of the second Russian squadron, commanded by Dessein, a French Doiester ; of Keglia Nova, on the northern banks of the admiral, descended from Archangel, entered the Baltic, Danube, and of other places on the Black Sea. They had menaced Gothenborg, and, by the aid of the Danish ships, also extended their froutier to the left bank of the Danube, was enabled to join the other Russian fleet at Cronstadt. and they had actually reduced every important place be

The Swedes cursed the less than half assistance of their tween the Bug and Dniester and that river. Had Catherine English allies, and Gustavus endeavoured to fight his way had a sufficient fleet in the Black Sea, Constantinople might without them. He continued to win victory after victory on have trembled for its safety. land; but Catherine soon brought down on his squadron of But Catherine's ally, Joseph, was fast sinking, and his galleys, which attended his march along the coast to keep up mortal sun was going down amid storm clouds, all collected his supplies, an overwhelming fleet of galleys of her own. A by his reckless disregard to the rights of his subjects, great desperate battle ensued, but the Swedish galley-fleet was, at reformer as he desired to be. He had wantonly invaded length, overcome. Gustavus was thus greatly embarrassed, the ancient constitution of Hungary, just as his successors and compelled to stand merely on the defensive, till time to have done later ; and on this the high-spirited and martial go into winter quarters.

Hungarians had expressed their deterinination not to submit Gustavus continued for twelve months to do stout battle to it. They insisted that he should restore the regalia of with Russia, and, though with very insufficient forces, their ancient kingdo.n, which he had carried off from Buda, threatened the very capital of that country. A little sup- the old capital, and where the Austrian emperors, as kings of port by England, Prussia, and Holland, would have enabled Hungary, were always expected to be crowned, and to take Sweden to regain its territories on the eastern shores of the the oath to observe the constitution. The Turks, already in Baltic, to curb the power of Russia, and to assume that possession of the Banat of Temeswar, invited their alliance, station in the north which is essentially necessary to the offering to assist them in driving out the Austrians, and peace of Europe. These countries, however, had not the establishing their independence. Joseph, alarmed at this statesmanship to see this, or the good feeling to effect it, and prospect, made haste to avert the danger by conceding the we must leave Gustavus to struggle on alone whilst we trace restoration of the Hungarian constitution, and of the reother events.

galia ; and the generous Hungarians were at once appeased. The emperor Joseph of Austria had returned from thel But far different was the issue of the tsoubles with his

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Flemish subjects, which, with an unaccountable folly and These propagandists most gladly observed the state of affairs absence of good faith, he had again excited, though he in the Netherlands, and spread themselves through its cities, had appeared to concede the question of the rights of the preaching up equality of human rights, but keeping a pruuniversity of Louvaine, and the privileges of the Nether- dent silence about the principles of atheism and materialism, lands in general. He recalled count Murray as too lenient, which formed as essential a part of their philosophy. and sent into the Netherlands count Trautmansdorff as Joseph, in the face of these things, passed an edict sequesgovernor, and general Dalton, a hot and brutal Irishman, as trating all the abbeys in Brabant. The states of Brabant commander. He ordered the professors of theology at Lou- therefore refused the voting of any subsidies, and Joseph, vaine to give way to the emperor's reforms, and, as they irritated to deeper blindness, determined to abolish the great refused, Dalton turned them out by force, shut up the charter entitled the Joyeuse Entrée, so called because granted colleges, and Joseph sent back again the German professors, on the entry of Philip the Good into Brussels, and on which who had been before recalled, to appease the popular indig- nearly all their privileges rested. To compel them to vote a nation. But the colleges remained empty ; not a student permanent subsidy, the military surrounded the states of would attend the classes of the Germans. As the volunteer Hainault, forcibly dissolved their sitting, and then calling an corps had disbanded themselves, in reliance on the emperor's extraordinary meeting of the states of Brabant, Trautmanswish, Trautmansdorff calculated on an easy compulsion of dorff ordered them to pass an act sanctioning such a subsidy, the people, and he called on the grand council at Brussels to But the deputies remained firm, and thereupon the Joyeuse enforce the decrees of the emperor. The council paid no Entrée was annulled by proclamation, and the house of regard to the order.

assembly dissolved. Joseph vowed that he would extinguish The people having collected in great crowds in the neigh- the rebellion in blood, and reduce the Netherlands to the bourhood of the council-house, Dalton ordered out a com- same despotism which ruled all his other states, except pany of soldiers, under a young ensign, to patrol the streets, Hungary and the Tyrol. and overawe any attempts at demonstrations in support of Trautmansdorff declared that, if necessary, forty thousand the council. The young ensign, having a stone flung at troops should be marched into the country; but this was an him, without further ceremony ordered his men to fire into empty boast, for Joseph had so completely engaged his army the crowd, and six persons were killed, and numbers of against Turkey, that he could only send a thousand men into others wounded. No sooner did Joseph hear of this rash the Netherlands. On the contrary, the French revolutionists and cruel act, than he wrote highly approving of it, and offered the oppressed Netherlands speedy aid, and the duke promoting the ensign. The people, greatly enraged, rose in d'Aremberg, the archbishop of Malines, and other nobles and the different towns, and were attacked by the imperial troops, dignitaries of the church, met at Breda, on the 14th of and blood was shed in various places. With his usual dis September, and proclaimed themselves the legitimate asregard to consequences, Joseph was at this moment endea sembly of the states of Brabant. They sent the plainest vouring to raise a loan in the Netherlands, to enable him to remonstrances to the emperor, declaring that unless he imcarry on the war against Turkey. But this conduct com- mediately repealed his arbitrary edicts, and restored their pletely quashed all hope of it; not a man of capital would great charter, they would assert their rights by the sword. advance a stiver. Trautmansdorff continued to threaten the In proof of these being no empty vaunts, the militia and people, and Dalton was ready to execute bis most harsh orders. volunteers again flew to arms. Scarcely a month had passed It was determined to break up the university of Antwerp as after the repeal of the Joyeuse Entrée before a number of that of Louvaine had been broken up; and on the 4th of collisions had taken place betwixt these citizen soldiers and August, 1788, troops were drawn up, and cannon planted the imperial troops. In Tirlemont, Louvaine, Antwerp, in the public square, to keep down the populace, whilst the and Mons, blood was shed ; at Diest, the patriots, led on by professors were turned into the streets, and the college doors the monks, drove out the troops and the magistrates. locked. Here there occurred an attack on the unarmed Dalton and Trautmansdorff, instead of fulfilling their people, as wanton as that which took place at Brussels, and menace, appeared paralysed. no less than thirty or forty persons were killed on the spot, Numbers of persons fled from the different towns to the and great numbers wounded. This massacre of Antwerp, frontiers of Holland ; trade became stagnant, manufactories as it was called, roused the indignation of the whole Nether- stood empty; the whole country began to assume a melanlands, and was heard with horror by all Europe. The monks choly and ruinous aspect. Many of the refugees formed and professors who had been turned out became objects of into revolutionary clubs by French emissaries, were prepared sympathy, even to those who regarded with wonder and con- not merely to oppose Joseph's despotism, but all monarchical tempt their bigotry and superstition. But Joseph, engaged government whatever. A powerful body of these placed in his miserable and disgraceful war against the Turks, sent themselves under the leadership of Vander Noot, a lawyer, to Dalton his warmest approval of what he called these who assumed the title of plenipotentiary agent of the people vigorous measures. He appeared as forgetful of the past of Brabant; and of Vander Mersch, an officer who had history of these Netherlanders as he was unmindful of what served in the seven years' war, who was made their comwas passing in France, where the masses were up in the mander-in-chief. These two men were in league with the wildest revolution, and scores of enthusiastic apostles of the new assembly of Breda, and issued their proclamations. new principles of liberty, fraternity, and equality, were These Trautmansdorff caused to be burnt by the execuAying about in all directions, and spreading a ferment that tioner. The patriots in Brussels who sympathised with threatened destruction to all the ancient conditions of things. I those in arms were, many of them, arrested ; the citizens were disarmed, the fortifications strengthened by palisades, tyranny and injustice; they proclaimed their entire indeand every means of defence resorted to.

pendence, and ordered a levy of twenty thousand men. But in October the patriots of Breda surprised the forts Trautmansdorff now hastened to conciliate in earnest. of Lillo and Liefenskoeck, on the Scheldt. Dalton dis- He issued two-and-twenty separate proclamations, made patched general Schröder with a strong force, who retook all kinds of fair promises, restored the arms of the citizens, the forts; but on Schröder's venturing to enter Turn- and liberated the imprisoned patriots. But it was too hout, after the insurgents, a body of three thousand of late. The insurgents, under Vander Mersch, were fast them, under Vander Mersch, armed with pitchforks, advancing towards Brussels, and Dalton marched out to blu Igeons, and staves, attacked and drove him out. Ge- meet them ; but he was confounded by the appearance of neral Bender, who had been dispatched against the insur. their numbers, and entered into an armistice of ten

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gents at Tirlemont, was driven out in the sanie manner. days. But this did not stop the progress of insurrection General Arberg was compelled to retreat behind the Scheldt, in Brussels. There the people rose, and resolved to open and the people were victorious in Louvaine, Ghent, Bruges, the gates to their compatriots without. The women and Ostend, and most towns of the district. Both Joseph and children tore up the palisades, and leveled the entrenchhis governor and commander in the Netherlands now fell ments. The population assumed the national cockade, into the utmost alarm. The news which Marie Antoinette and the streets resounded with the cries of “Long live the sent from Paris to her imperial brother, only rendered this patriots!” “Long live Vander Noot!" Dalton retreated consternation the greater. Joseph, with that sudden revul- into Brussels, but found no security there. The soldiers sion which he had manifested on other occasions, after began to desert. The people attacked those who stood to equally astonishing rashness, now issued a conciliatory pro- their colours, and Dalton was glad to secure his retreat by a clamation, offering to redress all grievances on the condition capitulation. In a few days, the insurgents from Breda of their laying down their arms. But the Netherlanders entered, Trautmonsdorff having withdrawn at their apwere not likely after former experience to trust any such proach, and the new federal union of the Netherlands was promises of Joseph. On the 20th of November the states of completely established. The state of Luxemburg was tha Flanders assured the title of the High and Mighty States; only one yet remaining to Joseph, and thither Dalton they declared the emperor to have forfeited the crown by retired with his forces, five thousand in number.

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onduct or the National Assembly and of Parisian

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But Joseph did not live to see the full extent of the who preached up the equality of the human race, had broken alienation of the Netherlands. He had dispatched count through their ancient subserviency, and were pulling down Cobenzel to Brussels on the failure of Trautmansdorff's all the old constituted powers, all ranks and distinctions, efforts. Cobenzel was an able diplomatist, but all his offers with a rapidity and a ferocity which electrified the wholo were treated with indifference. On the last day of 1789 world. They had destroyed the great state prison, the the states of Brabant, in presence of the citizens of Brussels, Bastille; they had brought the king and queen in triumph swore to stand by their new freedom-an act which was from Versailles to Paris, where they kept them in the palace received by the acclamations of the assembled crowds. They of the Tuileries as mere state prisoners, and, by the agency soon after ratified their league with the other states, and of the National Assembly, were proceeding to still more were in active negotiation with the revolutionists of France startling deeds. Already they had decreed that orders and for mutual defence. On the 20th of February Joseph titles of nobility should cease ; already they had compelled expired, leaving a prospect full of troubles to his brother the nobles and the dignified clergy to take their places in Leopold, the new emperor.

the assembly with the commons; already they had confiscated the property of the clergy, and the plate of the churches

had abolished the old divisions of the kingdom into proCHAPTER XII.

vinces, and divided France into eighty departments. They THE REIGN OF GEORGE III.—(Continued.)

had taken from the king the title of the “ King of France," OUTBREAK OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION - The Causes of this Revolution long

and given him that of the “ King of the French," preparatory accumulating in the History of France - Various preceding Revolutions in France, all having the same Bloody and ferocious Character, though

to leaving him neither a crown nor a head to wear it. To less in degree-The Elements of this mingled Levity and Ferocity inherent enable the reader to comprehend, in some degree, the causes in the French Nature-Age of Louis XIV.--Its Licentious Tyranny, and of this fierce and frightful phenomenon, we must take a brief sanguinary Repression of Religious Progress-Extermination of Protest.

retrospective glance at the past history and constitution of antism-Consequent universal ascendancy of Priestcraft and Ignorance -The Regency-Louis XV.-Louis XVI, and his family-Ministry of France, and at the character of the people. De Brienne-Bed of Justice-Duke of Orleans banished-Returns

The French people had, through their whole history, never Assembly of Notables-Cour Plenière-Resignation of De Brienne, and Ministry of Necker-Proposes the Meeting of the States-General-Un- acquired any combiVULTO

acquired any constitutional liberty. We have seen how, in popularity of the Queen - License of the Press - Assembly of States | our own country, the commons had gradually assumed a General-Tiers Etat double in number to the other Orders-Refuses to substantial place in the legislative life of the nation. Rising act till the other Orders sit with it-The Aristocracy and Clergy com.

steadily and strongly, the commons of England have, indeed, pelled to join the Tiers Etat- The National Assembly-Its PraceedingsBurning of Reveillon's Manufactory-Duke of Orleans, Lafayette, Mira

become the chief power in the state. In the house of beau, Necker &c.-Conduct of the National Assem Mob-Necker resigns-Conflict betwixt the People and Soldiery-Seduc ment have arisen, and there chiefly been fought out. During tion of Gardes-Françoises-National Cockade - The Bastille taken -King goes to the Assembly - Necker recalled-More Bloodshed - Destruction

the commonwealth, the commons completely extinguished the of Privileges-Rights of Man-Proceedings at Versailles - Arrival of the house of peers and the crown. After that, though the noblos Mob-Attempt to assassinate the Queen—The Royal Family compelled managed to reintroduce royalty, the commons, uniting with to go to Paris-The Jacobin Club-Proceedings at the Chatelet - Famine,

the peers, drove out the monarch who would have destroyed Riots, Law against Tumults-New Division of the Kingdom - Abolition of Parliament-Lettres de Cachet-Armorial Bearings, Titles, Liveries,

the popular liberties, and fixed the general freedoin on a new &c., abolished -Suppression of Monasteries and Seizure of the Property and firmer basis by the Bill of Rights. Since then, the of the Clergy-Other Reforms-Commotions in the Provinces, Execu

freedom, the power, and the wealth of the mass of the tion of Favras-Issue of Assignats-Views of the French Revolution in England-Burke denounces it -Admiration of it by Fox, Priestley, Price,

nation have been constantly augmenting under the protec&c.—Proceedings in the English Parliament -Differences with Spain tion of these great constitutional guarantees. regarding Nootka Sound - Slavery Question -- Hastings' Trial – Irish But very different was the case in France. The French Affairs-War in Belgium with the Austrians, in Turkey with RussiaGeneral Swearing in Paris to maintain the New Constitution-Danton,

people are, for the most part, a Celtic race. With the Desmoulins, and other Paris Democrats-Proccedings of the National exception of the people of Normandy, and a certain infusion Assembly-Abbé Maury defends Church Property-Anacharsis Clootz of German blood through the Franks, they are almost The Fête of the Federation in the Champs de Mars-Marat-The Mode

wholly of the Celtic family, lively, excitable, prone to fits of rates attempt to put Limits to the Revolution—The Royal Family seek for Flight-Interview of the Queen with Mirabeau at St. Cloud-Charges

terrible cruelty and massacre, but wholly, so far as their against the Duke of Orleans and Mirabeau-Revolt of the Troops at history yet demonstrates, incapable of self-government, and Nancy against the Assembly-Suppressed by Bouillé-Necker resigns Atrocious Writings of the Jacobins, Marat. Danton, Carra, Desmoulins,

therefore of the maintenance of social and political inde&c.-Federation of the Friends of Truth - Growing Ascendancy of Marat

pendence. Though the names of states-generals and and Robespierre --Suppression of the Insurrection in Belgium-War in parliaments present themselves in French history, the people,

India with Tippoo Sahib-Proceedings in the British Parliament. up to the time of the Revolution of 1789, had little or no At the period at which we are now arrived, France was in concern in them. It was only in the states-general that a state of the wildest and most awful convulsion. A revo- the tiers état, or commons, appeared at all, and there in lution had broken out, more terrible and furious than had such a humble and equivocal shape as to give them no real ever yet appeared in the history of nations. The French influence. Their business was to vote money, and not to people, so long trodden down by their princes, their aristo- | legislate. The power of the crown, indeed, far surpassed cracy, and their clergy, and reduced to a condition of the power of the states-general in their collective capacity. wretchedness and of ignorant brutality, almost unparalleled, and they were rarely called together except to sanction some seizing the opportunity of the distresses of the impoverished extraordinary measures which the difficulties of the sove. government, and encouraged by a new race of philosophers, 'reign rendered necessary for them.

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