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-Irish Demands conceded-Popular Gratitude to Grattan-Arrears of

of Washington to seize and hang Arnold for doing just Parliament-Debates on the American War-Altered Views of Ministerswhat Hayne had done. The circumstance showed what a

Meetings and Petitions for Peace-Retirement of Lord George Germaine

-Year 1782—War in the West Indies-At the Cape-Loss of Minorcaterrific uproar the sensitive Americans would have made King's Project of retiring to Hanover - Lord North resigns - Lord at a case like that of André on our part.

Rookingham Prime Minister-Irish Distress-Grattan on Irish Questions Much censure was cast on lord Rawdon ; but his lordship

the Civil List-Enormous Pension to Barré-Pitt in favor of Parliashowed that he had no concern whatever in the sentence;

mentary Reform-North American Affairs-Proposals to make Washingthat he had already resigned his authority to lieutenant ton King-Rodney's Great Victory over De Grasse-Rodney made a colonel Stuart; that he had done all that he could do

Peer - Death of Lord Rockingham - Lord Shelburne Minister - Pitt strongly recommended mercy. At the same time, he wrote

Chancellor of the Exchequer-Loss of the Royal George-General Elliot's

Splendid Defence of Gibraltar-Treaty of Peace with America-With to the American general, Henry Lee, years afterwards, and France-These Treaties Signed-John Adams at the British Court as when he had more thoroughly examined the case, that, " for

First American Ambassador-Pitt becomes Prime Minister. the guilt of Hayne, not a shadow of palliation could be THERE were other transactions besides those of the found. By all the recognised laws of war, nothing was

American campaign, during the year, which demand notice. requisite, in the case of Hayne, but to identify his person

Rodney co-operated with a body of troops under genera! previous to hanging him on the next tree."

Vaughan in an attempt to recover the island of St. Vincent, When the summer heats bad abated. Greene descended which the French had taken in the previous year, from the Santee hills, and a sharp engagement ensued but they were not successful. They then turned their betwixt him and the troops under colonel Stuart at the attack on the island of St. Eustatia, belonging to the Dutch, Eataw Springs, about sixty miles from Charlestown. and the governor not having heard the news of the war, they Though warned of the approach of Greene by two deserters, met with no resistance. The capture was a most valuable Stuart put but little faith in the report, and therefore was one; the whole island seemed one great store of Dutch and taken somewhat by surprise. A large party out in search of American products and goods. There were one hundred roots and vegetables were suddenly fallen upon, and most of and fifty merchant vessels in the harbour all secured, besides them cut to pieces. Greene then followed up his success six ships of war and a fleet of thirty Dutch West Indiamen. with such impetuosity that the advanced lines of the British which had just left, but which were sent after and brought were driven back, till they reached a house into which back. The value of the whole prize was estimated at three major Sheridan had thrown himself with a party of New York millions eight hundred thousand pounds. A large quantity volunteers. The murderous fire from this house arrested of the merchandise belonged to Englishmen, who were Greene, who in vain tried to carry it. This obstacle enabled engaged thus in supplying the Americans through this colonel Stuart to re-organise his scattered lines, and the channel. Rodney confiscated the whole of it. In vain did battle was continued with such fury—the American militia the owners demand, through the assembly of St. Kitt's, the standing their ground on this occasion well—that Greene restoration of these goods ; Rodney would not listen to them. was at length routed, and driven from the ground, and took The clamour was carried thence to the English parliament, refuge in some woods in their rear. The English encamped and even into the English courts of law. Rodney protested on the field that night and the next day. On each side against any concession ; he declared the island a vast den of there appears to have been about six hundred killed, wounded, thieves and nest of vipers; that he had seized the whole for and missing. The American army was about double the the king and the state, and hoped that it would aid the number of the English. Greene claimed it as a victory, and revenue of the country. The Americans resident there and the congress proclaimed it a glorious victory, simply because the Jews raised bitter outcries at their banishment from the he bad the advantage in the beginning of the fray, though island; but it was shown that the Americans had been the he was driven from his ground in the end of it. If this avowed agents and correspondents of their insurgent was a victory, by the same rule many of the greatest vic-countrymen, but that the moment the island was taken they tories in the history of the world were defeats. But it is boldly declared themselves subjects of the British crown. curious with what audacity the Americans were continually As for the Jews, general Vaughan, in the house of commons, assuming victories when the notorious fact was the reverse. said—“I had ordered a ship to carry them to St. Thomas's. This was the last action in the American war of any im- at their own request; and, after they had been taken to St. portance. The force of the English was insufficient to Kitt's without my knowledge, I ordered their houses and pursue any effective campaign. In this quarter they soon property to be restored to them; and that they were well found it necessary to retreat to Charlestown Neck, leaving satisfied with my conduct will appear from an address Greene to reassert the American authority over the greater presented to me from their synagogue.” part of South Carolina and Georgia ; and at the end of the Vaughan kept the Dutch flag flying at St. Eustatia, and campaign the British held little of these states, except the thus inveigled into his hands a considerable number more of districts immediately abutting on Charlestown and Dutch, French, and American vessels that were ignorant of Savannah.

the change. Besides Eustatia, the small neighbouring

islands of St. Martin and Saba, and the Dutch settlements CHAPTER IX.

on the rivers of Demerara and Essequibo, in Guiana, were REIGN OF GEORGE III. (Continued.)

taken with their sbips and property. The Dutch trade in Taking of St. Eustatia from the Dutch, by Rodney, with other Islands and Settle

these parts received a mortal blow. On the other hand, the ments-Roduey's Severities-Capture of Dutch Ships and of little Dutch Settlements in the East Indies–Negotiations with Russia—Spanish Attack

French, under the marquis de Bouillé, captured the island ou Minorca-Battle of the Dogger Bank-Other Sea Fights-Meeting of of Tobago.

The English now began to contemplate taking the Cape in their possession. General Murray bad second in of Good Hope from the Dutch. General Johnstone was command Sir Williain Draper, the old antagonist of Junius, dispatched in April with five ships of the line, some frigates, and the conqueror of Manilla, who bravely supported him. and smaller vessels, having on board general Meadows and But they had only a garrison of two English and two three regiments for this purpose; but encountering admiral Hanoverian regiments; still the Spanish court trusted more Suffrien in the way, after an indecisive action, Johnstone to bribery than to their arms. They had commissioned the fell in with and took a Dutch East Indiaman of great value, duke de Crillon to offer Murray one hundred thousand and learned through it that Suffrien had managed to reach pounds, with high rank and employment in the Spanish or the Cape, given the alarm, and that the Cape was put into French service, to surrender the place. strong defence. Johnstone, therefore, made for Saldanha Murray returned this answer to De Crillon :—" When Bay, where he learned that a number of other Dutch East your brave ancestor was desired by his sovereign to Indiamen were lying. Four of these he secured; the rest assassinate the duke of Guise, he returned the answer which were run ashore by their commanders and burnt. During you should have done when the king of Spain charged you the autumn both Dutch and French suffered much from the to assassinate the character of a man whose birth is as British on the coasts of Coromandel and the island of illustrious as your own, or that of the duke of Guise. I can Sumatra. They also took from the Dutch Negapatam, have no communication with you but in arms. If you have Penang, and other places.

any humanity, pray send clothing to your unfortunate There was a negotiation with Catherine of Russia to prisoners in my possession. Leave it at a distance to be induce her, by the bribe of the transfer of Minorca to her, taken up for them ; because I will admit of no contact, for to mediate a peace betwixt England, France, Spain, and the future, but such as is hostile in the most inveterate Holland, on the basis of each country restoring all its con- degree.” Crillon, young and a Frenchman as he was, felt quests since the war, and all these nations binding them- the full force of the reproof, and acknowledged it. He selves to abandon the Americans. Catherine was, however, replied: -“ Your letter places us each in our proper to purchase the stores and artillery at Port Mahon, valued stations. It confirms me in the esteem I have always had at two millions sterling, and her favourite, Potemkin, was to for you. I accept with pleasure your last proposition." be bribed by this sum being put into his pocket. Had the His siege of the fort he saw would be ineffectual without island and the stores been all freely presented as a gift to more force. This was sent him from Toulon. Four thouthe czarina, the scheme might have succeeded; as it was, sand new troops arrived, attended by able engineer officers Rhe regarded the money to be paid to her favourite as a great and powerful artillery ; but Murray still held out, though mum to be drawn from her, and the whole failed. Moreover, suffering much from disease amongst his troops, and 1781 the scheme coming to the knowledge of Florida Blanca, the was not destined to witness the fall of Minorca. Spanish minister, he took immediate steps to forestall the There were various actions at sea, in one quarter or other. business by seizing the island himself. He prevailed on Sir Hyde Parker, convoying a merchant fleet from the France, though with difficulty, to assist. The duke de Baltic, on the 5th of August, fell in with admiral Zouttman Crillon, a Frenchman, was made commander of the expe- near the Dogger Bank, also convoying a fleet of Dutch dition, and on the 22nd of July the united fleets of France | traders. An engagement took place, Zouttman having a and Spain sailed out of Cadiz Bay, and stretched out into the few men-of-war more than Parker. The engagement was ocean, as if intending to make a descent on England. The terrible. Parker had one hundred and eleven men killed, main part of the fleet did, in fact, sail into the English Channel. and three hundred and eighteen wounded ; Zouttman, one It consisted of thirty Spanish ships-of-the- line, under hundred and sixteen killed, and three hundred and eighty. Cordova and Gaston, and nineteen French ships-of-the-line, two wounded. The ships on both sides were severely under De Guichen, De Beausset, and De la Motte Piquet, damaged, and the Hollandia —a sixty-four-gun ship of Iweldes longer Vossels-nearly sixty vessels, in all—a most Zouttman's—went down with all its crew. Many of the fonoldable armada. Admiral Darby, who had just anchored other ships were with difficulty kept afloat. On reaching in Torbay, had only twenty-thrée sail-of-the-line, twelve the Nore, the king and prince of Wales went on board, fruntax, and six fireships; but they did not venture to attack where they highly complimented both Parker and the rest of him, but contentod themselves with picking up a number of the officers. Sir Hyde Parker then resigned his command in

marchant verols; and again dissensions and disease breaking favour of his son, Sir Peter Parker, who was sent to w this wront fleet separated, and each nation returned to blockade the Dutch porte. W rompective ports, without effecting anything worthy of On the 14th of the same month a Dutch lugger, in #wch an armament.

conflict with the Chameleon, sloop-of-war, captain Drury, But a lesur portion of this fleet, on coming out of harbour, took fire, and perished with all its crew. On the 12th of dhoodil ning eight thousand troops, stores, and ordnance, December admiral Kempenfelt, with thirteen ships-of-thePovestit fand through the Straits of Gibraltar, and appeared line, discovered, off Ushant, the French fleet, under De bowh laurly Intore l'ort Mahon. On the 19th of August the Guichen, convoying a fleet of transports and merchantmen, 14100m wae landed near Port Mahon, and, being favoured bound, some for the East, and others for the West Indies, upy lua inhalátanta, formerly under the sway of Spain, and with troops and stores. The fleet of De Guichen was fir Un aldirs, they soon invested the fort, and compelled superior to that of Kempenfelt - consisting of one-andTas Murray, who formerly so bravely defended Quebec, twenty ships-of-the-line, larger than Kempenfelts, and two De asen, . Burt St. Philip, leaving the town of Port Mahon of them armed en flûte ; but, the convoy being at a

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ATTACK ON THE MINISTRY ON THE OPENING OF PARLIAMENT.

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considerable distance from the transports and traders, and amazement. He declared himself confounded at the Kempenfelt adroitly made himself master of twenty sail of hardihood of ministers, after such a consummation of their these vessels, and made off with them; and within a few imbecile management, who dared to look the house of commons days afterwards he captured five more of these ships. There in the face. He would not say that they were paid by were also other fights of minor importance.

France, for it was not possible for him to prove the fact; On the 27th of November, only two days after the receipt but, if they were not, he declared that they deserved to le, of the news of the surrender of lord Cornwallis, parliament for they had served the French monarch more faithfully and met. The king adverted to the unhappy event, but still successfully than ever ministers served a master. He declared that he should be betraying his trust, as sovereign especially singled out lord Sandwich for reprobation, as the of a free people, if he did not refuse to give up the contest; / author of the wretched condition of our fleets, which were

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that he still trusted in Divine Providence, and he called for | inferior in number of ships and their appointments to those fresh, animated, and united exertions. He turned with more of the enemy all over the globe. He called on the house to satisfaction to the successes in the East Indies, and the safe insist on the total and immediate change of ministers, and arrival of our principal mercantile fleets. In the lords, the urged the adoption of measures which should, if possible, earl of Shelburne vehemently attacked the address, supported repair the incalculable injuries they had inflicted on the by the duke of Richmond and the lords Camden and Rock- nation. ingham; but the most tempestous burst of indignant elo- Lord North replied with indignation at the suggestion of quence from the opposition took place in the commons. ministers being paid by France, and asked whether, because Fox declared that he had listened to the address with horror we had lost some troops in Virginia, we were to lie down

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and die? On the contrary, he regarded the misfortune as plan would then have saved America, and lord North's had only a reason for fresh exertions.

now undoubtedly lost it! Sir James Lowther's motion was Burke started up and exclaimed, “Good God! Mr. got rid of, but only by a majority of forty-one. On the 14th Speaker, are we yet to be told of the rights for which we of December, however, Mr. Pitt again reviewed the state of went to war? Oh, excellent rights ! oh, valuable rights ! the war, and declared that, amid all the differences of Valuable you should be, for we have paid dear at parting ministers, they appeared all along to have been united in one with you. Oh, valuable rights, that have cost England object-the destruction of the empire. thirteen provinces, four islands, a hundred thousand men, Burke brought forward a motion regarding the detention and more than seventy millions of money! Oh, wonderful of Henry Laurens, the American envoy, in the Tower. He rights, that have lost to Great Britain her empire on the declared that distinguished person had been very harshly ocean- her boasted, grand, and substantial superiority, treated, and demanded that the lieutenant of the Tower which made the world bend before her! Oh, inestimable should be called to the bar of the house and examined. rights, that have taken from us our rank amongst nations, Lord North refused this; and lord George Germaine read our importance abroad, and our happiness at home; that a letter from Laurens to himself, thanking that minister for have taken from us our trade, our manufactures, and our the indulgences which he had received. Burke thereupon commerce; that have reduced us from the most flourishing gave notice that, after the Christmas recess, he would move empire in the world to be one of the most unenviable for leave to bring in a bill to improve the regulations for powers on the face of the globe! Oh, wonderful rights, the exchange of prisoners. Government prevented this by that are likely to take from us all that yet remains. We liberating Laurens on bail, and, as there had been for some bad a right to tax America,' says the noble lord, and time negotiations going on for exchanging him with general as we had a right, we must do it.'” Burke then compared Burgoyne, who was considered as a prisoner on parole, this ministers to a foolish fellow, who, thinking the wolf had was conceded. wool, was determined to shear it; and that we had for our | Ministers were now impatient to adjourn, but just at this moshearing of the Americans precisely what such a simpleton ment came the news of the return of admiral Kempenfelt with would have from shearing his wolf.

his merchant-ship captures, but without his having attacked The ministers, however, had strength enough to carry the the French fleet bound for the East and West Indies with aldress by two hundred and eighteen votes against one supplies. When the secretary of the treasury was moving hundred and twenty-nine; but the debate was resumed on the usual adjournment, there was a cry of “ What! adjourn the address being reported, and then William Pitt delivered -adjourn ?" "No," exclaimed Byng, the member for a most scathing speech, declaring that so far from our being Middlesex, “rather let us sit through the holidays, and warranted in pressing this ruinous war, he was satisfied that, inquire into this miscarriage." But Sir George Saville if he went from one end of the treasury bench to the other, more justly estimated that affair. “If," he said, "when such was the condition of the ministry, he should find that you sent out twelve ships, did you know that the enemy had there was not one man who could trust his neighbour; and nineteen? If you did not-culpable ignorance; if you did the truth of this was becoming strikingly evident. Dundas, worse." Parliament was accordingly adjourned on the 20th the lord advocate, hitherto one of the stanchest supporters of December till the 21st of January, and thus closed the of lord North, spoke now as in astonishment at the language year 1781. of ministers, declaring that some of them in council clearly Ill news flowed in apace from all quarters during the did not give their honest opinions. There were other like recess. The marquis de Bouillé had surprised and retaken syinptoms of defection ; the sensitive placemen perceived the St. Eustatia. The new conquests in Demerara and end of the North administration at hand. Several inde- Essequibo had also been retaken. Bouillé having secured pendent members - amongst them Thomas Powys, after- St. Eustatia, next turned his arms against the old and wards lord Lilford-declared against any further contest | valuable island of St. Kitt's. He then landed eight with the colonies. Sir George Saville compared the ministers thousand men at Basseterre, the capital, whose movements to the Spartan who, in a sea-fight, had swum to a galley, were protected by the fleet under De Grasse. General on seizing it with his hand, had the hand cut off, then his Frazer and governor Shirley took post on the rugged heights other hand, and, lastly, seizing the galley with his teeth, of Brimstone Hill, and made a stout defence, whilst Sir had his head cut off. Lord North, seeing the ground failing I Samuel Hood, who had followed De Grasse from the beneath him, now lowered his tone, and, on Sir James Chesapeake, boldly interposed betwixt the French admiral Lowther, seconded by Mr. Powys, proposing a resolution and the French troops on shore. Hood twice beat off De that the war against America had been an utter failure, he Grasse; but the British fleet and army were much too inexplained that he did not advocate, in future, a continental considerable to maintain the conquest. The island was warfare there, a marching of troops through the provinces, finally taken, and after it the smaller ones of Nevis and from north to south, but only the retention of ports on the Montserrat, so that of all the Leeward Islands we had only coast, for the protection of our fleets in those seas, and the Barbadoes and Antigua left. repulse of the French and Spaniards.

Scarcely had these disasters been suffered, when Rodney Thus, at the very last minute, was this most incompetent returned from England with fresh ships, and confident of ministers compelled to admit the justice of lord Barrington's of victory. On leaving England, he said to a friend,“? advice for the prosecution of the war, given seven years will bring you back a present of De Grasse." The bighest before. The only differonce was, that lord Barrington's T expectations were built upon him, and he justified them.

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Lord Sandwich, on taking leave of him, said, “The fate of in. The people at large, who had been long eager for the the empire is in your hands, and I have no reason to wish contest, were now grown weary of it; and they who were that it should be in any other." His presence brought new the most unwilling to contemplate the liberation of the life to the IVest India fleet.

colonies, and regarded it as synonymous with the fall of the But at home, fresh tidings of failure and loss were pouring nation, were extremely bitter against the ministers for their in. At this moment arrived the news of the failure of wretched management of the contest. commodore Johnstone in the meditated attempt on the Cape No sooper did the house meet than Fox moved for an of Good Hope, and of his merely having seized some Dutch inquiry into the causes of the constant failure of our fleets merchantmen in Saldanha Bay. But far worst of all was in these enterprises, on which so much had depended. The the intelligence of the loss of Minorca. It was, at the same object was to crush lord Sandwich, the head of the admitime, only what might have been expected. The govern- ralty. Numbers of those in Sandwich's interest defended ment knew the straits in which the brave old general him by throwing the blame on the factions and animosities Murray lay there at Fort St. Philip, surrounded by over which were carried from parliament amongst the comwhelming forces, and with a garrison fast sinking under manders and officers. Mr. Fitzherbert attributed the putrid fever, scurvy, and dysentery, and yet no effort was deficiency in the number of our ships to the miserable made to succour him. Never did gallant men deserve wages given in the royal dockyards, as greatly below the succour more. Whilst the French and Spaniards, impatient rate paid by private builders. He said the king of France of the dogged defence of Murray, assailed the fort from had three thousand shipwrights at work at Brest, whilst numerous batteries, numbers of the poor men, worn down the king of England had only eight hundred at Portsmouth. by sickness, yet scorning to yield to the enemy before them, He reminded the house that years ago the shipwrights had sunk, and died on the walls, instead of being in the hospital. petitioned for an increase of pay, and that lord Chatham Repeated sorties were made, and one of them was so had warmly urged the granting of it, but that it had been successful as to drive Crillon from his head-quarters at refused, and that we were now suffering the consequences of Cape Mola, and to keep them for some time. But, on the this impolitic parsimony. 6th of January, the birthday of the unfortunate dauphin, Lord North conceded the inquiry with much professed Crillon opened a terrific fire on the fort, from one hundred readiness, but with real resistance to the production of the and fifty pieces of heavy artillery. Murray still held out necessary papers. Fox, seeing that it was intended to stifle till the 5th of February, when he found it necessary to the inquiry, whilst appearing to court it, on the 7th of capitulate, which he did upon honourable terms. Describing February made another onslaught on lord Sandwich, by a himself the scene, he says, “ Perhaps a more 'noble or a more motion that naval affairs had been grossly mismanaged. tragical scene was never exhibited than that of the march Lord Mulgrave, who had defended Sandwich on the first of the garrison of St. Philip's through the Spanish and occasion, now stood forward again on his behalf; but his French armies. It consisted of no more than six hundred defence was far outweighed by the statements of lord Howe, old, decrepit soldiers, two hundred seamen, one hundred and who concurred with Mr. Fox, that Brest ought to have twenty-five of the royal artillery, twenty Corsicans, and been closely watched by frigates, the Texel blockaded, to twenty-five Greeks, Turks, Moors, Jews, &c. The two keep in the Dutch, and that Kempenfelt ought to have been armies were drawn up in two lines; the battalions, fronting sent to sea with a much larger fleet. Fox's motion was each other, forming a way for us to march through. They rejected, but only by a majority of twenty-two. The consisted of fourteen thousand men, and reached from the strength of ministers was fast ebbing. Continual attacks glacis to George Town, where our battalions laid down were made. Lord Rawdon, who had reached home, was their arms, declaring they had surrendered them to God alone, called upon to defend himself against his alleged concern in having the consolation to know that the victors could not the hanging of colonel Hayne; and, in the same house, the plume themselves on taking a hospital. Such were the surrender of lord Cornwallis was thoroughly commented on distresses of our men that many of the Spanish and French | by the duke of Richmond. troops shed tears as they passed them.”

The first symptom of the breaking up of the ministry was They not only obtained all the honours of war, but they the necessity felt for the dismissal of lord George Germaine, received the kindest treatment from Crillon, and from the who had contributed so essentially to the defeats in officers generally. The French and Spanish surgeons America. But even then the king would not consent that attended the sick, and every comfort was afforded them. he should resign without conferring a peerage on him, Marray declared that but for the sickness of his little band, observing, “No one can then say he is disgraced.” But he might bave held out for six months more. Thus was George was not clear-minded enough to perceive that he lost to England the finest port in the Mediterranean. who made such a man a peer was disgraced, and still more

These dispiriting losses stimulated the public and the so by the selection, in such critical times, of his successor. mercantile bodies to petition earnestly for the termination of This was no other than old Welbore Ellis, whose pigmy the American war; and the parliament met at the appointed body and mind had been so mercilessly satirised by Junius, time amid numbers of such demands. Petitions came from under the names of the “ Manikin ” and the “ Grildig." the cities of London and Westminster, and many other. The title selected for Germaine was viscount Sackville. towns and counties, bearing rather the features of remon- Loud was the outcry of wonder and indignation which burst strances. The West India planters resident in London re- from peers and commons when this elevation was mentioned. presented their ruin as inevitable if the war were persisted | The marquis of Carmarthen, before the patent of nobility

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