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tenant-colonel Jameson. Jameson read the papers, and handkerchief, as a flag of truce, he bade the men row to the determined to send them express to Washington, retaining Vulture. The white flag secured him impunity, both from the André as prisoner till he received further orders. It is American lines on shore, and from the guns of the Vulture. alleged that Jameson, though he was acquainted with He was received safely on board, made himself known, and Arnold's handwriting, had been so stupid as not to perceive was conveyed securely to New York. It is remarkable how that general's concern in the affair, and therefore, having easily Arnold could himself escape, though he did not take dispatched his messenger to the commander-in-chief, also the same effectual means for André's safety. Thus—how wrote a full account of it to Arnold, as the commander of the different his fate to that of unhappy André !—Arnold was district. It is certain that Washington declared that received with a warm welcome by Clinton and the English Jameson showed "egregious folly” in the transaction, and officers, though he had not secured the advantages offered, that Arnold was, by a communication from Jameson, duly and though André was the apparent sacrifice for his treason. warned of the discovery.

He was immediately made a colonel in the British army with When this startling letter reached Arnold at his head- the local rank of major-general, and received a payment of quarters—which were at one Robinson's house, not within six thousand pounds as compensation for his loss by the the lines of West Point, but on the eastern bank of the change. He soon after issued an address to the people of

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Hudson, and some miles lower down-he was hourly expect- America, declaring the public grounds for his abandonment ing the arrival there of Washington from his interview at of the republican cause, and calling on the continental Hartford. It was the morning of the 25th. Two of Wash- troops to follow his example. ington's aides-de-camp had already arrived, and they were Scarcely had Arnold left his house when Washington breakfasting with him and his staff when the express arrived arrived there, and, hearing that he was gone to West Point, froin Jameson. He opened the letter bringing him such went after him. No Arnold could be found ; and, whilst terrible tidings; but, mastering his feelings, he requested Washington was wondering at the circumstance, colonel the officers to proceed with breakfast whilst he made a com- Hamilton brought him the dispatch of colonel Jameson, munication to his wife, who had not risen. Then he dis- which, in Arnold's absence, he had opened. Washington closed to her the appalling fact, which had the effect of thus learned the whole mystery, and soon after received a throwing her into an instant swoon. But there was no letter from Arnold, on board the Vulture, justifying his time to be lost. He left her lying insensible, descended, and proceeding, and entreating that his wife might not suffer on desired the officers to tell general Washington, on his arrival, his account; and it is to the honour of the Americans that he was suddenly called to West Point, and, mounting that she did not - a generous fact, which we record his horse, rode off. Arriving at the Hudson, he put off in with the more pleasure, because such facts are thinly sown a boat, and, on reaching the mid-stream, taking out a white on the part of the Americans in this war. She was suffered to join her husband at the close of the year at own letter ; but, unfortunately, André, with that incautious New York.

frankness which distinguished bis whole proceedings, had But very different was the treatment of major André. admitted before the board that he had made no use of a flag On him the Americans let fall all the vindictive fury which of truce, and this was immediately seized on by Greene as they could not wreak on Arnold. Even Washington here decisive. Robertson then reminded Greene of the conduct forgot his wonted justice and moderation. No sooner did of the English in such cases; of more than one instance, in André learn that Arnold was out of danger than he freely which, at the intercession of the commander-in-chief, Sir acknowledged his own name and his rank in the British Henry Clinton had delivered up acknowledged spies. He army. He wrote to Washington, declaring that he had pointed out one especial case, that of captain Robinson, a done nothing but what his duty to his king required, and clearly-proved American spy, who at Washington's particular that he had not assumed any mean disguise in carrying out his intercession had been given up to him. He added that orders, but merely for his own safety in carrying them into major André was high in the esteem of Sir Henry Clinton, execution. All such reasoning was lost on Washington, and that this was an especial opportunity for Washington who had a trait of deep sternness in his character, which, to return the courtesy — a courtesy which the English under his present smart at the perfidy of Arnold, commander was anxious to promote, as tending greatly to degenerated into cruelty. He gave no reply, though André soften the horrors of war. in his letter had pointed out to him that Sir Henry Clinton But all such arguments were lost on Greene, and Roberthad in his hands a number of American gentlemen who had son then spoke more firmly on the military law of the case broken their parole to lord Cornwallis, and entered into He declared that no military tribunal in Europe would conspiracy against the British government. He reminded decide the case of Arnold to be that of a spy; urged that him that they might be had in exchange for him, or that his the opinion of generals Rochambeau and Knyphausen should treatment might affect theirs. He concluded with expres- be taken on the subject. The fact is, that the greater part sions of confidence in the generosity of Washington - a of the American generals had been taken from the ploughgenerosity which he was not destined to see exercised in tail, and could not be supposed to be deeply read in military his case.

jurisprudence; but it was not their ignorance but their Washington's only answer was to appoint a board of passion which misguided them. They were determined to inquiry to examine the case, which consisted of twelve hang André because Arnold had escaped from them, and all American officers and two foreigners, baron Steuben and La argument was thrown away. As we have been compelled Fayette. The judge-advocate, Lawrence, was one of the to say before, we must repeat, that we believe that no such board, and general Greene the president. Poor André was acts of public magnanimity can be found in the history of not allowed any advocate, any witness, or any friend. the American republic as are scattered through that of any General Cliuton, the moment he was aware of the arrest of other nation of modern times. Washington, who had André, sent a letter to Washington, stating that André had always exceeded his countrymen in justice and moderation, gone on shore under a flag of truce, and, at the time of his at least in this case wholly abandoned himself to his resentarrest, was travelling under a pass from Arnold, the com- ment, refused this most righteous and proper plea to take mander of the district. To this letter was added one from the opinion of the only competent judges, and determinal Arnold, confirming both points, and asserting that, being that the sentence should be executed without any mitigathen the commander of the district, he had a full right to tion. issue such protections. Clinton therefore requested Wash- Robertson did not content himself with his statements to ington to liberate André immediately. To this letter Greene; he repeated them in a letter addressed direct to Washington did not deign the civility of a reply till after a Washington himself, and Arnold once more renewed his lapse of four days, and after the board of officers had declared statements and entreaties, but in vain. There was only one André a spy.

idea which influenced the American mind, and that was, if General Clinton, astonished at this extraordinary severity, possible, to secure Arnold. It was, therefore, carefully so opposed to the whole mild tenor of the English in such suggested by Washington himself, though he did not venture cases throughout the war, wrote again immediately to Wash- to make a direct proposition on the subject—that Arnoldi ington, stating that he thought the board could not be should be given up, on the condition of André's liberation ! rightly informed of the whole circumstances of the case, and Captain Aaron Ogden, who carried the letters from Washthat it was of the highest consequence to humanity and ington and André to the British posts, was instructed to Washington's own reputation that he should be fully propagate this idea amongst the British officers at Panlus apprised of the true facts before he put such a sentence into Hook, by whom it was conveyed to general Clinton, and, of execution ; that, to insure this, he was sending to him a course, rejected with the disgust inseparable from all deputation, consisting of lieutenant-general Robertson, the honourable minds. Hon. Andrew Elliot, lieutenant-governor, and the Hon. But it was not in this circuitous mode that this idea was William Smith, chief-justice of New York. On the 13th of alone offered to the English commander; general Greene October the three commissioners arrived, but Washington proposed it directly to general Robertson in their official refused to see any of them, and only permitted general interview, and Robertson assured Sir Henry Clinton that he Robertson to have an interview with general Greene. In answered the mean suggestion only by a look of indiguation. this interview Robertson urged the fact, that André had André himself prepared for the death, which he saw was gone ashore under a flag of truce, as proved by Arnold's 'inevitable, with resignation. He employed his prison hours

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in writing and sketching, and made a pen-and-ink portrait he simply raised the bandage from his eyes, and said, of himself, now preserved in the Trumbull Gallery at Yale “I pray you bear me witness that I meet my fate like a College. One thing only troubled him ; that was, that he brave man.” must die by the halter, and not by a soldier's death. To | No sooner was he thus executed like a felon, than his escape this last and most undeserved ignominy, he addressed judges, the officers who had witnessed his conduct through a letter to Washington on the 1st of October, entreating these trying circumstances, and Washington himself, that this might be allowed. “Buoyed,” he said, “ above who in his anger had forgotten his usual courtesy and the terrors of death by the consciousness of a life devoted to temper, were ready to bear testimony to the fortitude and

gentlemanly conduct and accomplishments of this too open and noble-minded young man, who was as yet only in his twenty-ninth or thirtieth year. Indeed, throughout the whole of the proceedings nothing could exceed the gentlemanly and communicative bearing of André. He seemed to feel it as a point of honour to conceal nothing regarding himself, to reveal nothing that might implicate any one else. Little care as Arnold had evinced for his safety till it was too late, he never dropped a syllable of censure upon him. On the other hand, all this fine and affecting demeanour was lost on the Americans, who, whilst they pretended to lament his fate, never ceased coolly to press it to a conclusion. And there can now be but one opinion on this transaction anywhere, except in America—that it is a blot upon their history, and upon their almost solitary great man, which nothing can ever wash out, and which the virtues and nobleness of the victim only render the darker. A monument was raised to the memory of André in Westminster Abbey, and his remaius, in 1821, were removed from the soil where they had been so vindictively dishonoured, and carried to England.

Arnold continued to issue his addresses to the American people and army, in which he described the tyranny and deceitfulness of the American government in the blackest terms. He declared that he had always been disposed to

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honourable pursuits, and stained with no action that can give me remorse, I trust the request I make to your excellency at this serious period, and which is to soften my last moments, will not be rejected. Sympathy towards a soldier will surely induce your excellency and the military tribunal to adapt the mode of my death to the feelings of a man of honour. Let me hope, sir, that if aught in my character impresses you with esteem towards me—if aught of my misfortunes marks me the victim of policy and not of resentment-I shall experience the operation of these feelings in your heart, by being informed that I am not to die on a gibbet."

Washington did not even vouchsafe him a reply; but the next morning he was led forth to the gallows. He was

MEMORIAL STONE, MARKING THE PLACE OF ANDRÉ'S EXECUTION. dressed in his uniform as a British officer, and his behaviour was marked by firmness and composure, till he beheld the accept the very liberal conditions of the mother country, fatal tree, when be started, and said, "Must I, then, die in and had seen, with increasing disgust, its disguise and conthis manner?” But he added, "It will be but a momen- cealment of the true proposals of England from the Ametary pang.” He advanced to the gallows with a firm step, rican people; that they had now reduced the States to a and bandaged his eyes himself with his handkerchief. Being country of widows, orphans, and beggars; had allied themthen told that he might speak to the bystanders if he liked, I selves to a perfidious and bankrupt nation, which hated

liberty and the protestant religion, and that the only soldiers must also be engaged for the whole war, and that security for rational freedom and liberty of conscience was the officers must have half-pay for life. There was a loud in the return to the mild sway of England. Congress outcry in congress on this, that the commander-in-chief was replied to these in many respects just reproaches with intending to make himself a dictator, as Cromwell had violent recriminations. On the part of the British, the done, and that the States would only escape from one king conduct of the Americans to André produced no alteration to have another self-created ; but the necessities of the case in their spirit or temper. They never put into execution rose above these democratic clamours, and the proposals any of the menaces of retaliation only employed to en- were carried, but with little relief to Washington, for the deavour to save that unfortunate officer. They continued regulations were doggedly resisted in almost every direction, to treat with the utmost mildness the Americans, who and even for the soldiers he had found it almost constantly offended against the laws of war; and even the impossible to procure subsistence. He still continued to forty gentlemen from Charlestown, who had flagrantly occupy his position on the highlands above the Hudson ; broken their parole, and gone over again to the American Rochambeau in his camp on Rhode Island, and Clinton

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ranks, were merely transferred from the prison-ships to | in New York, and all parties retired early into winter Pensacola and St. Augustine, in Florida, and there again quarters. their parole was allowed them, but under stricter surveil. During this year the Americans continued to hope for lance. About this time some exchanges of prisoners were relief to themselves from the progress of the armed effected. Lincoln was given up for major-general Phillips, neutrality, but derived little good from it, though, through who had been prisoner since the surrender of Saratoga ; but their exertions, they beheld Holland added to the open the congress still refused to keep their engagement with the enemies of England. The czarina of Russia expressed her army which there capitulated, and held it, in defiance of every chagrin at the little effect which it produced, declaring that principle of honour, to the end of the war.

it was only an armed nullity; whilst her favourite and Washington and all the principal officers now pressed on minister, Potemkin, declared to the British ambassador, Sir congress something like the conscription which France soon James Harris, that it had been conceived in mistake, had after adopted, for maintaining the army, insisting that the been perfected by vanity, and was only maintained on the


purchaseid restore as toj

A.D. 1780.]

NEGOTIATIONS FOR PEACE WITH SPAIN. part of the congress by pride and stubborness. The French ministers. These were, to purchase Gibraltar froin the themselves, overwhelmed with debts and difficulties, showed English on conditions which should restore peace. It symptoms of desiring to make peace. M. Necker proposed appears that these ideas were entertained so far as to induce to lord North, in a private letter, a truce, which might be lord George Germaine to state to Hussey that such a pur. extended as seemed desirable, during which the belligerent chase might possibly be effected if Spain would, as an equivapowers in America should each hold the possessions which lent, yield to England the island of Porto Rica, the fortress they had now in their power; but George III. would not for and territory of Omao, in Honduras, sufficient coast to a moment listen to any such terms. At the same time, create a fort and erect a fortress in the Bay of Oran, on the France openly fêted Franklin, La Fayette, or any other coast of Africa, the purchase of all the artillery and stores person who had taken part in the American quarrel, not in Gibraltar, together with the payment of two millions

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omitting such compliments in her seaports to Paul Jones, sterling for money already expended on the fortress, and whenever he brought into them any of his prizes.

if Spain engaged to afford no further assistance to his Spain continued the siege of Gibraltar, and entered, at majesty's white subjects in America, but, on the contrary, the same time, into secret negotiations with England, should assist him in reducing them to obedience, and neither through Mr. Hussey, an Irish priest, who had been chaplain suffer any American ships to enter her ports, nor American to count Almadovar when ambassador in London. Hussey subjects to remain in his dominions. still remained in London, acting, as was strongly suspected, Yet, even these great requisitions did not seem sufficient as a spy for the court of Spain ; and, through him, Richard to embolden the government to enter seriously on so unCumberland, the private secretary of lord George Germaine, popular a transaction as the surrender of Gibraltar. They was induced to make the Spanish wishes known to the soon grew frightened at their own temerity, and receded from

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