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HE Science of Society is the philosophy and system of History. Societary Science is the true foundation of Societary Art. It is what Memory is to the Thinker, in the evolution of his new combinations. It is the experience of the past and of the present, inspiring and regulating with prophetic vision the destiny of the future. History, vulgarly so called, however, is not societary science, altho related to it. It is merely a chronology without system-an indiscriminate collection of dates and occurrences, often irrelevant, often trivial, and but seldom connected with the great progressive developments of society, and those markt societary phases which best offer themselves for a systematic classification of historic states. The subject of societary science, the systematic classification of the great phases of society, is a novel idea. History indeed we have had, in learned tomes, in ponderous volumes; but this history gives societary facts according to date, and not according to state. It is a thing of time, and not of essence. It deals with chronology, and eschews psychology. It measures by Olympiads, lustrums, and hejirahs, but not by organic phases, or data of positive societary progress.

As an introduction to a better classified system of history, in connection with Societary Science and Art, we present a brief synopsis of the principal phases of history, thrö an outline of the chief states of society which have been developed more or less in the world. In analyzing society in relation to its progress, we find these societary states to be ten in number. As the classifications of science demand a certain unitary and definite nomenclature, and an algebraic abbreviation of expression, we name these ten societary states-Paradization, Patriarchality, Clanism, Barbarization, Feudality, Municipality; Civilization, Monopolism, Associality, and Communization.

Paradization is the first societary state. The fact of the histories of all nations having, in general coincidence, the record of the commencement of society in a paradizaical state, is the basis of this position. A traditionary remembrance of paradization is preserved not only by the Hebrew Moses, and the Latin writers Ovid and Lucretius, but even by the most savage and uncultivated tribes in all parts of the globe. According to the general tradition of all nations, what we term Paradization was the garden, or Eden condition, of the primitive worldthe golden age and the Arcadian valley of the sons of song. In it, according to the tradition, the inhabitants of the earth lived in common upon the spontaneous fruits of nature. In it all was love, peace, plenty, and happiness. The world was so thinly populated, and its produce so plenteous, that the terms of


meum and tuum were unknown. Society was undefined, unregulated, having, without thought or design, all things in common. Thus in a sense, its definition is indefinite. Analogic probability, as well as historical tradition, however, supports the idea of paradization as the first societary state. In the analogy of numbers it accords with 1, which as 1 is no number, which as a one is in all numbers, and which as The One is all number. Hence its ambiguity. It originates with the human couple, man and woman, who form in themselves one social individual, having all things in common, but yet scarcely to be called a society. Nevertheless, the family commences from the united couple. 1 and 2, according to Pythagoras, symbolize all things. 1 and 2 make 3, and once the square of two, four. The power of one working in 3 produces 9-27-81-243. Society has begun. It is in operation. But it would not have begun, it would not have operated any more than arithmetic, without a first, without a one; of itself no fact save in relation to facts. Paradization, therefore, we class as the first societary state. It stands as the germ of society, as important and mysterious to societary science, as God is to religion.

In Paradization, then, there is the human couple. It produces a family. This family produces families. With these families, according to the law of progressive experience, division first developes itself. The Fall commences. The one family of paradization is broken up, and the various individual families and private possessions of Patriarchality or Pastoralism begin.

Consequently the Patriarchal-pastoral condition is the second societary state. It is so, not arbitrarily, but in natural order. Place any human couple, inexperienced, ignorantly happy, in the isle of Juan Fernandez, or any where else, and the moment individual familism arises out of their paradisaical union, the societary state of patriarchality arises also, and must of necessity institute itself. In like manner do the other eight societary states follow in a natural course of development. Thus any supposition that the classification here propounded is arbitrary, must be banisht from the mind. It is the system of History, not our system. It is natural, necessitated: an exposition of the general law of cause and effect, as it relates to societary association.

Patriarchality is the development of the germ of human familism, in its most individualized and isolated aspect. The man, in its domestics, is the despotic father; in its politics, the absolute governor; in its ecclesiastics, the sole priest. The woman in it, is only the enslaved mother. Her mission is merely conjugal and maternal-is only to bear a family of which her husband is the patriarch. The industry of this family is of the pastoral kind. A few rods of ground may be planted around its tent, but herding and hunting are its chief employments. More than five times the extent of land is required for the pastoral, than for the agricultural life. The patriarchal family becomes nomadic, wandering. It moves for fresh pasture and water for the flock, or for a new hunting-ground. It consequently keeps apart from other families. The cattle of Abraham and of Lot, must not be too close together. The marriageable young men and maidens must after a while separate from their parents' family, and form themselves into a distinct family. Meanwhile population increases. The pastoral life absorbs very quickly also, any given tract of country. Differences as to the appropriation of pasturage arise, and the societary state of Clanism is consequented.

Clanism, or Tribism, is the third state of society. It is the junction of several families whom nearness of race, analogy of name, vicinage of situation, or some such conditions of probability, connect in a league, protective and aggressive, against a common foe. Junction of a temporary or incidental character, under one chief, with independence of families in general relations, characterizes the tribe, the sept, the horde, and the clan. This junction, primitively organized for defence or aggression only, as resulting from the disputes respecting pastur age, has in itself important results. The tents of the various families are clustered together, and become stationary huts, containing the germ of a village. In war, the elected chief commences the institution of arbitrative power. Meanwhile population is on the increase. Their pasture, altho maintained as the property of the tribe, becomes insufficient for their wants. They cannot aggress, for their neighbors are clans as strong as themselves. They cannot change their situation. They have formed the attachment of place, and would have to move thrö a hostile country. They look at home: they curtail their pasture, extend their agriculture, and thus provide for their population, and increase their wealth. In this latter respect is produced a motive for further societary change.

At this stage, Barbarization, the fourth state of society, arises. Induced by the wealth of the territory of a particular tribe, other tribes league together, and conquer it. By this warfare the barbarous manners are created, from which we name this state. The conquest of tribes, however, constitutes the nation. Monarchy establishes itself. The village, when centrally situate, becomes a city, or even a regal metropolis. The politics of the age enters into its ecclesiastics, and finds a Moses, a Mohammed, a Constantine, and a Charlemagne, as its practical expositors. The Latin and Sabine tribes become Romans, and Veii and Fidenatæ are conquered. The Saxon Heptarchy becomes the English nation. The nation is; the people not. War supplies the wants of the nation. The provinces feed the capital. Industry is not free, but compulsory. War meanwhile increases; it becomes national instead of tribal. All the power of the monarch is directed to it. He must succeed, or fall. The limits of his empire are increased; he must protect his boundaries. His chieftains grow tired of war; he must render it more attractive.


These causes effect a fifth state of society, Feudality or Baronialism. characteristic is Union, with graduated dependency. A barbarian monarch requires to conquer, or to maintain. The limits of his empire are too large, both for unrestricted obedience, and for simple personal aggrandizement. He grants, therefore, certain lands to certain of his chiefs, on condition of their conquest or their maintenance, and with patents of nobility, but subject to be held under certain customs or payments, in fief of him as their lord paramount. These fiefs are again subdivided by their holders into lesser fiefs, and distributed by them, under similar stipulations, among less powerful chieftains. The same system, thus applied politically, is adopted into ecclesiastical organization, whence come clerical as well as lay barons. Such is an outline of what is known as the Feudal System, from which we name the fifth societary state. In it aristocracy, titles of nobility, and heraldry arise, the illusions of chivalry prevail, and manorial institutions and copyholds commence. Meanwhile a period of peace occurs. The feudal barons repair to their castles. They attract

retainers around them. The monarch is now not alone in possessing a court. The barons and their courts have wants. The artizan appears to gratify them, and as the city has grown around the monarch, so grows the town around the baron.

From these causes springs a sixth societary state—that of Municipality. Differences arose between the central authority of the barbarian monarch, and the circular power of his feudal chiefs. Art had manifested itself, fostered by patronage, but with it came intelligence. The serf who had become an artizan, wished to become a free artizan, and would fight the battle, or defend the castle, only on that condition. His freedom was so gained, by this, and by the growing love of art. Towns were chartered with burgess rights and privileges. Industrial corporations and mercantile guilds obtained freedom, or bought it. The thirteenth century saw the tradesmen, as the Commons, admitted by their representatives, altho restricted by limitations, into the governing political assemblies of England and France. The oligarchic element had arisen in society. The Hanseatic league was instituted. And now the relations between the aristocracy and the commercial class become closer. The mercantile wealth of the latter increases, and places itself by the side of the territorial property of the former. Meanwhile, as the commercial demand has increased, prosperous tradesmen have employed sub-salaried workmen. These increase in number and intelligence; thus causing a seventh societary state.

This seventh state of society is Civilization, or the Civil-Commercial period. Fostered by municipal institutions, the last of which in the British Isles was the municipal Reform Bill, trade at first florishes. Commerce is pacific. International treaties arise. Tariffs are introduced. A balance of power commences among nations, and war is in a great degree checkt. Correcter views of Christianity assist this. Meanwhile population ever increases. Its majority hasten to manufactures, and neglect agriculture. The markets of production are overstockt, and the distribution is defective. The nation has become a people, but it is an unemployed, and therefore a miserable and starving people. National war has been checkt, but the war of commercial competition rages. Democracy arises, and commences the contest for the unemployed. The electoral principle of representative reform is partially introduced, yet nothing but palliatives, or temporary revolution, offer themselves. Lastly, immense improvements in machinery are effected, and add to the development of a new societary state.

This eighth societary state is Monopolism, or negative association. The improvements in machinery are seized upon by an individual capitalist, or by a company of capitalists. They tend still more and more to throw the manual laborer out of employment, as they are monopolized for private advantage. Commercial patents increase. Great firms rule the markets. Forestalling, and its concomitant famine, are fearfully prevalent. Monopolizing companies, and not national governments, execute railways and great public works. Private banks are extended. Monopoly in machinery, monopoly in corn, monopoly in legislation, and monopoly in almost every respect, prevail. The rich become richer daily, and the poor, poorer. Change is absolutely forced on by misery and starvation. Such is the terrible state of society under which the more civilized countries, and most particularly the British Isles, are now groaning.

Hence the ninth societary state is partially arising-Associality. Those who are not reduced to absolute pauperism by Monopolism, are compelled by it to associate for mutual benefit. They institute labor exchanges, with labor notes as a monetary currency. They as laborers, imitate the capitalists in the variety of their combinations, with the difference that the constitution of their associations is less exclusive. They form co-operative societies and land-buying companies. They subscribe to building-associations. They arrange united cornmills, and constitute associative-farming-and-manufacturing-societies. They organize by shares, or by subscriptions, associations of united capital, skill, and industry. This phase of society has already partially commenced in all civilized countries. It is, however, individualized, indefinite, and feeble. Like Monopolism, Municipality, and Feudality, it is rather a transitive state than a societary position (like Barbarization or Civilization) of positive enduring progress. It does not act from the whole, but from a few. It is more analytic than synthetic. It possesses little power save example. It is subject to external competition and national will. It is therefore only critical and transitive. It indicates, and prepares the way for, a further state of society, in which its principles shall have a generalized application, and its practices be empowered by public opinion.

The tenth state of society, thus indicated and prepared, we name Communization. It is not an arbitrary proposal, altho Utopias have prophesied it. It is a deduction from existing societary premisses, which, as can be proved, must of necessity, sooner or later, take place. It has also been the beau-ideal of prophets and sages, and the aspiration of the greatest legislators and patriots, thröout all time. Its principal elements are common property, common industry, and common government, thröout the mundane system. Under its development all mankind would have one united interest, as the members of one great family. The globe would, in fact, become but one estate, of which the territories of nations were the farms. That Communization is a premized fact, and not an arbitrary assumption, may be made evident, both from the doctrine of the day and its inferences, and from the present practices of society, and their consequences. The doctrine of the Communist Church is preacht, and has its chronicles of progress, and numerous disciples, in the most advanced countries of the world. The declaration that GOD is the Only True Landlord, and that all the human race are his heirs in common, is traveling over the earth, and has its political as well as religious aspect. It is taught, that as no one did ever create a particle of entity, so has no one any right to exclusive private property. It is taught, that all should produce in common, and consume in commonthat ability is the measure of production, and want the scale of consumption. It is taught, that the practice of industry by all is an absolute condition of health for the individual, and of justice for society. It is shown that by unitary habitation, and by a union of income and expenditure, a larger population can be maintained, in greater wealth and happiness, than in a state of commercial competition and domestic isolation; that nationality is an evil, and that a federation of all countries, under a unitary government of the globe, should be establisht. Such doctrine as this must have some ground of fact whence it has arisen. The glaring inequality of private possession, caused by the competition of the eighth, and the monopoly of the ninth societary states, have directed the

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