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the people of the nation, that furnishesthem, and diminish the people of the nation, that uses them. Laws, therefore, that prevent such importations, and, on the contrary, pro~ mote the exportation of manufactures to be consumed in foreign countries, may be called (with respect to the people that make them) generative laws, as, by increasing subsistence, they encourage marriage. Such laws likewise strengthen a country doubly, by increasing its own people, and diminishing its neighbors.
17. Some European nations prudently refuse to consume the manufactures of East India :--they should likewise forbid them to their colonies ; for the gain to the merchant is not to be compared with the loss, by this means, of people to the nation. ' _ .
18. Home luxury in the great, increases the nation’s manufactures employed by it, who are many, and only tendsto diminish the families that indulge in it, who are few. The greater the common fashionable expence of any rank of people, the more cautious they are of marriage. There
_ fore luxury should never be sulfered to become common.
19. The great increase of ofi'spring in particular families is not always owing to greater fecundity of nature, but some~ times to examples of industry in the heads, and industrious education, by which the children are enabled to provide better for themselves, and their marrying early is encouraged from the prospect of , good subsistence.
20. If there be a sect, therefore, in our nation, that re-l gards frugality and industry as religious duties, and educate their children therein, more than others commonly do, such sect must consequently increase more by natural generation than any other sect in Britain. ‘
21. The importation of foreigners into a country, that has as many inhabitants as the present employments and provisions for subsistence will bear, will be in the end no increase of people, unless the new-comers have more industry and frugality than the natives, and then they will provide more subsistence, and increase in the country ; but they will gradually eat the natives out.--N or is it necessary
190 POLITICAL ECONOMY.
to bring in foreigners to fill up any occasional vacancy in a
. ment of her colonies ; or in Guinea, by a hundred years ex-
pride, and idleness, and other causes, rather than to the
22. There is, in short, no bound to the prolific nature of
How im- v
for settling the bounds between her colonies and the French! and. how careful should she be to secure room enough, since on the room depends so much the increase of her people?
23. In fine, a nation well regulated is like a polypus,° take away a limb, its place is soon supplied ;' cut it in two, and each deficient part shall speedily grow out of the part remaining. vThus, if you have room and subsistence enough, .as you may say, by dividing, make ten polypuses out of one, you may, of one, make ten nations, equally populous and powerful ; or, rather, increase a nation tenfold in numbers and strength.
Remarks on some of the jbregoz'ng Observations, showing liarticularly the Eflects which Manners have on Population.
IT is now near three years since I received your excellent Observations on the Increase afMan/éz'na', £590. in which you have with so much sagacity and accuracy shown in What manner, and by what causes, that principal means of political grandeuriis best promoted ; and have so well supported those just inferences you have occasionally drawn, concerning the general state of our American colonies, and the views and conduct of some of the inhabitants of Great Britain. — /
You have abundantly proved, that natural fecundity is hardly to be considered, because the vz‘s generandi, as far as we know, is unlimited, and because experience shows, that the numbers of nations is altogether governed by collateral causes, and among these none of so much force as the quantity of subsistence, whether arising from climate, soil, improvement of tillage, trade, fisheries, secure property, conquest of new countries, or other favorable circumstances.
6 A water insect, wellknown to naturalists.
As I perfectly concurred with you in your sentiments on these heads, I have been very desirous of building somewhat on the foundation you have there laid; and was induced, by your hints in the twenty-first section, to trouble you with some thoughts on the influence manners have always had, and are always likely to have, on‘the numbers of a people, and their political prosperity in general.
The end of every individual is its own private good. The rules it observes in the pursuit of this good are a system of propositions, almost every one founded in authority, that is, derive their weight from the credit given to one or more persons, and not from demonstration.
And this, in the most important as well as the other affairs of life, is the case even of the wisest and philosophical part of the human species ; and that it should be so is the less strange, when we consider, that it is perhaps impossible to prove, that being, or life itself, has any other value than what is set on it by authority. .
A confirmation of this may be derived from the observation, that, in every country in the universe, happiness is soughtupon a different plan; and, even in the same country, we see it placed by different ages, professions, and ranks of men, in the attainment of enjoyments utterly unvlike. '
These propositions, as well as others framed upon them, become habitual by degrees, and, as they govern the deter
' mination of the will, I call them moral habits.
There. are another set of habits, that have the direction of vthe members of the body, that I call therefore meclianical habits. These compose what we commonly call the arts, which are more or less liberal or mechanical, as they moreor less partake of assistance from the operations 'of the mind. ' '
The cumulus of the moral habits of each individual is the manners‘ of that individual: the cumulus of the manners of individuals makes up the manners of a nation.
The happiness of individuals is evidently the ultimate end of political society; and political welfare, or the ‘strength,
splendor, and opulence of the state, have been always ad
I‘lllttfid, both by political writers, and the valuable part of
mankind in general, to conduce to this end, and are therefore desirable. 1
The causes, that advance or obstruct any one of these three objects, are external or internal. The latter may be divided into physical, civil, and personal, under which last head I comprehend the moral and mechanical habits of mankind. The physical causes are principally climate, soil, and number of persons ; the civil, are government ‘and laws ; and political welfare is always in a ratio composed of the force of these particular causes; a multitude of external causes, and all these internal ones, not only control and qualify, but are constantly acting on, and thereby insensibly, as well as sensibly, altering one another, both for the better and the worse, and this not excepting‘ the climate itself.
The powerful efiicacy of manners in encreasing a people is manifest from the instance you mention, the Quakers; among them industry and frugality multiply and extend the use of the necessaries of life ; to manners of a like kind are owing the populousness of Holland, Swisserland, China, Ja— pan,and most parts of Hindustan, &c. in every one of which, the forcev of extent of territory and fertility of soil is multiplied,or their want compensated by industry and frugality.
Neither nature nor art have contributed much to the production of subsistence in Swisserland, yet we see frugality preserves and even increases families, that live on their fortunes, and which, in England, we call the gentry; and
. g I the observation we cannot but make 111 the southern part of
this kingdom,‘ that those families, including all superior ones, are gradually becoming extinct, affords the clearest proof, that luxury (that is, a_ greater expen'ce of subsistence than in prudence a man ought to consume) is as destructive as a disproportionable want of it; but in Scotland, as in Swisserland, the gentry, though one with another they have not one-fourth of the income, increase in numberC c