A Treatise on the Law of Municipal Corporations, Band 1

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Callaghan, 1911 - 8627 Seiten
 

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Samewalls gates and open places
24
Cities of Ancient Egypt 2729
27
SameMemphis 29
29
SameThebes 30
30
Cities of ancient Chaldaea and AssyriaMesopota mia 32
32
Ancient Nineveh
33
Other Assyrian cities 34
34
Cities of Babylonia 35
35
Nebuchadnezzars Capital 3639
36
BorsippaOpisSusaTyreSidon Jerusalem 39
39
Nature of Babylonian culture and fall of Babylon 4043
40
PhoeniciaSidon 4345
43
Carthaginian supremacy 4547
45
Greece 4750
47
The Greek CityAthens 5153
51
The Greek Ideal of a perfect civic life 5455
54
Municipal institutions of ancient Rome 55
55
Samepreponderance of cities and towns and civic communities 57
57
City of ancient Rome and its municipal activities 5864
58
The Roman conception of a municipal corporation 6467
64
feudal system 6869
68
Samegeneral condition of towns 69
69
The feudal system and its effect on municipal insti tutions 70
70
French communities during the middle ages 7375
73
Charter privileges to French communities 7577
75
Commune distinguished from borough 77
77
Medieval Flanders and Holland
78
Municipal institutions in early Spain 7982
79
Cities of ancient Mexico 8284
82
The Incas empireCuzcoLima 84
84
DEVELOPMENT OF MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT IN ENGLAND 43 Practical importance of such knowledge 85
85
General outline of local government in England 8693
86
The English municipal corporation 93
93
The Teutonic farmer commonwealths planted in early England 9597
95
Municipal institutions in England under Roman dominion 9799
97
The early English borough and its influence on lo cal selfgovernment 99
99
The granting of charters to communities in early England 103106
103
The Great Charter 106
106
First municipal corporation in Englandcharter to KingstonUponHull 108112
108
Subsequent granting of municipal charters 113115
113
Secs Pages 53 Control of local corporations by the crownjudi cial forfeiture of charters 115
115
Purposes and effect of early English municipal cor porations 117120
117
Municipal government under feudal charters in England 121
121
The guilds or fraternitiesstruggle of the town for freedom 122
122
Decadence of municipal government in England prior to the Reform Act 126
126
The English Municipal Corporation Reform Act 129131
129
English municipal corporations under the reform act 132
132
Modern English borough 137
137
Grant of powers to local authorities and the meth ods of central control 138
138
LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN AMERICA 62 The power of government is in the people 141
141
Origin of American institutions 142
142
The three general types of local government 143
143
The township and county 145
145
The New England and western township contrasted 146
146
The municipal corporation proper 148
148
Organs of local government as public quasicorpo rations
149
Local selfgovernment is recognized under our sys temits benefit 152
152
The value of local selfgovernmentviews of emi nent public men 157159
157
Secs Pages 72 General progress making 160
160
Government of modern Prussian citiesBerlin Hamburg 162
162
Vienna 168
168
Budapest 169
169
Copenhagen Stockholm and Christiana
171
Modern municipal government in France 172174
172
Paris 174176
174
Cities of Belgium 176
176
Cities of Switzerland 178
178
Modern municipal problems in EnglandBirming ham_Liverpool Manchester 179182
179
London 182
182
Modern municipal government in ScotlandGlas gow Edinburgh 187189
187
MUNICIPAL ADMINISTRATION IN THE UNITED STATES ITS NATURE AND COMPLEX CHARACTER ENUMERATION OF CER TAIN DEF...
189
Samerapid increase of urban population 191
191
Samerapid increase of urban population in the United States 193203
193
Public and private character of municipal adminis tration 203206
203
nicipal corporation 281285
206
The municipal corporation is a governmental insti tution created to spend not to make money Its purpose is political not business 207
207
Nature and scope of municipal administration indi cated 211
211
Elements of the problem of municipal government
213
Samecommission plan 217219
217
Sameautocratic mayor 219220
219
The true conception of governmentimportance of form of municipal organization 220
220
Difficulties of material improvement 223
223
Education in the science of municipal government 225227
225
The use of public powers for private advantage 227230
227
Proper performance of civic obligations 230235
230
Failure to separate state and national politics from local public issues 235238
235
State interference with municipal affairscities should be free and selfgoverning 238241
238
CHAPTER 2
242
The corporation describedvarious definitions 243245
243
The corporation is distinct from its members 245
245
Elements of the corporation enumerated 247
247
Common law powers of the corporation
248
Municipal corporation defined 253258
253
What included in the term municipal corporation 259265
259
The state as a municipal corporation 265
265
Corporation for municipal purposes 266269
266
Municipal corporations distinguished from quasi corporations 269272
269
How municipal corporations differ from counties 272277
272
Municipal corporations distinguished from school districts 277280
277
School districts have statutory powers only 280
280
People and place necessary to constitute a corpora tion 286
286
Membership in a municipal corporation 288
288
Elements of the municipal corporation enumerated 289
289
Origin of private municipal capacity 290
290
CHAPTER 3
292
Creation in England 293294
293
Power to create vested in state 294296
294
Creation by general or special actthe method pre scribed to be followed
297
The congress has power to create corporations
298
Early corporations created by special actsevil effects 300
300
General incorporation laws required and special acts usually forbidden 301305
301
Creation under constitutional provisions 305
305
Effect of general statutes on special charters 308310
308
Special chartered cities and towns may incorpo rate under the general laws 310312
310
Surrender of special charter and organizing under general lawseffect on municipal government 312314
312
Classification 314318
314
CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS
316
Advancement and reduction in class or grade 318320
318
ORGANIZING UNDER GENERAL LAWS 133 Compliance with statutory provisions in general irregularities 320322
320
Secs Pages 134 Sameillustrative cases 322
322
Same subject 324
324
Incorporation by court 325
325
Same subject 327329
327
Separate bodies possessing concurrent jurisdiction
329
Samestatutory provisions 330
330
The petition for incorporationsufficiency 332334
332
Samequalification of signers 334
334
Sameright to withdraw signatures 335
335
Notice of pendency of proceedings to incorporate 336
336
Hearing of application for incorporation 337
337
Court order of incorporation 338
338
Election on creation and change of boundaries 339
339
Sameofficial action thereon
342
Doctrine of implication 344346
344
De facto corporations 347
347
State recognition 349351
349
Acceptance of charter 351
351
Proof of corporate existencejudicial notice pleading 355
355
Same 358
358
Samehow incorporation proved 359
359
Samelocation of corporation 360
360
Questioning creationquo warrantocertiorari 362365
362
Same 365
365
Constitutional provisions 367368
367
Sametitle to actillustrative cases 368370
368
Same subject 370
370
Same subject 371
371
SAMECLASSIFICATION OF MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS
374
Legislature may exercise compulsory authority
384
Local selfgovernment is recognized and sought
390
Secs Pages
397
Secs Pages 398 Lands on navigable waters are held in trust for
398
State may regulate selection of municipal officers 403405
403
Sameillustrative cases of state and municipal
410
Legislative control of officers and their functions
417
Legislature may change corporate boundaries 423
423
Special and local laws relating to municipal corpo
430
Sameby commissions 436
436
Corporate powers or municipal purposes
446
Tests to distinguish general from special or local law 465467
465
Same subject
467
Judicial methods of testing classification 468
468
Same subject 469
469
Population as a basis for classification 471472
471
Act applicable to one city or object only 472474
472
Sameillustrative cases 474476
474
Tests of classificationillustrative cases 476478
476
Same subjectjustification for and relation of classification to purpose of the legislation 478
478
Cases illustrating general laws as distinguished from special or local laws 482484
482
Laws applicable to municipal corporations of a class 484
484
Secs Pages 211 The legislature cannot divide or add classes 485486
485
Special or local laws to take effect on event of fu ture contingency or within limited time 486492
486
Samelocal option laws 492
492
Curative acts as special or local laws 494
494
Laws to give effect to constitutional provisions
496
Changing special municipal charters
497
Summary of principles applied to test the validity of classification 498
498
LEGISLATIVE CONTROL OF CORPORATE PROPERTY 219 Legislative control of corporate propertygeneral consideration 500
500
Samewater works 503505
503
Sameparks
506
quired 451453
507
Samemiscellaneous corporate property 509511
509
Sametransfer to another class of public officers 511
511
Samegeneral doctrine stated 512
512
LEGISLATIVE CONTROL OF STREETS AND HIGHWAYS 227 Legislative control of streets is paramount 514518
514
Power delegated to municipal corporations to reg ulate streets 518521
518
Sameright is public 522
522
LEGISLATIVE CONTROL OF FUNDS AND REVENUES 230 Legislative control of funds and revenue 524
524
Same subject 526528
526
Secs Pages
528
Legislative power to compel the levy of taxes 535
535
Same subjecthours of laborvalidating contract 542544
542
Result of absence of affirmative constitutional pro
551
Right of local selfgovernment exists without
558
Secs Pages
565
Actionsvariance 571
571
CHAPTER 6
577
CHAPTER 7
584
Same subject 591
591
Power of state in establishing and changing muni
598
Secs Pages
603
CHAPTER 8
608
Discretion in submitting question of extension
612
Samedefinitions of platted lots blocks 621623
621
Reasonableness of annexationcontiguous or
627
Detachment of municipal territory 633636
633
Samesufficiency of ordinance 639
639
Sameplat or plan of property to be annexed
645
Secs Pages 288 Sameaction to test validity of proceeding 649
649
Same subjectpresumptionsacquiescence 651653
651
Samecollateral attack on annexation proceedings 653657
653
Samereview 657659
657
Defects may be cured
659
Condition of public property and debts after change apportionment 662665
662
Taxation and exemptions on change of limits 665668
665
Municipal subdivisions and wards 668671
668
Same subject 671673
671
IPAL CORPORATIONS 674716
674
What changes will not constitute dissolution
675
Repeal of charter may destroy 678680
678
Inhabitants may not dissolvenonuser 680682
680
Failure to elect officers will not dissolve 682684
682
Failure to elect officers dissolves when statute so provides 684
684
May be dissolved only by statemethod 685688
685
Dissolution under the English law 688689
688
Dissolution under the Roman law
689
Courts have no inherent power to declare forfei ture of charter 691
691
Effect of judgment of ouster on quo warranto 692
692
Rights of creditors of extinct corporation pro tectedcommon law rule rejected 693697
693
Dissolution of illegal corporation de jure successor liable 697
697
Extinguishing by dividinglegislative apportion ment of property and debts 698700
698
Sameillustrative cases 701703
701
Absorption by annexation or consolidation 703705
703
Dissolution and reorganizationnew is successor of old when 706711
706
Samesuspension of governmental functionsre vival 711713
711
Dissolution without substitution 714716
714
CHAPTER 9
717
CHARTERS OF VARIOUS CITIESCHICAGO SAN FRAN CISCO Los ANGELES GREATER NEW YORK GALVESTON AND DES MOINES 4 PR...
718
Various definitions of charters 720
720
Municipal charter defined and described 721
721
Same subjectcontains the municipal powers and prescribes the form of organization 722725
722
Secs Pages 322 Samethe scope of the functions of municipal gov ernment
725
Constitutional and legislative municipal charters 726728
726
Special municipal powers in California
728
MUNICIPAL ORGANIZATION OF ST LOUIS 325 Characteristic features of a constitutional charter St Louis 729731
729
Samegeneral outline of municipal government and relation of the city to the state 732
732
Powers and responsibility of officers under the St Louis charter 733735
733
Mayor authorized to approve only such appointees as mentioned in the charter 735
735
Department of public improvementsapproval of appointees 736
736
Samelegislative interpretation of presidents supervision 737
737
Mayors general supervisory control 738
738
Conclusions as to approval of appointees in the de partment of public improvements 739741
739
General functions of the council
741
Should the mayor be given ore power? 742
742
CHARTERS OF Various CITIESCHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO Los ANGELES GREATER New YORK GALVESTON AND DES MOINES 336 Mun...
744
Charter of San Francisco 747749
747
Charter of Los Angeles 749751
749
Municipal organization of Greater New York 751
751
Secs Pages 340 Commission planGalveston 756758
756
The Des Moines plan of city government 758760
758
Proof of charterjudicial notice 760
760
CHAPTER 10
761
Same subject 763
763
Legislature may amend and repeal municipal char ters 765767
765
Direct amendment of constitutional charters 767769
767
Same subject 769771
769
Indirect or legislative amendment of constitution al charters 771773
771
Amendments forbidden by special or local laws 773775
773
CHAPTER 10
776
Secs Pages 350389 THE NATURE CONSTRUCTION AND EXERCISE OF GENERAL CORPO RATE POWERS 776861
777
Usual powers 778
778
General rule as to municipal powers stated 779785
779
Rules of construction 786788
786
Same subjectreasonable construction 788
788
in the enactment of ordinances 791
791
Construction of power to regulate 792
792
IMPLIED OR INCIDENTAL POWERS 357 General rule as to implied or incidental powers stated 794796
794
Implied powers are confined to municipal affairs 796798
796
Cannot engage in private business
798
Implied power to enact ordinances 799
799
Implied powers respecting offices and officers 800802
800
Implied powers as to police and sanitary regula tions
802
Appropriations as donations forbidden 803
803
Appropriations for celebrations entertainments etc void 804806
804
Bounties to soldiers 806809
806
Expenditures to obtain or oppose legislation 809
809
Miscellaneous illustrations of implied powers 810813
810
Same subject 814
814
Exercise of powers by virtue of usage or custom 815817
815
Same subject 817819
817
EXECUTION OF POWERS 371 Method of exercise of powers 819821
819
Same subject 821823
821
When ordinance necessary to exercise power 823
823
Same subjectlegislative or executive powers
824
Same subjectselfenforcing charter provisions
825
Judiciary will not control the exercise of discre tionary powers 826
826
Same subject 827830
827
Limitation of rule of nonjudicial interference 831833
831
Secs Pages
833
Public powers cannot be surrendered or delegated 839842
839
Legislative authority cannot be delegated 846848
846
Ministerial duties may be delegated 852854
852
SPECIAL OR PARTICULAR AND MISCELLA
862
Subscription to stock of private corporations 871874
871
Sale of liquordispensary laws
879
corporations 883
883
Wharvesownership of land 884
884
Municipal corporation cannot abdicate control of wharves
886
Batture
887
Same subjectnature of wharfage 888890
888
Wharfage charge as an interference with interstate commerce
891
Character of public ferries 892897
892
Lease and operation of ferries 897
897
License and taxation of ferries etc 898
898
License for privilege of navigationregulating or interfering with foreign or interstate commerce 899901
899
Power to construct and maintain municipal bridges over navigable waters 902906
902
Urheberrecht

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Seite 449 - The General Assembly shall not pass local or special laws in any of the following enumerated cases, that is to say : Regulating the jurisdiction and duties of justices of the peace and of constables; For the punishment of crimes and misdemeanors...
Seite 450 - That all political power is inherent in the people, and all free Governments are founded on their authority, and instituted for their benefit; and that they have at all times an undeniable and indefeasible right to alter their form of government in such manner as they may think expedient.
Seite 317 - Cities and towns heretofore organized or incorporated may become organized under such general laws whenever a majority of the electors voting at a general election shall so determine...
Seite 347 - The General Assembly shall provide, by general law, for township organization, under which any county may organize whenever a majority of the legal voters of such county, voting at any general election, shall so determine...
Seite 251 - Among the most important are immortality, and, if the expression may be allowed, individuality; properties by which a perpetual succession of many persons are considered as the same, and may act as a single individual. They enable a corporation to manage its own affairs, and to hold property without the perplexing intricacies, the hazardous and endless necessity, of perpetual conveyances, for the purpose of transmitting it from hand to hand. It is chiefly for the purpose of clothing bodies of men,...
Seite 784 - It is a general and undisputed proposition of law that a municipal corporation possesses and can exercise the following powers and no others: First, those granted in express words; second, those necessarily or fairly implied in or incident to the powers expressly granted; third, those essential to the declared objects and purposes of the corporation — not simply convenient but indispensable.
Seite 256 - Constitution protects, we find that when private property is 'affected with a public interest, it ceases to be juris privati only.
Seite 442 - The general assembly shall not delegate to any special commission, private corporation or association, any power to make, supervise, or interfere with any municipal improvement, money, property, or effects, whether held in trust or otherwise, or to levy taxes, or perform any municipal function whatever.
Seite 535 - The legislature shall have no power to impose taxes upon counties, cities, towns or other public or municipal corporations, or upon the inhabitants or property thereof, for county, city, town, or other municipal purposes, but may, by general laws, vest in the corporate authorities thereof the power to assess and collect taxes for such purposes.
Seite 421 - That the people of this State have the inherent, sole and exclusive right of regulating the internal government and police thereof, and of altering and abolishing their Constitution and form of government, whenever it may be necessary to their safety and happiness...

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