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Act V. Appear more wise and modest to the world. the First and Second Parts of Ilenry the Fourth. *Ch. Just. And so they are.

Perhaps no author has ever, in two plays, afforded P. John. The king hath call'd his parliament, so much delight. The great events are interesting, my lord.

for the fate of kingdoms depends upon them; the Ch. Just. He hath.

slighter occurrences are diverting, and, except one P. John. I will lay odds,-that, ere this year or two, sutliciently probable; ihe incidents are expire,

multiplied with wonderful fertility of invention ;
We bear our civil swords, and native fire, and the characters diversified with the utmost
As far as France: I heard a bird so sing, nicety of discernment, and the profoundest skill in
Whose music, to my thinking, pleas'd the king. the nature of man.
Come, will you hence ?

[Exeunt. The prince, who is the hero both of the comic

and tragic part, is a young man of great abilities, EPILOGUE,

and violent passions, whose sentiments are right, SPOKEN BY A DANCER.

though his actions are wrong; whose virtues are

obscured by negligence, and whose understanding FIRST, my fear; then, my court'sy; last, my is dissipated by levity. In his idle hours he is speech. My fear is, your displeasure; my court'sy, rather loose than wicked ; and when the occasion my duty; and my speech, to beg your pardons. If forces out his latent qualities, he is great without you look for a good speech now, you undo me: for effort, and brave without tumult. The trifler is what I have to say, is of mine own making; and roused into a hero, and the hero again reposes in what, indeed, I should say, will, I doubt, prove the trifler. The character is great, original, and just. mine own marring. But to the purpose, and so to Percy is a rugged soldier, choleric and quarrelthe venture. --Be it known to you, (as it is very some, and has only the soldier': virtues, generosity well,) I was lately here in the end of a displeasing and courage. play, to pray your patience for it, and to promise But Falstaff! unimitated, unimitable Falstaff! you a betterI did mean, indeed, to pay you with how shall I describe thee? thou compound of sense this; which if, like an ill venture, it come unluck- and vice; of sense which may be admired, but not ily home, I break, and you, my gentle creditors, esteemed; of vice which may be despised, but lose. Here, I promised you, I would be, and here hardly detested. Falstaff is a character loaded I commit my body to your mercies : bate me some, with faults, and with those faults which naturally and I will pay you some, and, as most debtors do, produce contempt. He is a thief and a glutton, å promise you infinitely.

coward and a boaster ; always ready to cheat the If my tongue cannot entreat you to acq:it me, weak, and prey upon the poor; to terrify the timowill you command me to use my legs? and yet rous, and insult the defenceless. At once obsequi

? that were but light payment,—to dance out of your ous and malignant, he satirizes in their absence debt. But a good conscience will make any possi- those whom he lives by flattering. He is familiar ble satisfaction, and so will l. All the gentlewo- with the prince only as an agent of vice; but of men here have forgiven me; if the gentlemen will this familiarity he is so proud, as not only to be not, then the gentlemen do not agree with the gen- supercilious and haughly with common men, but tlewomen, which was never seen before in such an to think his interest of importance to the duke of assembly.

Lancaster. Yet the man thus corrupt, thus despiOne word more, I beseech you. If you be not cable, makes himself necessary to the prince that too much cloyed with fat meat, our humble author despises him, by the most pleasing of all qualities, will continue the story, with sir John in it, and perpetual gaiety; by an unfailing power of exciting make you merry with fair Katharine of France: laughter, which is the more freely indulged, as his where, for any thing I know, Falstaff shall die of a wit is not of the splendid or ambitious kind, but sweat, unless already he be killed with your hard consists in easy scapes and sallies of levity, which opinions ; for Oldcastle died a martyr, and this is make sport, but raise no envy. It must be obnot the man. My tongue is weary; when my legs served, that he is stained with no enormous or sanare too, I will bid you good night': and so kneel guinary crimes, so that his licentiousness is not so down before you ;-but, indeed, to pray for the Offensive but that it may be borne for his mirth. queen.

The moral to be drawn from this representation is, that no man is more dangerous than he that, with

a will to corrupt, hath the power to please; and ! fancy every reader, when he ends this play, that neither wit nor honesty ought to think themcries out with Desdemona, 'O most lame and im- selves safe with such a companion, when they see potent conclusion! As this play was not, to our Henry seduced by Falstaff. 'JOHNSON. knowledge, divided into aets by the author, I could be content to conclude it with the death of Henry called the First and Second Parts of Henry the

Mr. Upton thinks these two plays improperly the Fourth : 'In that Jerusalem shall Harry die.'

Fourth. The first play ends, he says, with the

peaceful settlement of Henry in the kingdom by These scenes, which now make the fifth act of the defeat of the rebels. This is hardly true;

for Henry the Fourth, might then be the first of Henry the rebels are not yet finally suppressed. The the Fifth; but the truth is, that they do not unite second, he tells us, shows Henry the Fifth in the very commodiously to either play. When these various lights of a good-natured rake, till, on his plays were represented, I believe they ended as they father's death, he assumes a more manly character. are cow ended in the books; but Shakspeare seems This is true; but this representation gives us no to have designed that the whole series of action, idea of a dramatic action. These two plays will from the beginning of Richard the Second, to the appear to every reader, who shall peruse them end of Henry the Fifth, should be considered by without ambition of critical discoveries, to be so the reader as one work upon one plan, only broken connected, that the second is merely a sequel to into parts by the necessity of exhibition. the first; to be two, only because they are too None of Shakspeare's plays are more read than long to be one.

JOHNSON

[graphic]

KING HENRY V.

PERSONS REPRESENTED.

King IIenry the Firth.

Charles the Sixth, king of France. Duke of Gloster, brothers to the king.

Lewis, the dauphin. Duke of Bedford, )

Dukes of Burgundy, Orleans, and Bourbon. Duke of Exeter, uncle lo the king.

The Constable of France. Duke of York, cousin to the king.

Rambures, and Grandpre, French lords.
Earls of Salisbury, Westmoreland, and Warwick. Governor of Harfleur.' Montjoy, a French herald.
Archbishop of Canterbury.

Ambassadors to the king of England.
Bishop of Ely.
Earl of Cambridge,

Isabel, queen of France.
Lord Scroop,

conspirators against the king. Katharine, daughter of Charles and Isabel. Sir Thomas Grey,

Alice, a lady allending on the princess Katharine. Sir Thomas Erpingham, Gower, Fluellen, Mac- Quickly, Pistol's wife, a hostess.

morris, Jainy: officers in king Henry's army. Lords, ladies, officers, French and English soldiers. Bates, Court, Williams, soldiers in the same.

messengers, and altendants. Nym, Bardolph, Pistol, forinerly servants to Fulstaj, now soldiers in the same.

The Scene, at the beginning of the play, lies in Boy, servanl lo them. A llerald. Chorus.

England ; but afierwards, wholly in France.

1

a

Enter Chorus.

ACT I.

SCENE 1.-London. An ante-chamber in the O, FOR a muse of fire, that would ascend

king's palace. Enter the Archbishop oj CanterThe brightest heaven of invention !

bury, and Bishop of Ely. A kingdom for a stage, princes to act, And monarchs to behold the swelling scenc!

Canterbury.
Then should the warlike Harry, like himself, MY lord, I'll tell you,—that self bill is urg'd,
Assume the port of Mars; and, at his heels, Which, in the eleventh year o'the last king's reign
Leash'd in, like hounds, should famine, sword, and was like, and had indeed against us passà,
fire,

But that the scambling and unquiet time
Crouch for employment. But pardon, gentles all, Did push it out of further question.*
The flat unraised spirit, that hath dar'd,

Ely. But how, my lord, shall we resist it now? On this unworthy scaffold, to bring forth

Cant. It must be thought on. If it pass against us, So great an object: Can this cockpit hold We lose the better hall of our possession:

The vasty fields of France? or may we cram For all the temporal lands, which men devout
Within this wooden 0,' the very casques, a By testament have given to the church,
That did aifright the air at Agincourt ?

Would they strip from us; being valued thus, 0, pardon! since a crooked figure may

As much as would maintain, to the king's honour, Attest, in little place, a million;

Full fifteen earls, and fifteen hundred knights ; And let us, cyphers to this great accompt, Six thousand and two hundred good esquires; On your imaginary forces: work:

And, to relief of lazars, and weak age, Suppose, wiihin the girdle of these walls

of indigent faint souls, past corporal toil, Are now confin'd two mighty monarchies, A hundred alms-houses, right well supplied ; Whose high-upreared and abutting fronts And to the coffers of the king beside, The perilous, narrow occan parts asunder. A thousand pounds by the year: Thus runs the bill. Piece out our imperfections with your thoughts : Ely. This would drink deep. Into a thousand parts divide one man,

Cant.

'Twould drink the cup and all. And make imaginary puissance:

Ely. But what prevention ? Think, when we talk of horses, that you see them Cant. The king is full of grace, and fair regard. Printing their proud hoofs i'the receiving earth : Ely. And a true lover of the holy church. For 'tis your thoughts that now musi deck our Cant. The courses of his youth promis'd it not. kings,

The breath no sooner left his father's body, Carry them here and there; jumping o'er times; But that his wildness, mortified in him, Turning the accomplishments of many years Seem'd to die too : yea, at that very moment, lato an hour-glass; For the which supply, Consideration like an angel came, Admit me Chorus to this history;

And whipp'd the offending Adam out of him, Who, prologue-like, your humble patience pray, Leaving his body as a paradise, Gently to hear, kindly to judge, our play. To envelop and contain celestial spirits.

Never was such a sudden scholar made: (1) An allusion to the circular form of the theatre.

|(2) Helmets. (3) Powers of fancy. (4) Nekry

same.

Never came reformation in a flood,

SCENE 11.-The same. A room of state in the With such a heady current, scouring faults;

Enter King Henry, Gloster, Bedford, Nor never Hydra-headed wilfulness

Exeter, Warwick, Westmoreland, and attendSo soon did lose his seat, and all at once,

ants. As in this king.

K. Hen. Where is my gracious lord of CanterEly. We are blessed in the change.

bury? Cant. Hear him but reason in divinity,

Ere. Not here in presence. And, all-admiring, with an inward wisho

K. Hen. Send for him, good uncle. You would desire, the king were made a prelate: West. Shall we call in the ambassador, my liege? Hear him debate of commonwealth affairs,

K. Hen. Not yet, my cousin ; we would be reYou would say,-it hath been all-in-all his study :

solvd, List: his discourse of war, and you shall hear Before we hear him, of some things of weight, A fearful battle render'd you in music:

That task our thoughts, concerning us and France. Turn him to any cause of policy, The Gordian knot of it he will unloose,

Enter the Archbishop of Canterbury, and Bishop Familiar as his garter; that, when he speaks,

of Ely. The air, a charter'd libertine, is still,

Cant. God, and his angels, guard your sacred And the mute wonder lurketh in men's ears,

throne, To steal his sweet and honeyed sentences; And make you long become it! So that the art and practic part of life

K. Hen.

Sure, we thank you. Must be the mistress to this theoric :?

My learned lord, we pray you to proceed ;
Which is a wonder, how his grace should glean it, and justly and religiously unfold,
Since his addiction was to courses vain :

Why the law Salique, that they have in France,
His companies: unletter'd, rude, and shallow; Or should, or should not, bar us in our claim.
His hours fill'd up with riots, banquets, sports; And God forbid, my dear and faithful lord,
And never noted in him any study,

That you should fashion, wrest, or bow your reading, Any retirement, any sequestration

Or nicely charge your understanding soul l'rom open haunts and popularity;

With opening litlos miscreate, whose right Ely. The strawberry grows underneath the net- Suits not in native colours with the truth; tle;

For God doth know, how many, now in health, And wholesome berries thrive and ripen best, Shall drop their blood in approbation Neighbour'd by fruit of baser quality;

Of what your reverence shall incite us to : And so the prince obscur'd his contemplation Therefore take heed how you impawn our person, Under the veil of wildness; which, no doubt, How you awake the sleeping sword of war; Grew like the summer grass, fastest by night, We charge you in the name of God, take heed : Unseen, yet crescives in his faculty.

For never two such kingdoms did contend, Cant. It must be so: for miracles are ceas'd; Without much fall of blood ; whose guiltless drops And therefore we must needs admit the means, Are every one a wo, a sore complaint, How things are perfected.

'Gainst him, whose wrongs give edge unto the swords Ely.

But, my good lord, That make such waste in brief mortality. How now for mitigation of this bill

Under this conjuration, speak, my lord: Urg'd by the commons ? Doth his inajesty And we will hear, note, and believe in heart, Incline to it, or no?

That what you speak in your conscience wash'd Cant.

He seems indifferent ; As pure as sin with baptism. Or, rather, swaying more upon our part,

Cunt. Then hear me, gracious sovereign,-and Than cherishing the exhibiters against us:

you peers, For I have made an offer to his majesty,

That owe your lives, your faith, and services, Upon our spiritual convocation ;

To this imperial throne ;-There is no bar And in regard of causes now in hand,

To make against your highness' claim to France, Which I have open'd to his grace at large, But this, which they produce from Pharamond,As touching France,-to give a greater sum In terram Salicam mulieres succedant, Than ever at one time the clergy yet

No wonan shall succeed in Salique land: Did to his predecessors part withal.

Which Salique land the French unjustly gloze, Ely. How did this offer seem receiv'd, my lord ? To be the realm of France, and Pharamond

Cant. With good acceptance of his majesty; The founder of this law and female bar. Save, that there was not time enough to hear Yet their own authors faithfully affirm, (As, 1 perceiv'd, his grace would fain have done,) That the land Salique lies in Germany, The severals, and unhidden passages,

Between the floods of Sala and of Elbe : of his true titles to some certain dukedoms; Where Charles the great, having subdued the And, generally, to the crown and seat of France,

Saxons, Deriv'd from Edward, his great-grandfather. There left behind and settled certain French; Ely. What was the impediment that broke this Who, holding in disdain the German women, off"?

For some dishonest manners of their life, Cant. The French ambassador, upon that instant, Establish'd there this law,—to wit, no female Cravd audience : and the hour, I think, is come, Should be inheritrix in Salique land; To give him hearing: Is it four o'clock? Which Salique, as I said, 'twixt Elbe and Sala, Ely.

It is. Is at this day in Germany call’d-Meisen. Cant. Then go we in, to know his embassy ; Thus doth is well appear, the Salique law Which I could, with a ready guess, declare, Was not devised for the realm of France : Before the Frenchman speak a word of it. Nor did the French possess the Salique land Ely. I'll wait upon you; and I long to hear it. Until four hundred one and twenty years

[Exeunt. Aller defunction of king Pharamond, (1) Listen to. (2) Theory. (3) Companions. (4) Increasing. (5) Spurious. (6) Explain.

only,

Idly suppos'd the founder of this law;

So hath your highness; never king of England Who died within the year of our

redemption Had nobles richer, and more loyal subjects; Four hundred twenty-six; and Charles the great Whose hearts have left their bodies here in England, Subdued the Saxons, and did seat the French And lie pavilion'd in the fields of France. Beyond the river Sala, in the year

Cant. 0, let their bodies follow, my dear liege, Eight hundred five. Besides, their writers say, With blood, and sword, and fire, to win your right: King Pepin, which deposed Childerick,

In aid whereof, we of the spirituality
Did, as heir general, being descended

Will raise your highness such a mighty sum,
or Blithild, which was daughter to king Clothair, As never did the clergy at one time
Make claim and title to the crown of France. Bring in to any of your ancestors.
Hugh Capet also, - that usurp'd the crown

K. Hen. We must

not only arm to invade the or Charles the duke of Lorain, sole heir male

French; of the true line and stock of Charles the great,- But lay down our proportions to defend To fine' his title with some show of truth, Against the Scot, who will make road upon us (Though, in pure truth, it was corrupt and naught,) With all advantages. Convey'd himself as heir to the lady Lingare, Cant. They of those marches, gracious soveDaughter to Charlemain, who was the son

reign, To Lewis the emperor, and Lewis the son Shall be a wall sufficient to defend or Charles the great. Also king Lewis the tenth, Our inland from the pilfering

borderers. Who was sole heir to the usurper Capet,

K. Hen. We do not mean the coursing snatchers Could not keep quiet in his conscience, Wearing the crown of France, till satisfied But fear the main intendment of the Scot, That fair queen Isabel, his grandmother, Who hath been still a giddy neighbour to us ; Was lineal of the lady Ermengare,

For you shall read, that my great grandfather Daughter to Charles the foresaid duke of Lorain : Never went with his forces into France, By the which marriage, the line of Charles the great But that the Scot on his unfurnish'd kingdom Was re-united to the crown of France.

Came pouring, like the tide into a breach, So that, as elear as is the summer's sun,

With ample and brim fulness of his force; King Pepin's title, and Hugh Capet's claim, Galling the gleaned land with hot essays; King Lewis his satisfaction, all appear

Girding with grievous siege, castles and towns, To hold in right and title of the female :

That England, being empty of defence,
So do the kings of France unto this day; Hath shook, and trembled at the ill neighbourhood.
Howbeit they would hold up this Salique law, Cant. She hath been then more fear'd' than
To bar your highness claiming from the female ;

harm'd, my liege :
And rather choose to hide them in a net, For hear her but exampled by herself,
Than amply to imbares their crooked titles When all her chivalry hath been in France,
Usurp'd from you and your progenitors.

And she a mourning widow of her nobles, K. Hen. May I, with right and conscience, make She hath herself not only well defended, this claim?

But taken, and impounded as a stray, Cant. The sin upon my head, dread sovereign! The king of Scots; whom she did send to France, For in the book of Numbers is it writ,

To fill king Edward's fame with prisoner kings; When the son dies, let the inheritance

And make your chronicle as rich with praise, Descend unto the daughter. Gracious lord, As is the ooze and bottom of the sea Stand for your own; unwind your bloody flag; With sunken wreck and sumless treasuries. Look back unto your mighty ancestors :.

West. But there's a saying, very old and true,--Go, my dread lord, to your great grandsire's tomb, If that you will France win, From whom you claim ; invoke his warlike spirit, Then with Scotland first begin : And your great uncle's, Edward the black prince; For once the eagle England being in prey, Who on the French ground play'd a tragedy, To her unguarded nest the weasel Scot Making defeat on the full power of France; Comes sneaking, and so sucks her princely eggs; Whiles his most mighty father on a hill

Playing the mouse, in absence of the cat, Stood smiling; to behold his lion's whelp

To spoil and havoc more than she can eat. Forage in blood of French nobility.4

Ere. It follows then, the cat must stay at home : O noble English, that could entertain

Yet that is but a curs'd necessity; With half their forces the full pride of France; Since we have locks to safeguard necessaries, And let another half stand laughing by,

And pretty traps to catch the petty thieves. All out of work, and cold for action!

While that the armed hand doth fight abroad, Ely. Awake remembrance of these valiant dead, The advised head defends itself at home : And with your puissant arm renew their feats : For government, though high, and low, and lower You are their heir, you sit upon their throne; Put into parts, doth keep in one concent;: The blood and courage, that renowned them, Congruing' in a full and natural close, Runs in your veins; and my thrice-puissant liege Like music. Is in the very May-morn of his youth,

Cant. True: therefore doth heaven divide Ripe for exploits and mighty enterprises.

The state of man in divers functions, Exe. Your brother kings and monarchs of the Setting endeavour in continual motion; earth

To which is fixed, as an aim or butt,
Do all expect that you should rouse yourself, Obedience: for so work the honey-bees;
As did the former lions of your blood.

Creatures, that, by a rule in nature, teach West. They know, your grace hath cause, and The act of order to a peopled kingdom. means, and might;

They have a king, and officers of sorts:10 (1) Make showy or specious. (2) Derived his title. (6) General disposition. (7) Frightened. (3) Lay open.

(4) At the battle of Cressy. (8) Harmony. (9) Agreeing (5) The borders of England and Scotland.

(10) Different degrees.

412

Act II.
Where some, like magistrates, correct at home; You cannot revel into dukedoms there :
Others, like merchants, venture trade abroad; He therefore sends you, meeter for your spirit,
Others, like soldiers, armed in their stings, This tun of treasure ; and, in lieu of this,
Make boot upon the summer's velvet buds; Desires

you,

let the dukedoms, that you claim, Which pillage they with merry march bring home Hear no more of you. This the dauphin speaks. To the tent-royal of their emperor:

K. Hen. What treasure, uncle ?
Who, busied in his majesty, surveys

Exe.

Tennis-balls, my liege. The singing masons building roofs of gold; K. Hen. We are glad, the dauphin is so pleaThe civil citizens kneading up the honey ;

sant with us ; The poor mechanic porters crowding in

His present, and your pains, we thank you for : Their heavy burdens at his narrow gate ;

When we have match'd our rackets to these balls, The sad-ey'd justice, with his surly hum, We will, in France, by God's grace, play a set, Delivering o'er to executors2 pale

Shall strike his father's crown into the hazard; The lazy yawning drone. I this infer, - Tell him, he hath made a match with such a That many things having full reference

wrangler, To one concent, may work contrariously; That all the courts of France will be disturb'd As many arrows, loosed several ways,

With chaces. And we understand him well, Fly to one mark;

How he comes o'er us with our wilder days, As many several ways meet in one town; Not measuring what use we made of them. As many fresh streams run in one self sea ; We never valu'd this poor seat' of England; As many lines close in the dial's centre;

And therefore, living hence, did give ourself So may a thousand actions, once afoot,

To barbarous license; As 'tis ever common, End in one purpose, and be all well borne That men are merriest when they are from home. Without defeat. Therefore to France, my liege. But tell the dauphin, - I will keep my state; Divide your happy England into four;

Be like a king, and show my sail of greatness, Whereof take you one quarter into France, When I do rouse me in my throne of France: And you withal shall make all Gallia shaké. For that I have laid by my majesty, If we, with thrice that power left at home, And plodded like a man for working days; Cannot defend our own door from the dog, But I will rise there with so full a glory, Let us be worried; and our nation lose

That I will dazzle all the eyes of France,
The name of hardiness, and policy.

Yea, strike the dauphin blind to look on us.
K. Hen. Call in the messengers sent from the And tell the pleasant prince,--this mock of his
dauphin.

Hath turn’d his balls to gun-stones; and his soul
[Exit an attendant. The King ascends his Shall stand sore charged for the wasteful vengeance
throne.

That shall fly with them : for many a thousand Now are we well resolv’d: and, -by God's help,

widows And yours, the noble sinews of our power,

Shall this his mock mock out of their dear husbands; France being ours, we'll bend it to our awe, Mock mothers from their sons, mock castles down; Or break it all to pieces: Or there we'll sit, And some are yet ungotten, and unborn, Ruling in large and ample empery,'

That shall have cause to curse the dauphin's scorn. O'er France, and all her almost kingly dukedoms : But this lies all within the will of God, Or lay these bones in an unworthy urn,

To whom I do appeal; And in whose name, Tombless, with no remembrance over them: Tell you the dauphin, I am coming on, Either our history shall, with full mouth, To venge me as I may, and to put forth Speak freely of our acts; or else our grave,

My rightful hand in a well-hallow'd cause. Like Turkish mute, shall have a tongueless mouth, So, get you hence in peace; and tell the dauphin, Not worship'd with a waxen epitaph.

His jest will savour but of shallow wit,

When thousands weep, more than did laugh at it. Enter Ambassadors of France.

Convey them with safe conduct.-Fare you well. Now are we well prepard to know the pleasure

[Exeunt Ambassadors. Of our fair cousin dauphin; for, we hear,

Exe. This was a merry message. Your greeting is from him, not from the king.

K. Hen. We hope to make the sender blush at it. Amb. May it please your majesty, to give us leave

(Descends from his throne. Freely to render what we have in charge ;

Therefore, my lords, omit no happy hour, Or shall we sparingly show you far off

That may give furtherance to our expedition: The dauphin's meaning, and our embassy ?

For we have now no thought in us but France ; K. Hen. We are no tyrant, but a Christian king ; Save those to God, that run before our business. Unto whose grace our passion is as subject,

Therefore, let our proportions for these wars As are our wretches fetter'd in our prisons :

Be soon collected ; and all things thought upon, Therefore, with frank and with uncurbed plainness, More Teachers to our wings ; for, God before,

with reasonable swiftness, add Tell us the dauphin's mind. Amb.

Thus then, in few.

We'll chide this dauphin at his father's door. Your highness, lately sending into France,

Therefore, let every man now task his thought, Did claim some certain dukedoms, in the right

That this fair action may on foot be brought. or your great predecessor, king Edward the third.

TExeunt , In answer of which claim, the prince our master Says,--that you savour too much of your youth; And bids you be advis'd, there's nought in France,

ACT II. That can be with a nimble galliard won;

Enter Chorus, (1) Sober, grave. (2) Executioners.

Chor. Now all the youth of England are on fire 3) Dominion. (4) An ancient dance. (5) A place in the tennis-court into which the (6) A term at tennis. w is sometimes struck

(7) The throne. (8) Withdrawing from the court.

:

may

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