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1782.only 120 died, and of these more by the small-pox
than any other diforder. Before gen. Burgoyne was
taken, perfons were not allowed to vifit or relieve them.
After that event the treatment was different, and for-
mer severities were mitigated. When fick they were
'taken exceeding good care of; and had Americans em-
ployed to nurse them. Had not agents, clerks, &c.
deducted from the king's allowance, they fhould have
done pretty well: though having no more than crimi-
nals allowance of provifion, they had a very scanty fup-
port, befide which the provifion was often exceeding
bad. When the change of miniftry took place, they
were confidered as prifoners of war, and had an allow-
ance accordingly. They mentioned, that before they
were fent off, the duke of Richmond, gen. Conway, and
fome other gentlemen vifited them, expreffed a concern
for their fufferings, fhowed them much kindness, gave
them money, very condefcendingly fhook hands with
them and said they were brethren. They related that
the Rev. Mr. Wren of Portfmouth was extremely kind
to them; was like a father; procured them clothes,
money, and many articles to help them under their con-
finement; and frequently visited and prayed with the
fick. Mr. Laurens vifited them; encouraged them to
remain firm to their country's caufe; and told them
how he had fuffered under his confinement. One of
them who had been a prifoner at New York, to exprefs
the difference between the places, declared that he had
rather be imprisoned months in England than weeks at
New York. They ftated the number of perfons who
came away upon the exchange at 303, the reft having
made their escape at different periods.

A few acts of congress shall be now related.


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On the 13th of May, the minifter of France was ad- 1782. May mitted to a public audience, and after addreffing con- 13. grefs in a fpeech, delivered to them a letter from his most christian majefty, informing them of the birth of his fon the dauphin. A fuitable anfwer was given to the chevalier de la Luzerne. They then ordered a letter to be written to the commander in chief, and to the commander in the fouthern department, informing them of the faid event, and directed that it should be published in both armies with proper demonstrations of joy. The fecretary for foreign affairs was alfo to inform the governors and presidents of the respective states, that the people of each state might partake in the joy. When the minifter had withdrawn, the birth of the dauphin was announced to the public by a difcharge of cannon and a feu de joie of mufketry. In the afternoon a dinner was provided by congrefs for the chevalier and his fuit; and the evening was clofed with a brilliant display of fire works in the ftate houfe yard. The official notification of the dauphin's birth was received in all places of the United States, with every mark of joy and token of respect to their great and generous ally, and to the French nation.


On the 20th of June it was concluded, that the de- June vice for an armorial atchievement and reverse of the great feal for the United States in congrefs affembled fhould be as follows-ARMS-Paleways of thirteen pieces, argent and gules; a chief, azure; the efcutcheon on the breast of the American eagle difplayed, proper, holding in his dexter talon an olive branch, and in his finister a bundle of thirteen arrows, all proper, and in his beak a scroll infcribed with this motto " E pluribus Unum.”For the CREST-Over the head of the eagle, which appears


1782. appears above the efcutcheon, a glory, Or, breaking through a cloud, proper, and furrounding thirteen ftars forming a conftellation, argent, on an azure field.REVERSE-A pyramid unfinished. In the zenith an eye in a triangle, furrounded with a glory, proper. Over the eye these words "Annuit Cæptis." On the bafe of the pyramid the numerical letters MDCCLXXVI. And underneath the following motto "Novus Ordo Seclorum."


Sept. They refolved that the fum of four millions of dollars, exclufive of the money which Mr. Adams may obtain by the loan now negotiating in Holland, be bor rowed in Europe on the faith of the United States. Nine days after, they refolved, that Dr. Franklin fhould be informed, that notwithstanding the contents of his letters of the 25th of June, it is the direction of congrefs, that he ufe his utmost endeavours to effect the aforefaid loan.



On the 4th of October, they refolved unanimously, that they would inviolably adhere to the treaty of alliance with his most chriftian majefty, and conclude neither a feparate peace nor truce with Great Britain; nor enter into the difcuffion of any overtures for pacification, but in confidence and in concert with his most christian majefty.

We pass on to the fouthward as far as Georgia, with fome account of which my laft letter closed.

The British garrifon at Savannah confifted of about Loco regulars, befide a confiderable number of militia, and was under the command of brigadier Clarke. This fuperiority of force did not prevent gen. Wayne's appearing often before the British lines and insulting their picquets. Three different attempts were made to fur

prife an advanced party of the Americans without fuc- 1782. ceeding. About the fame time the American governor 3. with his council removed from Augufta to Ebenezer. Soon after his arrival he iffued a proclamation, offering to every British or Heffian foldier, who should defert from Savannah, 200 acres of land and fome stock; which had the defired effect in a certain degree.

On the 21st of May, col. Brown, at the head of a May confiderable party, marched out of the garrifon of Sa- 21. vannah, with the apparent intention of attacking the Americans. Wayne, by a bold manoeuvre, got between Brown and the garrifon, attacked him at twelve o'clock at night, and routed his whole party. The van-guard of the Americans, confisting of 60 horfe and 40 infantry, was led on, by col. White of the cavalry, and Parcapt. ker of the infantry, to a fpirited charge; in which 40 of Brown's men were killed or wounded, about 20 taken prisoners, and the remainder obliged to fhelter themfelves in the fwamps under cover of the night. The advantage was gained by the liberal ufe of the fword and bayonet. Orders had been previously given to depend entirely on these weapons; and to fecure a punctual compliance, the flints were taken out of the musketry of the infantry. The Americans had only five privates killed and two wounded. Though Brown proved unfuccefsful, yet gen. Greene reckons him one of the best officers belonging to the British troops.

On the 24th of June, a large body of Creek Indians, June headed by a number of their most celebrated chiefs and 24. warriors, and a British officer, surprised and made a furious attack upon Wayne's infantry at half an hour after one in the morning. For a few minutes they poffeffed themselves of his two field pieces, which were foon recovered.

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1782. covered. The Indians knew not how to make a right improvement of the advantages they had obtained by the furprise. Mean while the cavalry arrived and preffed hard upon them; while Wayne expofed himself, beyond what was prudent for the chief commander, that he might reinstate matters. A fmart action enfued, in which both fides fought in clofe quarters with fwords and bayonets. The Indians displayed uncommon bravery; but having to contend with both horfe and foot were completely routed. Fourteen of their number were killed, one of whom was a famous chief. The Americans had five flain and eight wounded.

The British administration having refolved upon abandoning all offenfive operations in America, the scheme of evacuating the weaker posts in the United States was adopted; and that at Savannah was to be the first. When the measure was determined upon, the merchants and others, inhabitants of the place, obtained permission to apply to Wayne for the fecurity and preservation of their perfons and property. He replied to their deputies," that should the British garrison eventually effect. an evacuation, the perfons and properties of such inhabitants or others, who choose to remain in Savannah, will be protected by the military, and refigned inviolate into the hands of the civil authority, which muft ultimately decide." The merchants and inhabitants of Savannah, having fent out a fecond flag, Wayne at the defire of the civil authority of the ftate, fent them for answer, "that the merchants, not owing allegiance to the United States, will be permitted to remain a reasonable time to difpofe of their goods and fettle their affairs." Major Haberfham, who was charged with this meffage, pledged himself that they might rely, with the utmost confi


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