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as foon as poffible, he fent with it a paffport for that 1782. purpose. They were accompanied with a letter, which clofed with " I cannot take leave of you, Sir, without affuring you, that in whatever light my agency in this unpleafing affair may be viewed, I was never influenced, through the whole of it, by fanguinary motives; but by what I conceived to be a fenfe of my duty, which loudly called upon me to take meafures, however dif agreeable, to prevent a repetition of thofe enormities which have been the fubject of difcuffion. And that this important end is likely to be answered without the effufion of the blood of an innocent perfon, is not à greater relief to you than it is to, Sir, your most obedient, humble fervant, George Washington." Though the treatment capt. Afgill met with from the general, in the various indulgences that were granted him, merited an aca knowledgment after his liberation, none was offered, and the captain is thought to have been deficient in politeness.

It was not long after Sir Guy Carleton's arrival, ere he broke up the board of affociated loyalifts, and thereby precluded a repetition of the like enormity that had been practised on Huddy. He arrived on the 5th of May, on the 7th he wrote to gen. Wafhington, and fent May him some public papers, that his excellency might learn 7 from them, the difpofitions that prevailed in the government and people of Great Britain relative to the making of a peace with the Americans. How neceffary this is for the United States, the following extracts, from the public and private letters of gentlemen of the first eminence, will convince you." May 19. Our ar- 19. my is perfectly naked, without pay or rum. The greatest decifion and feverity, has been used to prevent the confequences of a mutinous difpofition which generally pervaded

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1782.vaded the troops. Its appearances are removed, but I know of no expedient that will fecure the existence of this [the fouthern] army, unless supplies arrive foon May from Philadelphia. N. Greene."-" Fish-kill, May 25. 25. Yesterday was the third day our army [under Washington] has been without provifion. Every department is without money and without credit. The army could not make a march of one day, as they are without every neceffary as well as provifions. Officers and foldiers are exceedingly difcontented. You have doubtless heard of the premeditated revolt of the Connecticut line, happily discovered the day previous to that in which it was to have been put in execution. The ringleader was punished with death. Wherever I go I hear complaints which make me dread the most fatal confequences. The diftreffes of our army have arrived to the greatest posfible degree. Steuben."-" May 28. I am under anxiety from the want of the neceffary depofits of provifions in the garrison of Weft Point. This is an alarming circumstance. Were the enemy to know our fituation, and make a fudden attempt, what is there to save these Aug. important posts? G. Washington."—" Aug. 13. For up13. ward of two months, more than one third of our men [of the fouthern army] were entirely naked, with nothing but a breech-cloth about them, and never came out of their tents; and the reft were as ragged as wolves. Our condition was little better in the article of provifion. Our beef was perfect carrion; and even bad as it was, we were frequently without any. An army thus clothed and thus fed, may be confidered in a desperate fituation. However, we have struggled through it. Our fupplies of provifion are better, but fcanty and uncertain. Some clothing is arrived, and added to what the



governor procured, renders the troops pretty comfort-178z.: able; and the army very contented and eafy, especially as we have it now in our power to iffue rum eight times: a month. North Carolina hath had few other foldiers, than non-jurors and difaffected, and thofe for different terms of fervice. N. Greene."-[Mr. Joshua Lockwood, under the direction of gov. Mathews, brought out of Charlestown a large quantity of the articles which were moft needed in the camp. They were furnished by fome of the inhabitants, who wished to make their peace with their countrymen.]-" Sept. 22. When I found Sept. the fupplies of money from the ftates would prove fo inadequate, I determined to check all other expences, and to think only of feeding the army. We have lately had an arrival of linens which the clothier fays are fufficient to make thirty thousand fhirts; but he is fo indebted to the poor people who have worked for him, and who are starving for want of their wages, that he cannot procure credit to get them made. Money I have none. And could he run in debt ftill further, it would only increase the mifchief, for I fee no profpect of payment. R. Morris."-" Oct. 2. Only conceive the oa. mortification, that even the general officers are under, when they cannot invite a French officer, a vifiting friend, a travelling acquaintance, to a better repast, than ftinking whisky, (hot from the ftill) and not always that, and a bit of beef without vegetables, will afford them. I could give anecdotes of patriotism and distress which have scarcely ever been paralleled, never furpaffed in the history of mankind: but you may rely upon it; the patience and long fufferance of this [the northern] army are almost exhaufted, and that there never was fo great a fpirit of difcontent as at this inftant. It is high time for a

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1782. peace. Our troops have been, and ftill are obliged to



perform fervices foreign to their proper duty, without gratuity or reward, more than the foldiers of any other army-for example, the immenfe labors expended in doing the duties of artificers, in erecting fortifications and military works; the fatigue of building themselves barracks and huts annually; and cutting and transporting wood for the use of all our pofts and garrifons, without any expence whatever to the public. G. Washington." -“Oct. 17. We were upon the point of trying our hands at how we could live without fubfiftence, as the fuperintendent was no longer able to fulfil his contract with the victuallers of the [northern] army, and as they relinquished it; till fortunately for us, we met with gentlemen, who for an advanced price per ration, have faved us from starvation or disbandment by giving a credit."-" Oct. 24. For want of money we have been obliged to relinquish a contract for fubfifting the army. at ten-pence a ration, and give thirteen-pence for the fake of three months credit." Even in July the demand for money was fo great as to raise intereft to five per cent. per month.

On the 2d of Auguft, Sir Guy Carleton and adm. Digby, fent out a joint letter to gen. Washington, wherein they faid-"We are acquainted, Sir, by, authority, that negotiations for a general peace have already commenced at Paris, and that Mr. Grenville is invested with full powers to treat with all the parties at war, and is now at Paris in the execution of this commiffion. With refpect to Mr. Laurens, we are to acquaint you, that he has been enlarged and difcharged from all engagements without any condition whatever; after which he declared of his own accord, that he con

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fidered lord Cornwallis as free from his parole. We are 1782. further acquainted, that tranfports have been prepared in England, for conveying all the American prisoners to this country to be exchanged here; and we are directed to urge by every confideration of humanity, the most speedy exchange." When this news was known by the loyalifts, fuch a fcene of diftrefs raged through the city of New York, as is not easily defcribed. Those in the army tore the lappels from their coats, ftamped them under their feet, and exclaimed that they were ruined for ever. Others cried out, that they had facrificed every thing to prove their loyalty, and were now left to fhift for themselves, loft both to the friendship of their king and country. On the 7th, it was earnestly recommended in the New York paper to the loyalists every where, to fufpend their opinion on the prefent important occafion, and each to continue firm to the profeffions he had made of loyalty and zeal for the reunion of the empire, and to wait the iffue. By fuch a conduct it was obferved, they would preferve a claim to national regard and protection, which it would be madness to forfeit; fince by giving way to the fuggeftions of impatience they could only difgrace themselves in the eyes of their enemies, without a fhadow of advantage.

A part of the news was foon confirmed by the arrival of two cartel fhips, at Marblehead, with 583 Americans. By the 21ft of the month a third arrived with 116 more. Your friend embraced the opportunity of talking with feveral as they paffed by his house. The fubftance of what they related, follows. From the beginning of the war till they left Forton prifon at Gofport, near upon 1400 had been committed, out of the whole

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