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1782. as poffible, the lofs of fo fine and favorite a fhip, endured the repetition of it for about a quarter of an hour longer, when he struck his flag to the Barfleur, and furrendered himself to Sir Samuel Hood. It is faid, that at the time there were but three men left alive and unhurt on the upper deck, and that the count was one of the three.

The Cæfar was unfortunately set on fire, and blew up in the night of the action. A lieutenant and 50 British feamen perished with about 400 prifoners. The Ardent of 64 guns, taken from the British by D'Orvilliers in the channel, was now retaken.

The advantage of close fighting with British ships and feamen was never more happily exemplified. The number of the French flain in this engagement, and that of the ninth, is computed at 3000; of the wounded at near double. The computation is the more probable as upward of 400 were killed on board the Ville de Paris, and between 2 and 300 in feveral French fhips fingly. The French fleet in general was little less than ruined. The small fuperiority of British ships in point of number contributed nothing to the fuccefs of the day, as more of Hood's divifion than that difference amounted to, were prevented coming into action through the want of wind. The whole loss of the Britifh, killed and wounded in the two actions, is stated only at 1050, of which 253 were killed on the fpot. Capt. Blair of the Anfon, who had the year before diftinguifhed himfelf in the action under adm. Hyde Parker, was flain. The lofs of lord Robert Manners, fon of the late marquis of Granby, and brother to the duke of Rutland, was univerfally lamented. He had performed many

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brilliant actions during the war, in the Refolution of 74 1782. guns. He was grievously wounded; and was carried off by a locked jaw a few days after the action, on his paffage to Great Britain.

Thirty-fix chefts of money, deftined to the pay and fubfiftence of the troops in the defigned attack on Jamaica, were found in the Ville de Paris. This fhip had been a prefent from the city of Paris to Lewis XV. in that fallen ftate of the French marine, which prevailed. toward the close of the former war. No pains or expence were spared, to render the gift worthy of that city and of the monarch to whom it was prefented. Her building and fitting for fea is faid to have coft 176,000l. fterling. It was fingularly providential, that the whole train of artillery, with the battering cannon, and travelling carriages, meant for the expedition against Jamaica, were on board the ships now taken.

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Sir George Rodney brought to for the night: while the French fhips which escaped, made off to leeward with the utmost dispatch, and were out of fight in the morning. Some ran down to the Dutch island of Curaçoa. But the greater part under Meffrs. de Bougainville and de Vaudreuil, kept together and made the best of their way to Cape Francois. Sir George attempted to pursue them the next morning; but the fleet was becalmed under Guadaloupe for three days fucceffively after the battle, which gave the French the most favorable opportunity of efcaping. After Sir George was satisfied, that they were gone to leeward, he dispatched Sir Samuel Hood, whofe divifion had suffered little, to

the west end of Hifpaniola, in hope that he might pick up fome of their difabled fhips. He himself followed. -T 3

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1782. with the reft of the fleet, to rejoin Sir Samuel off Cape

Tiberoon.

Sir Samuel proceeded with fuch dispatch, that on the April day after his departure, he defcried five fail of French

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19. veffels between Porto Rico and Hifpaniola. A general chafe immediately enfued, and continued feveral hours, when the Valiant and the Magnificent of 74 guns each, came up with, and after a fhort engagement took the Jafon and Caton of 64 guns each, with two frigates: a third escaped by a fudden shift of wind.

Thus the French loft eight ships of the line: fix were in the poffeffion of the British, one had been funk, and the Cæfar blown up after her capture. Four others got into Curaçóa, and the French commanders were for weeks totally ignorant of their fate: fo that no less than twelve fail of the line were miffing. Count de Graffe confidering the extreme importance of the fervice in which he was employed, fhould have hazarded a temporary cenfure rather than have ventured the moft diftant rifk of the whole expedition. Had he fubmitted to the lofs of the fhip which fell to leeward, inftead of bearing down to her affiftance, the British could not have prevented his joining Don Solano; and the reduction of Jamaica would have been next to inevitable. That event must have exalted his prudence, and have stifled every reflection that had been pointed against his character.

The British having joined off Cape Tiberoon, and the French having no force to the windward, Sir George Rodney proceeded with the disabled ships and the prizes to Jamaica, as well for their repair, as the greater fecurity of the ifland, fhould the combined fleet ftill venture

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upon the profecution of their former defign. Sir S. 178a, Hood was left with about 25 fhips of the line, to keep the fea and watch the motions of the enemy.

When the news of adm. Rodney's victory reached Great Britain, the joy it occafioned was exceffive, and not without reafon. Before there was much defpondency. It produced a fudden and unexpected change in the fituation of the British; and, at an instant when they seemed to be nearly overwhelmed as well as furrounded by numerous and powerful enemies, gave them an additional weight as a nation, either for the accomplishment of peace, or the further profecution of the war. The admiral was created an English peer on the 19th of June, by the title of lord Rodney.

Upon the return of adm. Barrington's fquadron, adm. May Kempenfelt failed with 8 or 9 fhips of the line to fup- 6. ply their place in the Bay; and upon intelligence being received, that the Dutch were preparing to come out of the Texel, lord Howe proceeded with a quadron of about a dozen fhips of the line to the coafts of Holland. The Dutch fleet had failed, but information of Howe's movement induced them to return to the Texel. Alter cruising near a month on the Dutch coaft, Howe's fquadron growing very fickly, and the Dutch fhowing no disposition to venture out, his lordship returned to Portfmouth, where being joined by the fhips from the Bay, every dispatch was used in preparing the fleet to oppose the defigns of the combined enemy, who were foon expected at the mouth of the channel.

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Count de Guichen had been for fome time at Cadiz, from whence he and Don Cordova, with about 25 French and Spanish ships of the line, failed in the beI 4 ginning

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1782. ginning of June. In their progrefs to the northward, and while expecting to be joined by the fquadrons from Brest and other ports, they fell in with the British out-June ward bound Newfoundland and Quebec fleets, under convoy of a 50 gun fhip and fome frigates. Eighteen of the convoy, laden chiefly with provifions, were taken; the ships of war with the remainder escaped.

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The combined fleets being entire masters of the fea, from the mouth of the Straits to Ufhant, were able to dispatch their outward bound convoys, and to receive their homeward with the utmost fafety; while the British were under no small apprehenfion for a rich and great convoy from Jamaica under Sir Peter Parker, with only three ships of the line for its protection. Lord Howe July failed from Portsmouth early in July, accompanied with adms. Barrington, Sir J. L. Rofs, and Kempenfelt. These distinguished commanders had however only 22 ships of the line to support their designs, while the combined fleets were cruifing about the chops of the channel, with more than double their force. Lord Howe kept to the westward of the enemy, in order to protect and receive the Jamaica fleet, and at the fame time to avoid being forced into an engagement. By the end of July, Sir Peter Parker arrived safe with his convoy, bringing count de Graffe with him in the Sandwich of 31. 90 guns. The count landed at Portsmouth on the 31st, amid the acclamations of a great concourfe of people, who in that way expreffed their approbation of his bravery. On the 14th of Auguft, lord Howe with part of the fleet arrived at the fame port.

The protection of the homeward bound Baltic fleet, the preventing of the Dutch from failing to the fouth

ward,

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