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1781. at this advanced period of the campaign, than when the army first moved from winter quarters. Not a single man has joined me, except 176 militia from Connecticut, who arrived at West Point yesterday, and 80 of the York levies, and about 200 state troops of Connecticut, both of which corps were upon the lines previous to leaving winter cantonments." However, in case the attempt against New York must be laid afide, he confoled himself with this thought-" The detachment left in Virginia seems the next object, and will be very practicable should we obtain a naval fuperiority." It was very diftreffing to find, that the ftates either would or could not fill their continental battalions, or afford the aids of militia required from them. At length, a letter from the count de Graffe, with intelligence that his destination was fixed to the Chesapeak, fettled the point by leaving no alternative; on which a joint anfwer from gen. Washington and count de Rochambeau was fent to de Graffe on the 17th, to give him notice of their determination to remove the whole of the French army, and as large a detachment of the Americans as could be fpared to the Chesapeak, there to meet his excellency. The appearance of an attack upon New York however was still continued, and to induce the firmest persuasion of its being intended, ovens were erected oppofite to Staten Inland at the mouth of the Rariton for the use of the French forces. While this deception was playing off against Sir Henry Clinton, the allied army croffed the North river on the 24th, and pushed for Philadelphia, where they arrived on the 30th about three o'clock in the afternoon, and were faluted by firing of guns and ringing of bells; and in the evening with bonfires and

Aug. 17.


and illuminations. While the allies were marching, the 1781 royalifts at New York were pleafing themfelves with this intelligence published in their Gazette of August the 25th.—“ A gentleman just arrived from Jersey informs us, that young Laurens lately paffed through that province on his return from Paris, and has brought the following very interefting intelligence, that THE EMPEROR OF GERMANY HAD DECLARED HIMSELF THE ALLY OF GREAT BRITAIN, [all in large capitals] which threw the court of Verfailles into much confufion, as, in confequence of this great event, the French nation must withdraw all fupport from their new allies, the rebels of this continent; and we are informed it has, with another concurring circumstance, occafioned Mr. Washington and the count de Rochambeau to quit their menacing pofition at White Plains. We are alfo told, that the French admiral is embarking all the fick troops on board his fquadron, from which it is fuggested that their fleet and army are to be withdrawn from Rhode Island, to strengthen themselves in the West Indies. It is faid, that the French and rebels left their ground the day after Mr. Washington received the mortifying account of the emperor's alliance with his old friend the court of Great Britain." The feafonable arrival of lieut. col. Laurens at the northward, and his journey through Jersey to Philadelphia, afforded the opportunity of fabricating fuch information to assist in difguifing the movement of the allied army *. On the 4th of September, Washington wrote to gen. Greene Sept. -"The plan has been totally changed, occafioned by 4. a variety of circumstances, two only need be mentioned,

* A letter to Mr. Jenkinson, printed for Debrett, 1781.


1781. the arrival of more than 2000 Germans at New York, and a certain information that de Graffe would make his first appearance in the Chefapeak, commence his operations in Virginia, and could not continue long on the coafts. I am now advanced to Philadelphia with more than 2000 American infantry, a regiment of artillery, and fuch apparatus for a fiege as we could command."

The fubfequent operations of the allied troops muft be related the next opportunity: only let me mention how the French behaved, while refiding at Newport, and on their march to Philadelphia. During their whole stay at Newport, they did not damage the property of the inhabitants to the amount of a hundred dollars. The towns people could walk about in the evening and at night, with as much fafety as if there were no troops in the place. Officers of the first rank and quality conversed with traders, merchants and gentlemen, whenever the language of either was enough understood to admit of it, with the utmost affability. Their eafy manners and condescending civility endeared them to the citizens. among whom they were quartered; and produced comparisons between them and the bulk of British officers who had been before among them, no wife to the advantage of the latter. When the foldiers were encamped out of Newport, the cows grazing in the adjoining fields were never injured, or fo much as milked. They were rather a guard than a nuifance. The voice of individuals and of the people at large, commended them for their exemplary behaviour. When they marched through the country in their way to the American army, their two columns observed uncommon regula→


rity; and a gentleman in a public character told me,
that when they paffed through his town, they did not do
more damage than if they had been a couple of Ame-
rican corporals guards. The fame conduct was prac-
tifed elsewhere. Every care was taken to put the inha-
bitants to the leaft poffible inconvenience: these were
agreeably furprised at finding that fuch a number of
men in arms could occafion fo little difturbance and
trouble. They were welcome guests too, as they paid
punctually for all they wanted, with hard
money. Here
let it be remarked, that the abundance of hard money
which was brought into the United States, for the fup-
of the French navy and army, furnished a quantity
of cash that was extremely useful to the Americans,
and in a degree checked the rapid growth of their distresses
through the expiring state of the paper currency. The
union of these several particulars, and the expectation of
further benefits in military operations, placed the Ame-
ricans and French on the most friendly footing, though a
few years before they had been in the habit of reviling,
hating and fighting with each other.

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Accounts of the military and naval operations at Penfacola and in the West Indies having reached the continent, the fame fhall now be related.

Don Bernardo de Galvez having extended his views to the taking of Pensacola, and thereby completing the conqueft of West Florida, went to the Havannah to forward and take upon him the command of the force deftined for that fervice. Soon after the fleet had failed, it was nearly ruined by a hurricane. Four capital fhips, befide others, were loft; and all on the amount of more than 2000.

board perished to The remainder of the




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1781. fleet put back to the Havannah; the critical arrival of four store ships from Spain, enabled them to refit fpeedily; and five fail of the line, with fmaller veffels, were difpatched to conduct Don Galvez, with between 7 and Mar. 8000 land forces, on the expedition. They arrived before Penfacola on the 9th of March, and were followed in time by Don Solano with the remainder of the fleet, the whole amounting to 15 fail of the line. The entrance of the harbour could not be long defended against fo great a power. The paffage was forced; the landing effected; the ground broken, and the fiege commenced in form by fea and land. The garrifon was weak; and compofed of the remains of British regiments, of Maryland and Pennsylvania royalifts, of Waldeckers, failors, marines, inhabitants and negroes.

By the prudent management of gen. Campbell, there was not the finalleft difcordance in fo motley a garrifon; and to their praife, they behaved bravely and patiently through every part of the fiege. The defence was vigorous. In the first week of May the Spaniards had done nothing decifive; and yet they were not flack in advancing their works. The fate of the place was inevitable; but the reduction of it would have coft them confiderably more time and trouble, if an accident had not fruftrated the hopes of the befieged. The falling of a bomb, near the door of the magazine belonging to the redoubt, and which lay under its centre, decided the fate of Pensacola. The burfting of the bomb forced open the door; fet fire to the powder within; and in an instant the whole redoubt was nearly a heap of rubbish. Two flank works ftill remained entire; and through the coolnefs and intrepidity of the officers who


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