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carrying into effect that treaty, has been duly attended to. For the execution of that part which preserved in force, for the government of the inhabitants, for the term specified, all the civil, military, and judicial powers, exercised by the existing government of those provinces, an adequate number of officers, as was presumed, were appointed, and ordered to their respective stations. Both provinces were formed into one territory, and a Governor appointed for it; but, in consideration of the pre-existing division, and of the distance and difficulty of communication between Pensacola, the residence of the Governor of West Florida, and St. Augustine, that of the Governor of East Florida, at which places the inconsiderable population of each province was principally collected, two Secretaries were appointed, the one to reside at Pensacola, and the other at St. Augustine. Due attention was likewise paid to the execution of the laws of the United States relating to the revenue and the slave trade, which were extended to these provinces. The whole territory was divided into three collection districts, that part ly. ing between the river St. Mary's and Cape Florida, forming one, that from the Cape to the Apalachicola, another, and that from the Apalachicola to the Perdido, the third. To these districts the usual number of revenue officers were appointed; and, to secure the due operation of these laws, one judge and a district attorney were appointed, to reside at Pensacola, and, likewise, one judge and a district attorney to reside at St. Augustine, with a specified boundary between them; and one marshal for the whole, with authority to appoint a deputy. In carrying this law into effect, and especially that part relating to the powers of the existing government of those provinces, it was thought important, in consideration of the short term for which it was to operate, and the radical change which would be made at the approaching session of Congress, to avoid expense, to make no appointment which should not be absolutely necessary to give effect to those powers, to withdraw none of our citizens from their pursuits, whereby to subject the government to claims which could not be gratified, and the parties to losses, which it would be painful to witness.

It has been seen, with much concern, that, in the performance of these duties, a collision arose between the Governor of the Territory, and the Judge appointed for the Western District. It was presumed, that the law under which this transitory Government was organized, and the commissions which were granted to the officers, who were appointed to execute each branch of the system, and to which the commissions were adapted, would have been understood in the same sense, by them, in which they were understood by the Executive. Much allowance is due to officers employed in each branch of this system, and the more so, as there is good cause to believe that each acted under the conviction, that he possessed the power which he undertook to exercise. Of the officer holding the principal station, I think it proper to observe, that he accepted it with reluctance, in compliance with the invitation given him, and from a high sense of duty to his country, being willing to contribute to the consummation of an event, which would ensure complete protection to an important part of our Union, which had suffered much, from incursion and invasion, and to the defence of which, his very gallant and patriotic services had been so signally and usefully devoted.

From the intrinsic difficulty of executing laws deriving their origin from different sources, and so essentially different in many important circumstances, the advantage, and, indeed, the necessity, of establishing, as soon as may be practicable, a well organized government over that Territory, on the principles of our system, is apparent. This subject is, therefore, recommended to the early consideration of Congress.

In compliance with an injunction of the law of the 3d of March last, three Commissioners have also been appointed, and a board organized, for carrying into effect the eleventh article of the Treaty above recited, making provision for the payment of such of our citizens, as have well-founded claims on Spain, of the character specified by that treaty. This board has entered on its duties, and made some progress therein. The Commissioner and Surveyor of His Catholic Majesty, provided for by the fourth article of the Treaty, have not yet arrived in the United States, but are soon expected. As soon as they do arrive, corresponding appointments will be made, and every facility be afforded, for the due execution of this service.

The government of His Most Faithful Majesty, since the termination of the last session of Congress, has been removed from Rio de Janeiro to Lisbon, where a revolution, similar to that which had occurred in the neighboring kingdom of Spain, had, in like manner, been sanctioned by the accepted and pledged faith of the reigning Monarch. The diplomatic intercourse between the United States and the Portuguese dominions, interrupted by this important event, has not yet been resumed, but, the change of internal administration hav

ing already materially affected the commercial intercourse of the United States with the Portuguese dominions, the renewal of the public missions between the two countries appears to be desirable at an early day.

It is understood that the colonies in South America have had great success during the present year, in the struggle for their independence. The new government of Colombia has extended its territories, and considerably augmented its strength; and, at Buenos Ayres, where civil dissensions had for some time before prevailed, greater harmony and better order appear to have been established. Equal success has attended their efforts in the provinces on the Pacific. It has long been manifest that it would be impossible for Spain to reduce these colonies by force, and equally so that no conditions short of their independence would be satisfactory to them. It may therefore be presumed, and it is earnestly hoped, that the government of Spain, guided by enlightened and liberal counsels, will find it to comport with its interests, and due to its magnanimity, to terminate this exhausting controversy on that basis. To promote this result, by friendly counsel with the government of Spain, will be the object of the government of the United States.

In conducting the fiscal operations of the year, it has been found necessary to carry into full effect the act of the last session of Congress, authorizing a loan of five millions of dollars. This sum has been raised at an average premium of five dollars fifty-nine hundredths per centum, upon stock bearing an interest at the rate of five per cent. per annum, redeemable at the option of the government after the first day of January, one thousand eight hundred and thirtyfive.

There has been issued, under the provisions of this act, four millions seven hundred and thirty-five thousand two hundred and ninety-six dollars thirty cents, of five per cent. stock; and there has been, or will be, redeemed, during the year, three millions one hundred and ninety-seven thousand thirty dollars seventy-one cents of Louisiana six per cent. deferred stock and Mississippi stock. There has, therefore, been an actual increase of the public debt, contracted during the year, of one million five hundred and thirty-eight thousand two hundred and sixty-six dollars sixty-nine cents.

The receipts into the Treasury, from the first of January to the 30th of September last, have amounted to sixteen millions two hundred and nineteen thousand one hundred and ninety-seven dollars sevepty cents, which, with the balance of one million one hundred and

ninety-eight thousand four hundred and sixty-one dollars twenty-one cents, in the Treasury on the former day, make the aggregate sum of seventeen millions four hundred and seventeen thousand six hundred and fifty-eight dollars ninety-one cents.

The payments from the Treasury during the same period have amounted to fifteen millions six hundred and fifty-five thousand two hundred and eighty-eight dollars forty-seven cents, leaving in the Treasury, on the last mentioned day, the sum of one million seven bundred and sixty-two thousand three hundred and seventy dollars forty-four cents. It is estimated that the receipts of the fourth quarter of the year will exceed the demands which will be made on the Treasury during the same period, and that the amount in the Treasury on the 30th of September last will be increased on the first day of January next.

At the close of the last session, it was anticipated that the progres. sive diminution of the public revenue in 1819 and 1820, which had been the result of the languid state of our foreign commerce in those years, had, in the latter year, reached its extreme point of depression. It has, however, been ascertained that that point was reached only at the termination of the first quarter of the present year. From that time until the 30th of September last, the duties secured have exceeded those of the corresponding quarters of the last year, one million one hundred and seventy-two thousand dollars; whilst the amount of debentures, issued during the three first quarters of this year, is nine hundred and fifty-two thousand dollars less than that of the same quarters of the last year.

There are just grounds to believe that the improvement which has occurred in the revenue, during the last mentioned period, will not only be maintained, but that it will progressively increase through the next and several succeeding years, so as to realize the results which were presented upon that subject, by the official reports of the Treasury, at the commencement of the last session of Congress.

Under the influence of the most unfavorable circumstances, the revenue, for the next and subsequent years, to the year 1825, will exceed the demands at present authorized by law.

It may fairly be presumed, that, under the protection given to domestic manufactures, by the existing laws, we shall become, at no distant period, a manufacturing country, on an extensive scale. Possessing, as we do, the raw materials in such vast amount, with a capacity to augment them to an indefinite extent; raising within the coun


try aliment of every kind, to an amount far exceeding the demand for home consumption, even in the most unfavorable years, and to be obtained always at a very moderate price; skilled also, as our people are in the mechanic arts, and in every improvement calculated to lessen the demand for, and the price of, labor, it is manifest that their success, in every branch of domestic industry, may and will be carried, under the encouragement given by the present duties, to an extent to meet any demand, which, under a fair competition, may be made upon it.

A considerable increase of domestic manufactures, by diminishing the importation of foreign, will probably tend to lessen the amount of the public revenue. As, however, a large proportion of the revenue which is derived from duties, is raised from other articles than manufactures, the demand for which will increase with our population, it is believed, that a fund will still be raised from that source adequate to the greater part of the public expenditures, especially as those expenditures, should we continue to be blessed with peace, will be diminished by the completion of the fortifications, dock-yards, and other public works; by the augmentation of the navy to the point to which it is proposed to carry it; and by the payment of the public debt, including pensions for inilitary services.

It cannot be doubted, that the more complete our internal resources, and the less dependent we are on foreign powers, for every national, as well as domestic purpose, the greater and more stable will be the public felicity. By the increase of domestic manufactures will the demand for the the dependence of the several parts of our Union on each other, and the strength of the Union itself, be proportionably augmented. In this process, which is very desirable, and inevitable under the existing duties, the resources which obviously present themselves to supply a deficiency in the revenue should it occur, are the interests which may derive the principal benefit from the change. If domestic manufactures are raised by duties on foreign, the deficiency in the fund necessary for public purposes should be supplied by duties on the former. At the last session it seemed doubtful whether the revenue derived from the present sources would be adequate to all the great purposes of our Union, including the construction of our fortifications, the augmentation of the navy, and the protection of our commerce against the dangers to which it is exposed. Had the deficiency been such as to subject us to the necessity, either to abandon those measures of de

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