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2 Preceptive, Moral, &c. Pieces. Franklin. *** ********* • Friends,’ says he, the taxes are, indeed, very heavy; and, if those laid on by the government were the only ones we had to pay, we might more easily discharge them; but we have many others, and much more grievous to some of us. We are taxed twice as much by our idleness, three times as much by our pride, and four times as much by our folly; and from these taxes the commissioners cannot ease or deliver us by allowing an abatement. However, let us hearken to good advice, and something may be done for us; “God helps them that help themselves,” as Poor Richard says.” I. ‘It would be thought a hard government that should tax its people one-tenth part of their time to be employed in its service; but idleness taxes many of us much more; sloth, by bringing on diseases, absolutely shortens life. “Sloth, like rust, consumes faster than labour wears, while the used key is always bright,” as poor Richard says— “But dost thou love life, then do not squander time, for that is the stuff life is made of,” as poor Richard says.-How much more than is necessary do we spend in sleep! forgetting that “The sleeping fox catches no poultry, and that there will be sleeping enough in the grave,” as Poor Richard says. * If time be of all things the most precious, wasting time must be,” as Poor Richard says, “the greatest prodigality;” since, as he elsewhere tells us, “Lost time is never found again; and what we call time enough always proves little enough.” Let us then up and be doing, and doing to the purpose: so by diligence we shall do more with less perplexity. “Sloth makes all things difficult, but industry all easy; and he that riseth late, must trot all day, and shall scarce overtake his business at night; while laziness travels so slowly, that poverty soon overtakes him. Drive ed.—Notwithstanding the stroke of humour in the concluding paragraph of this address, Poor Richard (Saunders) and Father Abraham have proved, in America, that they are no common Preachers. the WAY to W E A L T H . 3 *********** thy business, let not that drive thee; and early to bed, and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise,” as Poor Richard says. “So what signifies wishing and hoping for better times? We may make these times better, if we bestir ourselves. “ Industry need not wish, and he that lives upon hope will die fasting. There are no gains without pains; then help hands, for I have no lands,” or, if I have, they are smartly taxed. “He that hath a trade, hath an estate; and he that hath a calling, hath an office of profit and honour,” as Poor Richard says; but then the trade must be worked at, and the calling well followed, or neither the estate nor the office will enable us to pay our taxes—If we are industrious, we shall never starve; for, “at the working man's house hunger looks in, but dares not enter.” Nor will the bailiff or the constable enter, for “industry pays debts, while despair encreaseth them.” What though you have found no treasure, nor has any rich relation left you a legacy, “Diligence is the mother of good luck, and God gives all things to industry. Then plow deep, while sluggards sleep, and you shall have corn to sell and to keep.” Work while it is called to-day, for you know not how much you may be hindered to-morrow. “One to-day is worth two to-morrows,” as Poor Richard says; and farther, “Never leave that till to-morrow, which you can do to-day.”—If you were a servant, would you not be ashamed that a good master should catch you idle P Are you then your own master? be ashamed to catch yourself idle, when there is so much to be done for yourself, your family, your country, and your king. Handle your tools without mittens: remember, that “The cat in gloves catches no mice,” as Poor Richard says. It is true, there is much to be done, and, perhaps, you are weak-handed; but stick to it steadiły, and you will see reat effects; for “Constant dropping wears away *tones : and by diligence and 4 - Preceptive, Moral, &c. Pieces. Franklin. -” ------------ patience the mouse ate in two the cable; and little strokes sell great oaks.” * Methinks I hear some of you say, “Must a man afford himself no leisure ?” I will tell thee, my friend, what Poor Richard says; “Employ thy time well, if thou meanest to gain leisure; and, since thou art not sure of a minute throw not away an hour.” Leisure is time for doing something useful; this leisure the diligent man will obtain, but the lazy man never; for, “A life of leisure and a life of laziness are two things. Many, without labour, would live by their wits only, but they break for want of stock;” whereas industry gives comfort, and plenty, and respect. “Fly pleasures, and they will follow you. The diligent spinner has a large shift; and now I have a sheep and a cow, every body bids me good morrow.” II. “But with our industry we must likewise be steady, settled, and careful, and oversee our own affairs with our own eyes, and not trust too much to others; for, as Poor Richard says,

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“I never saw an oft-removed tree,

Nor yet an oft-removed family,
That throve so well as those that settled be.”

“And again, “Three removes is as bad as a fire; " and again, “Keep thy shop, and thy shop will keep thee:'' and again, “If you would have your business done, go; if not, send.” And again,

“He that by the plough would thrive,
Himself must either hold or drive.”

• And again, “The eye of the master will do more work than both his hands:” and again, “Want of care does us more damage than want of knowledge:” and again, “Not to oversee workmen, is to ieave them your purse open.” Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many; for, “In the affairs of this world, men are saved, not by faith, but by the want of it:” but a man's own care is profitable; for,

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, * The way to W E A Lt H. 5
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* “If you would have a faithful servant, and one that
you like, serve yourself. A little neglect may breed
great mischief; for want of a nail the shoe was lost;
for want of a shoe the horse was lost; and for want
9 of a horse the rider was lost,” being overtaken and
* slain by the enemy; all for want of a little care about
a horse-shoe mail. III. “So much for indus-
| try, my friends, and attention to one's own business;
* but to these we must add frugality, if we would make
W our industry more certainly successful. A man may, ”
* if he knows not how to save as he gets, “keep his
3. nose all his life to the grindstone, and die not worth
a groat at last. A fat kitchen makes a lean will;” and,
“Many estates are spent in the getting,
Since women for tea forsook spinning and knitting,
And men for punch forsook hewing and splitting.”
“If you would be wealthy, think of saving, as well
as of getting. The Indies have not made Spain rich,
because her out-goes are greater than her in-comes.”
“Away, then, with your expensive follies, and you
will not then have so much cause to complain of hard
times, heavy taxes, and chargeable families; for

“Women and wine, game and deceit,
Make the wealth small, and the want great.”

And farther, “What maintains one vice, would bring up two children.” You may think, perhaps, that a little tea, or a little punch now and them, diet a A little more costly, clothes a little finer, and a little entertainment now and then, can be no great matter; but remember, “Many a little makes a mickle.” Be. or ware of little expenses; “A small leak will sink a great ship,” as Poor Richard says; and again, “Who dainties love, shall beggars prove;” and moreover, “Fools make feasts, and wise men eat them.” Here ... you are all got together to this sale of fineries and nick-nacks. You call them goods; but, if you do not * take care, they will prove evils to some of you. You. * expect they will be sold cheap, and, perhaps, they - A

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6 Preceptive, Moral, &c. Pieces, Franklin.
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may for less than they cost; but, if you have no occa-
sion for them, they must be dear to you. Remember .
what Poor Richard says, “Buy what thou hast no
need of, and ere long thou shalt sell thy necessaries.”
And again, “At a great pennyworth pause a while:”
he means, that perhaps the cheapness is apparent on-
ly, and not real; or the bargain, by straitening thee
in thy business, may do thee more harm than good.
For in another place he says, “Many have been ruin-
ed by buying good pennyworths.” Again, “It is
foolish to kiyout money in a purchase of repentance;”
and yet this folly is practised-every day at auctions,
for want of minding the Almanack. Many a one, for
the sake of finery on the back, have gone with a hun-
gry belly, and half starved their families; “Silks and
sattins, scarlets and velvets, put out the kitchen-fire,”
as Poor Richard says. These are not the necessaries
of life; they can scarcely be called the conveniences:
and yet only because they look pretty, how many
want to have them 2–By these, and other extravagan-
cies, the genteel are reduced to poverty, and forced
to borrow of those whom they formerly despised, but
who, through industry and frugality, have maintained
their standing; in which case it appears plainly, that
“A ploughman on his legs is higher than a gentleman
on his knees,” as Poor Richard says. Perhaps they
have had a small estate left them, which they knew
not the getting of; they think “It is day, and will
never be night:” that a little to be spent out of so
much, is not worth minding; but “Always tak-
ing out of the meal-tub, and never putting in of soon
comes to the bottom,” as Poor Richard says; and
then, “When the well is dry, they know the worth
of water.” But this they might have known before,
if they had taken his advice. “If you would know
the value of money, go and try to borrow some ; for
he that goes a borrowing, goes a sorrowing,” as Poor

Richard says; and, indeed, so does he that leads to

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