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God gives all things to industry. Then plow deep, while sluggards sleep, and you shall have corn to sell and to keep.” Work while it is called, for you know not how much you may be hindered to-morrow. “ One to-day is worth two to-morrows," as poor Richard says; and farther," never leave that till to-morrow, which you can do to-day.” If you were a servant, would you not be ashamed that a good master should catch you idle? Are you then your own master? Be ashamed to catch yourself idle, when there is so much to be done for yourself, your family, your country, and your king. Handle your tools without mittens; remember, that “ the cat in gloves catches no mice," as poor Richard says. It is true, there is much to be done, and perhaps you are weak-handed; but stick to it steadily, and you will see great effects, for “ constant dropping wears away stones; and by diligence and patience the mouse ate in two the cable, and little strokes fell great oaks." • Methinks I hear some of you say,

« must a man afford himself no leisure ?" I will tell thee, my friend, what

says: “ employ thy time well, if thou meanest to gain leisure; and since thou art not sure of a minute, throw not away an hour.” Leisure is time for doing something useful; this leisure the diligent man will obtain, but the lazy man never; for “a life of leisure and a life of laziness are two things. Many, without labour would live by their wits only, but they break for want of stock;" whereas industry gives comfort, and plenty, and respect. Fly pleasures, and they will follow you. The diligent spinner has a large shift; and now I have a sheep and a cow, every body bids me good-morrow."

" II. But

poor Richard

II. But with our industry we must likewise be steady, settled, and careful, and oversee our own affairs with our own eyes, and not trust too much to others; for, as poor Richard says,

“ I never saw an oft-removed tree,
Nor yet an oft-removed family,
That throve so well as those that settled be."

and again, “three removes is as bad as a fire;" and again,“ keep thy shop, and thy shop will keep thee :" and again, “If you would have your business done, go, if not, send.” And again,

“ He that by the plough would thrive,
Himself must either hold or drive."

And again, “ the


of a master will do more work than both his hands;" and again, “want of care does us more damage than want of knowledge;" and again, “not to oversee workmen, is to leave them your purse open." Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many; for, “in the affairs of this world, men are saved, not by faith, but by the want of it;" but a man's owa care is profitable; for, “if you would have a faithful servant, and one that you like, serve yourself. A little neglect may breed great mischief; for want of a nail the shoe was lost, and for want of a shoe the horse was lost, and for want of a horse the rider was Jost," being overtaken and slain by the enemy; all for want of a little care about a horse-shoe nail.

'111. So much for industry, my friends, and attention to ones own business ; but to these we must add frugality, if we would make our industry more certainly successful. A man may, if he knows not how to save as he gets, " keep his nose all his life to the grind-stone,


and die not worth a groat at last. A fat kitchin makes a lean will; and

• Many estates are spent in the getting,
Since women for tea forsook spinning and knitting,

And men for punch forsook hewing and splitting.” “If you would be wealthy, think of saving, as well as of getting. The Indies have not made Spain rich, because her outgoes are greater than her incomes.”

Away then, with your expensive follies, and you will not then have so much cause to complain of hard times, beavy taxes, and chargeable families; for

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“Women and wine, game and deceit,
Make the wealth small, and the want great."

And farther, “what maintains one vice, would bring up two children.” You may think, perhaps, that a little tea, or a little punch now and then, diet a little more costly, clothes a little finer, and a little entertainment now and then, can be no great matter; but remember, “many a little makes a mickle.” Beware of little expences; "a small leak will sink a great ship,” as pour Richard says; and again, "who dainties love shall beggars prove;" and moreover, “fools make feasts, and wise men eat them.”

• Here you are all got together to this sale of fineries and nick-nacks. You call them goods, but if you do not take care, they will prove evils to some of you, You expect they will be sold cheap, and perhaps they may, for less than they cost; but, if you have no occasion for them, they must be dear to you. Remember what poor Richard says, "buy what thou hast no need of, and ere long thou shalt sell thy necessaries.” And again, "at a great penny-worth pause a whilę." He



means, that perhaps the cheapness is apparent only, and not real; or the bargain, by straitening thee in thy business, may do thee more harm than good. For in another place he says, “ many have been ruined by buying good pennyworths.” Again, “it is foolish to lay out money in a purchase of repentance;" and yet this folly is practised every day at auctions, for want of minding the almanack. Many a one, for the sake of finery on the back, have gone with a hungry belly, and half starved their families; “ silks and sattins, scarlet and velvets, put out the kitchen fire," as poor Richard says. These are not the necessaries of life, they can scarcely be called the conveniences; and yet, only because they look pretty, how many warit to have them? By these and other extravagancies, the genteel are reduced to poverty, and forced to borrow of those whom they formerly despised, but who, through indus try and frugality, have maintained their standing; in which case it appears plainly, that "a ploughman on his legs is higher than a gentleman on his knees," as poor Richard says. Perhaps they have had a small estate left them, which they knew not the getting of; they think “it is day, and will never be night;" thatą little to be spent out of so much is not worth minding; bụt “always taking out of the meal-tub, and never putting in soon comes to the bottom," as poor Richard says; and then, when the well is dry, they know the worth of water." But this they might have known before, if they had taken his advice: "If you would know the value of money go and try to borrow some; for he that goes a borrowing goes a sorrowing,” as poor Richard says; and indeed so does he that lends


to such people, when he goes to get it in again. Poor Dick farther advises, and says,

“Fond pride of dress is sure a very curse,
Ere fancy you consult, consult your purse.”.

And again, “pride is as loud a beggar as want, and a great deal more saucy." When you have bought one fine thing, you must buy ten more, that your appearance may be all of a piece; but poor Dick says, “it is easier to suppress the first desire than to satisfy all that follow it:" and it is as truly folly for the poor to ape the rich, as for the frog to swell, in order to equal

the ox.

« Vessels large may ventorc more,
But little boats should keep near shore.”

It is, however, a folly soon punished; for, as poor Richard says, “pride that dines on vanity, sups on contempt; pride breakfasted with plenty, dined with poverty, and supped with infamy. And, after all, of what use is this pride of appearance, for which so much is risked, so much is suffered ? It cannot promote health, nor ease pain; it makes no increase of merit in the person; it creates envy, it hastens misfortune.

• But what madness must it be to run in debt for these superfluities! We are offered, by the terms of this sale, six months credit; and that, perhaps, has induced some of us to attend it, because we cannot spare the ready money, and hope now to be fine without it. But ah! think what you do when you run in debt ; you give to another power over your liberty. If you cannot pay at the time, you will be ashamed to see your creditor, you will be in fear when you speak to

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