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nerally very reasonable in their demands for land*; and the expence of guarding a large frontier against their incursions is vastly great : because all must be guarded, and always guarded, as we know not where or when to expect them. t.


That they make new settlements on such purchases, by granting lands in the king's name, reserving a quit-rent to the crown for the use of the general treasury.

* " Dr. Franklin (says Mr. Kalm the Swede) and several other gen. tlemen, frequently told me, that a powerful Indian, who possessed Rhode Island, had sold it to the English for a pair of spectacles : it is large enough for a prince's domain, and makes a peculiar government at present. This Indian knew how to set a true value upon a pair of spectacles : for ulldoubtedly if those glasses were not so plentiful, and only a few of them could be found, they would, on account of their great use, bear the same price with diamonds.” See Kalm's Travels into North America, Vol. I. p. 386, 387. “ At the time when the Swedes first arrived, they bought land at a very inconsiderable price. For a piece of baize, or a pot full of brandy, or the like, they could get a piece of ground, which at present would be worth more than 290). sterling." Ib. Vol.II. p. 118.—The trath is, that the Indians considered their lands as mere hunting-manors, and not as farms. B. V.

+ To guard against the incursions of the Indians, a plan was sent over to America (and, as I think, by authority) suggesting the expediency of clearing away the woods and bushes from a tract of land, a mile in breadth, and extending along the back of the colonies. Unfortunately, besides the large expences of this undertaking (which, if one acre cost 21. sterling, and six hundred and forty acres make a square mile, is 128, 000l. first cost for every 100 miles) it was forgotten, that the Indians, like other people, know the difference between day and night, and that a mile of advance and another of retreat were nothing to the celerity of such an enemy.This plan, it is said, was the work of Dean Tucker; and possibly might coatain many other particulars. The plans of Dr. Franklin and Governor Pow'nall appear much more feasible, B. V. C3


It is supposed better that there should be one parchaser than many; and that the crown should be that purchaser, or the union in the name of the crown. By this means the bargains may be more easily made, the price not inhanced by numerous bidders, future disputes about private Indian purchases, and monopolies of vast tracts to particular persons (which are prejudicial to the settlement and peopling of country) prevented ; and the land being again granted in small tracts to the settlers, the quit-rents reserved may in time become a fund for support of government, for defence of the country, ease of taxes, &c.

Strong forts on the lakes, the Ohio, &c. may, at the same time they secure our present frontiers, serve to defend new colonies settled under their protection ; and such colonies would also mutually defend and support such forts, and better secure the friendship of the far Indians.

A particular colony has scarce strength enough to extend itself by new settlements, at so great a distance from the old ; but the joint force of the union might suddenly establish a new colony or two in those parts, or extend an old colony to particular passes, greatly to the security of our present frontiers, increase of trade and people, breaking off the French communication between Canada and Louisiana, and speedy settlement of the intermediate lands.

The power of settling new colonies is therefore thought a yaluable part of the plan, and what cannot so well be executed by two unions as by one.


That they make laws for regulating and governing such


new settlements, till the crown shall think fit to form them into particular governments.

The making of laws suitable for the new colonies, it was thought, would be properly vested in the president general and grand council; under whose protection they will at first necessarily be, and who would be well acquainted with their circumstances, as having settled them. When they are become sufficiently populous, they may by the crown be formed into complete and distinct governments.

The appointment of a sub-president by the crown, to take place in case of the death or absence of the president general, would perhaps be an improvement of the plan; and it all the governors of particular provinces were to be formed into a standing council of state, for the advice and assistance of the president general, it might be another considerable improvement.


That they raise and pay soldiers, and build forts for the defence of any of the colonies, and equip ressels of force to guard the coasts, and to protect the trade on the oeean, lakes*, or great rivers ; but they shall not impress men in any colony, without the consent of the legislature.

It was thought, that quotas of men, to be raised and paid by the several colonies, and joined for any public service, could not always be got together with the necessary expedition. For instance, suppose one thousand men should be wanted in New Hampshire on any

According to a plan which had been proposed by Governor Pownall, and approved of by congress.”-Administration of the Colonies, Vol. II. p. 148. B. V.


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emergency; to fetch them by fifties and hundreds out of every colony, as far as South Carolina, would be inconvenient, the transportation chargeable, and the occasion perhaps passed before they could be assembled; and therefore, that it would be best to raise them (by offering bounty-money and pay) near the place where they would be wanted, to be discharged again when the service should be over.

Particular colonies are at present backward to build forts at their own expence, which they say will be equally useful to their neighbouring colonies ; who refuse to join, on a presumption that such forts will be built and kept up, though they contribute pothing. This unjust conduct weakens the whole; but the forts being for the good of the whole, it was thought best they should be built and maintained by the whole, out of the common treasury.

In the time of war, small vessels of force are sometimes necessary in the colonies to scour the coast of small privateers. These being provided by the union will be an advantage in turn to the colonies which are situated on the sea, and whose frontiers on the landside, being covered by other colonies, reap but little immediate benefit from the advanced forts,


That for these purposes they have power to make laws, and lay and levy such general duties, imports, or taxes, as to them shall appear most equal and just (considering the ability and other circumstances of the inhabitants in the several colonies,) and such as may be collected with the least inconvenience to the people; rather discouraging luxury, thun loading industry with unnecessary burthens.


The laws which the president general and grand council are impowered to make are such only as shall be necessary for the government of the settlements; the raising, regulating, and paying soldiers for the general service; the regulating of Indian trade : and laying and collecting the general duties and taxes. (They should also have a power to restrain the exportation of provisions to the enemy from any of the colonies, on particular occasions, in time of war.) But is it not intended that they may interfere with the constitution: and governinent of the particular colonies; who are to be left to their own laws, and to lay, levy, and apply their own taxes as before.


That they may appoint a general treasurer and particular treasurer in each government when necessary : and from time to time may order the sums in the treasuries of euch government into the general treasury; or draw on them for special payments, as they find most convenient.

The treasurers here meant are only for the general funds, and not for the particular funds of each colony, which remain in the hands of their own treasurers at their own disposal.


Yet no money to issue but by joint orders of the president general and grand council ; except where sums have been appropriated to particular purposes, and the president generul is previously impowered by an act to draw

for such


To prevent misapplication of the money, or even application that might be dissatisfactory to the crown or


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