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191. Ingredients.—2 lbs. of shin of beef, 3 quarts of water, 1 pint of table-beer, 2 onions, 2 carrots, 2 turnips, 1 head of celery; pepper and salt to taste ; thickening of butter and flour.

Mode.—Put the meat, beer, and water in a stewpan; simmer for a few minutes, and skim carefully. Add the vegetables and seasoning; stew gently till the meat is tender. Thicken with the butter and iionr, and serve with turnips and carrots, or spinach and celery.

Time.—3 hours, or rather more. Average cost, 3d. per quart.'

Seasonable at any time. Sufficient for 12 persons.

Table Beer.—This is nothing more than a weak ale, and is not made so much with a -view to strength, as to transparency of colour and an agreeable bitterness of taste. It is, or ought to be, manufactured by the London professional brewers, from the best pale malt, or amber and malt. Six barrels are usually drawn from one quarter of malt, with which are mixed i or 5 lbs. of hops. As a beverage, it is agreeable when fresh; but it is not adapted to keep long.



192. Ingredients.—2 lbs. of beef or veal (these can be omitted), any kind of white fish trimmings, of fish which are to be dressed for table, 2 onions, the rind of i a lemon, a bunch of sweet herbs, 2 car-' rots, 2 quarts of water.

Mode.—Cut up the fish, and put it, with the other ingredients, into the water. Simmer for 2 hours; skim the liquor carefully, and strain it. "When a richer stock is wanted, fry the vegetables and fish before adding the water.

Time.—2 hours. Average cost, with meat, lOd. per quart; without, 3d.

Note.—Do not make fish stock long before it is wanted, as it soon turns sour.


193. Ingredients.—50 crayfish, i lb. of butter, 6 anchovies, the «rumb of 1 French roll, a little lobster-spawn, seasoning to taste, 2 quarts of medium stock, No. 105, or fish stock, No. 192.

Mode.—Shell the crayfish, and put the fish between two plates until they are wanted; pound the shells in a mortar, with the butter and. anchovies; when well beaten, add a pint of stock, and simmer for f oi' ■an hour. Strain it through a hair sieve, put the remainder of the

stock to it, with the crumb of the rolls; give it one boil, and rub it through a tammy, with the lobster-spawn. Put in the fish, but do not let the soup boil, after it has been rubbed through the tammy. If necessary, add seasoning.

Time.—14 hour. Average cost, 2s. 3d. or Is. 9d. per quart.

Seasonable from January to July.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

The Crayfish.—This is one of those fishes that were' ** Crayfish. highly esteemed by the ancients. The Greeks preferred it

When brought from Alexandria, and the Romans ate it boiled with cumin, and seasoned with pepper and other condiments. A recipe tells us, that crayfish can be preserved several days in baskets with fresh grass, such as the nettle, or in a bucket with about three-eighths of an inch of water. More water would kill them, because the large quantity of air they require necessitates the water in which they are kept, to be continually renewed.



194. Ingredients.—3 lbs. of eels, 1 onion, 2 oz. of,butter, 3 blades of mace, 1 bunch of sweet herbs, i oz. of peppercorns, salt to taste, 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, J pint of cream, 2 quarts of water.

Mode.—Wash the eels, cut them into thin slices, and put them in the stewpan with the butter; let them simmer for a few minutes, then pour the water to them, and add the onion, cut in thin slices, the herbs, mace, and seasoning. Simmer till the eels are tender, but do not break the fish. Take them out carefully, mix the flour smoothly to a batter with the cream, bring it to a boil, pour over the eels, and serve. *

Time.—1 hour, or rather more. Average cost, Wd. per quart.

Seasonable from June to March.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

Note.—This soup may be flavoured differently by omitting the cream, and adding a little ketchup or Harvey's sauce.


195. Ingredients.—3 large lobsters, or 6 small ones; the crumb of a French roll, 2 anchovies, 1 onion, 1 small bunch of sw'eet herbs, 1 strip of lemon-peel, 2 oz. of butter, a little nutmeg, 1 teaspoonful of flour, 1 pint of cream, 1 pint of milk; forcemeat balls, mace, salt and pepper to taste, bread crumbs, 1 egg, 2 quarts of water.

Mode.—Pick the meat from the lobsters, and beat the fins, chiner and small claws in a mortar, previously taking away the brown fin and the bag in the head. Put it in a stewpan, with the crumb of the roll, anchovies, onions, herbs, lemon-peel, and the water; simmer gently till all the goodness is extracted, and strain it off. Pound the spawn in a mortar, with the butter, nutmeg, and flour, and mix with it the cream and milk. Give one boil up, at the same time adding the tails cut in pieces. Make the forcemeat balls with the remainder of the lobster, seasoned with mace, pepper, and salt, adding a little flour, and a few bread crumbs; moisten them with the egg, heat them in the soup, and serve.

Time.—2 hours, or rather more. Average cost, 3s. 6d. per quart.

Seasonable from April to October.

Sufficient for 8 persons.


196. Ingbedients.—6 dozen of oysters, 2 quarts of white stook, $ pint of cream, 2 oz. of butter, I5 oz. of flour; salt, cayenne, and mace to taste.

Mode.—Scald the oysters in their own liquor; take them out, beard them, and put them in a tureen. Take a pint of the stock, put in the beards and the liquor, which must be carefully strained, and simmer for 5 an hour. Take it off the fire, strain it again, and add the remainder of the stock with the seasoning and mace. Bring it to a boil, add the thickening of butter and flour, simmer for 5 minutes, stir in the boiling cream, pour it over the oysters, and serve.

Time.—1 hour. Average cost, 2s. 8d. per quart.

Seasonable from September to April.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

Note.—This soup can be made less rich by using milk instead of cream, and thickening with arrowroot instead of butter and flour.


197. Iugbediekts.—2 quarts of good mutton broth, 6 dozen oysters, 2 oz. butter, 1 oz. of flour.

Mode.—Beard the oysters, and scald them in their own liquor; then add it, well strained, to the broth; thicken with the butter and flour, and simmer for a of an hour. Put in the oysters, stir well, but do not let it boil, and serve very hot.

Time.% hour. Average cost, 2s. per quart.

Seasonable from September to April.

Sufficient for 8 persons

# SEASoir op Otstbes.—from April and May to the end of July, oysters are said to be sick; but by the end of August they become healthy, having recovered from the effects of spawning. When they are not in season, the males have a black, and the females a milky substance in the gill. From some lines of Oppian, it would appear that the ancients were ignorant that the oyster is generally found adhering to rocks. The starfish is one of the most deadly enemies of these bivalves. The poet says :—

The prickly star creeps on with full deceit
To force the ouster from his close retreat.
When gaping lids their wideu'd void display.
The watchful star thrusts in a pointed ray,
Of all its treasures spoils the rifled case,
And empty sheila the sandy hillock grace.


198. Ingredients.—2 quarts of fish stock or water, 2 pints of prawns, the crumbs of a French roll, anchovy sauce or mushroom ketchup to taste, 1 blade of mace, i pint of vinegar, a little lemonjuice.

Mode.—Pick out the tails of the prawns, put the bodies in a stewpan with 1 blade of mace, 1 pint of vinegar, and the same quantity of water; stew them for a'- hour, and strain off the liquor. Put the fish stock or water into a stewpan; add the strained liquor, pound the prawns with the crumb of a roll moistened with a little of the soup, rub them through a tammy, and mix them by degrees with the soup; add ketchup or anchovy sauce to taste, with a little lemon-juice. When it is well cooked, put in a. few picked prawns; let them get thoroughly hot, and serve. If not thick enough, put in a little butter and flour.

Time.—hour. Average cost, Is. id. per quart, if made with water.

Seasonable at any time. Sufficient for 8 persons.

Note.—This can be thickened with tomatoes, and vermicelli served in it, which makes it a very tasteful soup.

The me- This little fish bears a striking resemblance to the shrimp, but is neither so common nor so small. It is to be found on most of the sandy shores of Europe. The Isle of Wight is famous for shrimps, where they are potted; but both the prawns and the shrimps vended in London, are too much salted for the excellence of their natural They are extremely lively little animals, as seen in their



flavour to be preserved, native retreats.





199. In Natural History, Fishes form the fourth class in the system of Linnaeus, and are described as having long under-jaws, eggs without white, organs of sense, fins for supporters, bodies covered with concave scales, gills to supply the place of lungs for respiration, and water for the natural element of their existence. Had mankind no other knowledge of animals than of such as inhabit the land and breathe their own atmosphere, they would listen with incredulous wonder, if told that there were other kinds of beings which existed only in the waters, and which would die almost as soon as they were taken from them. However strongly these facts might be attested, they would hardly believe them, without the operation of their own senses, as they would recollect the effect produced on their own bodies when immersed in water, and the impossibility of their sustaining life in it for any lengthened period of time. Experience, however, has taught them, that the "great deep" is crowded with inhabitants of various sizes, and of vastly different constructions, with modes of life entirely distinct from those which belong to the animals of the land, and with peculiarities of design, equally wonderful with those of any other works which have come from the hand of the Creator. The history of these races, however, must remain for ever, more or less, in a state of darkness, since the depths in which they live, are beyond tho power of human exploration, and since the illimitable expansion of their domain places them almost entirely out of the reach of human accessibility.

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