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removed. The cut part should bo kept raised and cool. When the strips of plaster are to bo taken off, they should first be well bathed with lukewarm water. This will cause them to como away easily, and without opening the lips of tho wound; which accident is very likely to take place, if they are pulled off without having been first moistened with the warm water. If the wound is not healed when the strips of plaster are taken off, fresh ones must be applied. - Great care is required in treating cuts of the head, as they are often followed by erysipelas taking place round them. They should be strapped with isinglass-plaster, which is much less irritating than the ordinary adhesive plaster. Only use as many strips as are actually requisite to keep the two edges of the wound together; keep the patient quite quiet, on low diet, for a week or so, according to his symptoms. Purge him well with the No. 2 pills (five grains of blue pill mixed with the same quantity of compound extract of colocynth ; make into two pills, the dose for an adult). If the patient is feverish, give him two tablespoonfuls of the fever-mixture three times a day. (The fever-mixture, we remind our readers, is thus made: Mix a drachm of powdered nitre, 2 drachms of carbonate of potash, 2 teaspoonfuls of antimonial wine, and a tablespoonful of sweet spirits of nitre in half a pint of water.) A person should be very careful of himself for a month or two after having had a bad cut on the bead. His bowels should be kept constantly open, and all excitement and excess avoided. When a vein or artery is wounded, the danger is, of course, much greater. These accidents, therefore, should always be attended to by a surgeon, if he can possibly be procured. Before he arrive3, however, or in case his assistance cannot be obtained at all, the following treatment should bo adopted :—Raise the cut part, and press rags dipped in cold water firmly against it. This will often be sufficient to stop the bleeding, if the divided artery or vein is not dangerous. When an artery is divided, the blood is of a bright red colour, and comes away in jets. In this case, and supposing tho leg or arm to be the cut part, a handkerchief is to be tied tightly round the limb above the cut; and, if possible, the two bleeding ends of the artery should each be tied with a piece of silk. If the bleeding is from a vein, the blood is much darker, and does not come away in jets. In this case, the handkerchief is to be tied below the cut, and a pad of lint or linen pressed firmly against the divided ends of the vein. Let every bad cut, especially where there is much bleeding, and even although it may to all appearance have been stopped, be attended to by a surgeon, if one can by any means bo obtained.
2687. Class 2. Lacerated or torn Kounds.—There is not so much bleeding in these cases as in clean cuts, because the blood-vessels are torn across in a zigzag manner, and not divided straight across. In other respects, however, they are more serious than ordinary cuts, being often followed by inflammation, mortification, fever, and in some cases by lookod-jaw. Foreign substances are also more likely to remain in them.—Treatment. Stop the bleeding, if there is any, in the manner directed for cuts; remove all substances that may be in the wound; keep the patient quite quiet, and on low diet —gruel, arrowroot, and the like ; purge with the No. 1 pills and the No. 1 mixture. (The No. 1 pill: Mix 5 grains of calomel and the same quantity of antimonial powder, with a little bread-crumb, and make into two pills, which is the dose for an adult. The No. 1 mixture: Dissolve an ounce of Epsom salts in half a pint of senna tea. A quarter of the mixture is a dose.) If there are feverish symptoms, give two tablespoonfuls of fover-mixture (see above) every four hours. It possible, bring the two edges of the wound together, but do not strain the parts to do this. If they cannot be brought together, on account of a piece of flesh being taken clean out, or the raggednoss of their edges, put lint dipped in cold water over the wound, and cover it with oiled silk. It will then fill up from the bottom. If the wound, after being well washed, should still contain any sand, or grit of any kind, or if it should get red and hot from inflammation, a large warm bread poultice will be the best thing to apply until it becomes quite clean, or the inflammation goes down. When the wound is a very large one, the application of warm poppy fomentations isbetter than that of the lint dipped in cold water. If the redness and pain about tho part, and the general feverish symptoms, are great, from eight to twelve leeches are to be applied round the wound, and a warm poppy fomentation or warm bread poultice applied after they drop off.
268S. Class 3. Punctured or penetrating wounds.—these, for many reasons, are the most serious of all kinds of wounds.—Treatment. The same as that for lacerated wounds. Pus (matter) often forms at the bottom of these wounds, which should, therefore, be kept open at the top, by separating their edges every morning with a bodkin, and applying a warm bread poultice immediately afterwards. They will then, in all probability, heal up from the bottom, and any matter which may form will find its own way out into the poultice. Sometimes, however, in spite of all re collections of matter (abscesses) will form at the bottom or sides of the wound. These are to be opened with a lancet, and the matter thus let out. When matter is forming, the patient has cold shiverings, throbbing pain in the part, and flushes on the face, which come and go. A swelling of tho part is also often seen. The matter in the abscesses may be felt to move backwards and forwards, when pressure is made from one side of the swelling to tho other with the first and second fingers (the middle and that next the thumb) of each hand.
26S9. Advantages or Cleanliness.—health and strength cannot be longcontinued unless the skin—all the skin—is washed frequently with a sponge or other means. Every morning is best; after which the skin should be rubbed very well with a rough cloth. This is the most certain way of preventing cold, and a little substitute for exercise, as it brings blood to the surface, and causes it to circulate well through the fine capillary vessels. Labour produces this
circulation naturally. The insensible perspiration cannot escape well if the skin is not clean, as the pores get choked up. It is said that in health about half tho aliment we take passes out through the skin.
2690. The Tomato Medicinal.—To many persons there is something unpleasant, not to say offensive, in the flavour of this excellent fruit. It has, however, long been used for culinary purposes in various countries of Europe. Dr. Bennett, a professor of some celebrity, considers it an invaluable article of diet, and ascribes to it very important medicinal properties. He declares:— 1. That the tomato is one of tho most powerful deobstruents of the materia vudica; and that, in all those affections of the liver and other organs where calomel is indicated, it is probably the most effective and least harmful remedial agent known in tho profession. 2. That a chemical extract can be obtained from it, which will altogether supersede the use of calomel in the cure of diseases. 3. That he has successfully treated diarrhoea with this article alone. 4. That when used as an article of diet, it is almost a sovereign remedy for dyspepsia and indigestion.
2G91. Warm Water.—Warm water is preferable to cold water, as a drink, to persons who are subject to dyspeptic and bilious complaints, and it may bo taken more freely than cold water, and consequently answers better as a diluent for carrying off bile, and removing obstructions in the urinary secretion, in cases of stone and gravel. When water of a temperature equal to that of the human body is used for drink, it proves considerably stimulant, and is particularly suited to dyspeptic, bilious, gouty, and chlorotic subjects.
2695. Cautions In Visiting Sick-rooms.—Never venture into a sick-room if you are in a violent perspiration (if circumstances require your continuance there), for the moment your body becomes cold, it is in a state likely to absorb the infection, and give you the disease. Nor visit a sick person (especially if the complaint be of a contagious nature) with an empty stomach; as this disposes the system more readily to receive the contagion. In attending a sick person, place yourself where the air passes from the door or window to the bed of the diseased, not betwixt the diseased person and any fire that is in the room, as the heat of the fire will draw the infectious vapour in that direction, and you would run much danger from breathing it.
2693. Necessity Os Good Ventilation In Rooms Lighted With Gas.— In dwelling-houses lighted by gas, the frequent renewal of the air is of great importance. A single gas-burner will consume more oxygen, and produce more carbonic acid to deteriorate the atmosphere of a room, than six or eight candles. If, therefore, when several burners are used, no provision is made for the escape of the corrupted air and for tho introduction of pure air from without, the health will necessarily suffer.
2694. HrJMORiSTS tell lis there is no act of our lives which can be performed without breaking through some one of the many meshes of the law by which our rights are so carefully guarded; and those learned in the law, when they do give advice without the usual fee, and in the confidence of friendship, generally say, "Pay, pay anything rather than go to law;" while those having experience in the courts of Themis have a wholesome dread of its pitfalls. There are a few exceptions, however, to this fear of the law's uncertanties; and we hear of those to whom a lawsuit is an agreeable relaxation, a gentle excitement. One of this class, when remonstrated with, retorted, that while one friend kept dogs, and another horses, he, as he had a right to do, kept a lawyer; and no one had a right to dispute his taste. We cannot pretend, in these few pages, to lay down even the principles of law, not to speak of its contrary exposition in different courts; but there are a few acts of legal import which all men—and women too—must perform; and to these acts we may be useful in giving a right direction. There is a house to be leased or purchased, servants to bo engaged, a will to be made, or property settled, in all families; and much of the welfare of its members depends on these things being done in proper legal form.
2695. Purchasing A House.—Few men will venture to purchase a freehold, or even a leasehold property, by private contract, without making themselves acquainted with the locality, and employing a solicitor to examine the titles, ; but many do walk into an auction-room, and bid for a property upon the representations of the auctioneer. The conditions, whatever they are, will bind him; for by one of the legal fictions of which we have still so many, the auctioneer, who is in reality the agent for the vendor, becomes also the agent for the buyer, and by putting down the names of bidders and tho biddings, he binds him to whom tho lot is knocked down to the sale and the conditions,—the falling of the auctioneer's hammer is the acceptance of the offer, which completes the agreement to purchase. In any such transaction you can only look at the written or printed particulars; any verbal statement of the auctioneer, made at the time of the sale, cannot contradict them, and they are implemented by the agreement, which the auctioneer call» on the purchaser to sign after the sale. You should sign no such contract without having a duplicate of it signed by the auctioneer, and delivered to you. It is, perhaps, unnecessary to add, that no trustee or assignee can purchase property for himself included in the trust, even at auction; nor is it safe to pay the purchase money to an agent of the vendor, unless he give a written authority to the agent to receive it, besides handing over the requisite deeds and receipts.
l6g6. The laws of purchase and sale of property are so complicated that Lord St. Leonards devotes five chapters of his book on Property Law to the subject. The only circumstances strong enough to vitiate a purchase, which has been reduced to a sub contract, is proof of fraudulent representation as to an encumbrance of which the buyer was ignorant, or a defect in title; but every circumstance which the purchaser might have learned by careful Investigation, tho law presumes thathe did know. Thus, in.buying aleasehold estate or house, all the covenants of tho original lease are presumed to be known. "It is not unusual," says Lord St. Leonards, "to stipulate, in conditions of sale of leasehold property, that the production of a receipt for the last year's rent shall be accepted as proof that all the lessor's covenants were performed up to that period. Never bid for one clogged with such a condition. There are some acts against which no relief can be obtained ; for example, tho tenant's right to insure, or his insuring in an office or in names not authorized in the lease. And you should not rely upon the mere fact of tho insuranco boing correct at the time of sale: there may have been a prior breach of covenant, and the landlord may not share waived his right of entry for the forfeiture." And where any doubt of this kind exists, the landlord should be appealed to.
4097- interest on a purchase is due from the day fixed upon for completing: , where it cannot be completed, tho loss rests with the party with whom the delay rests; but it appears, when tho delay rests with the seller, and the money is lying idle, notice of that is to bo given to the seller to make him liable to the loss of interest. In law, the property belongs to the purchaser from tho date of the contract; he is entitled to any benefit, and must bear any loss; the seller may suffer tho insurance to drop without giving notice; and should a fire take place, the loss falls on the buyer. In agreeing to buy a house, therefore, provide at the same time for its insurance. Common fixtures pass with the house, where nothing is said about them.
2698. There are some well-recognized laws, of what may be called goodneighbourhood, which affect all properties. If you purchase a field or house, the seller retaining another field between yours and the highway, he must of necessity grant you a right of way. Where the owner of more than one house sells one of them, tho purchaser is entitled to benefit by all drains leading from his houso into other drains, and will be subject to all necessary drains for the adjoining houses, although there is no express reservation as ta drains.