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will, in all probability, be all that will be required :—First, the hot bath; second, tho emetic ; third, a mustard plaster round the throat for five minutes; fourth, the powders; fifth, another emetic in six hours, if needed, and the powders continued without intermission while the urgency of the symptoms continues. When relief has been obtained, these are to be discontinued, and a dose of senna tea given to act on the bowels.
2574. The diarrhoea with which children are so frequently affected, especially in infancy, should demand the nurse's immediate attention, and when the secretion, from its clayoy colour, indicates an absence of bile, a powder composed of 3 grains of grey powder and 1 grain of rhubarb, should be given twice, with an interval of four hours between each dose, to a child from one to two years, and, a day or two afterwards, an aperient powder containing the same ingredients and quantities, with the addition of 2 or 3 grains of scammony. For the relaxation consequent on an overloaded stomach, or acidity in the bowels, a littlo magnesia dissolved in milk should be employed two or three times a day.
5575. When much griping and pain attend the diarrhoea, half a teaspoonful of Dalby's Carminative (the best of all patent medicines) should be given, either with or without a small quantity of castor oil to carry off the exciting cause.
2576. For any form of diarrhoea that, by excessive action, demands a speedy correction, the most efficacious remedy that can be employed in all ages and conditions of childhood is the tincture of Kino, of which from 10 to 30 drops, mixed with a little sugar and water in a spoon, are to be given every two or three hours till the undue action has been checked. Often the change of diet to rice, milk, eggs, or the substitution of animal for vegetable food, or vice versd, will correct an unpleasant and almost chronic state of diarrhea.
2577. A very excellent carminative powder for flatulent infants may be kept in the house, and employed with advantage, whenever the child is in pain or griped, by dropping 5 grains of oil of aniseed and 2 of peppermint on ball an ounce of lump sugar, and rubbing it in a mortar, with a drachm of magnesia, into a fine powder. A small quantity of this may be given in a little water at any time, and always with benefit.
257S. "Ti:je," according to the old proverb, "is 'money ;" and it may also, in many oases, and with equal truthfulness, be said to be life; for a few moments, in great emergencies, often turn the balance between recovery and death. This applies more especially to all kinds of poisoning, flt3, submersion in water, or exposure to noxious gases; and many accidents. If people know how to act during the interval that must necessarily elapse from the moment that a medical man is sent for until he arrives, many lives might bo saved, which now, unhappily, are lost. Generally speaking, however, nothing is done—all is confusion and fright; and the surgeon, ou his arrival, finds that death has already seized its victim, who, had his friends but known a few rough rules for their guidance, might have been rescued. Wo shall, therefore, in a series of papers, give such information as to the means to be employed in event of accidents, injuries, &c, as, by the aid of a gentleman of large professional experience, we are warranted in recommending.
List of Drugs, &c, necessary to carry out all Instructions.
2579. "We append at once A List Of Drugs, &c, and a few Prescriptions necessary to carry out all the instructions given in this series of articles. It will bo seen that they are few—they are not expensive; and by laying in a little stock of them, our instructions will bo of instant value in all cases of accident, &c.—The drugs are—Antimonial 'Wine. Antimonial Powder. Blister Compound. Blue Pill. Calomel. Carbonate of Potash. Compound Iron Pills. Compound Extract of Colocynth. Compound Tincture of Camphor. Epsom Salts. Goulard's Extract. Jalap in Powder. Linseed Oil. Myrrh and Aloes Pills. Nitre. Oil of Turpentine. Opium, powdered, and Laudanum. Sal Ammoniac. Senna Leaves. Soap Liniment, Opodeldoc. Sweet Spirits of Nitre. Turner's Cerate.—To which should bo added: Common Adhesive Plaster. Isinglass Plaster. Lint. A pair of small Scales with Weights. An ounce and a drachm Measure-glass. A Lancet. A Probe. A pair of Forceps, and some curved Needles.
2580. The following Prescriptions may be made up for a few shillings; and, by keeping them properly labelled, and by referring to the remarks on the treatment of any particular case, much suffering, and, perhaps, some lives, may be saved.
2581. Draught.—twenty grains of sulphate of zinc in an ounce and a half of water. This draught is to be repeated in a quarter of an hour if vomiting does not take place.
2582. Clyster.—Two tablespoonfula of oil of turpentine in a pint of warm gruel.
2583. Liniments.—1. Equal parts of lime-water and linseed-oil well mixed together. [Lime-water is made thus: Pour 6 pints of boiling water upon i lb. of lime ; mix well together, and when cool, strain the liquid from off the lime which has fallen to the bottom, taking care to get it as clear as possible.) 2. Compound camphor liniment.
2584. Lotions.—I. Mix a dessert-spoonful of Goulard's extract and 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar in a pint of water.—2. Mix J oz. of sal-ammoniac, 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, and the same quantity of gin or whisky, in half a pint of water.
2585. Goulard Lotion.—1 drachm of sugar of load, 2 pints of rain-water, 2 teaspoonfuls of spirits of wine. For inflammation of the eyes or elsewhere :—The better way of making Goulard Lotion, if for the eyes, is to add to 6 oz. of distilled water, or water that has been well boiled, 1 drachm of the extract of load.
2586. Opodeldoc. — This lotion being a valuable application for sprains, lumbago, weakness of joints, &c, and it being difficult to procure either pure or freshly made, wo give a recipe for its preparation. Dissolve 1 oz. of camphor in a pint of rectified spirits of wine; then dissolve 4 oz. of hard white Spanish soap, scraped thin, in 4 oz. of oil of rosemary, and mix them together.
2587. The Common Black Draught.—Infusion of Senna 10 drachms; Epsom salts 10 drachms; tincture of senna, compound tincture of cardamums, compound spirit of lavender, of each 1 drachm. Families who make black draught in quantity, and wish to preserve it for some time without spoiling, should add about 2 drachms of spirits of hartshorn to each pint of the strained mixture, the use of this drug being to prevent its becoming mouldy or decomposed. A simpler and equally efficacious form of black draught is made by infusing j oz. of Alexandrian senna, 3 oz. of Epsom salts, and 2 drachms of bruised ginger and coriander-seeds, for several hours in a pint of boiling water, straining the liquor, and adding either 2 drachms of sal-volatile or spirits of hartshorn to the whole, and giving 3 tablespoonfuls for a dose to an adult.
2588. Mixtures—1. Aperient.—Dissolve an ounce of Epsom salts in half a pint of senna tea: take a quarter of the mixture as a dose, and repeat it in three or four hours if necessary.
2589. 2. Fever Mixture.—Mix a draclim of powdered nitre, 2 drachms of carbonate of potash, 2 teaspoonfuls of antimonial wine, and a tablespoonful of sweet spirits of nitre, in half a pint of water.
2590. 3. Myrrh and Aloes Pills.— Ton grains made into two pills are the doso for a full-grown person.
25gr. i. Compound Iron Pills.—Dose for a full-grown person: 10 grains made into two pills.
2592. Pills.—1. Mix 5 grains of calomel and the same quantity of antimonial powder with a little bread-crumb, and make into two pills. Dose for 'a full-grown person:' two pills.—2. Mix 5 grains of blue pill and the same quantity of compound extract of coloeynth together, and make into two pills, the doso for a full-grown person.
2593' Powders.—Mix a grain of calomel and i grains of powdered jalap together.
2594. In all cases, the dose of medicines given is to be regulated by the age of the patient.
2595. AlerncOiy's Plan for making a Ground water Poultice.—First scald out a basin; then having put in some boiling water, throw in coarselycrumbled bread, and cover it with a plate. When the bread has soaked up as much water as it will imbibe, drain off the remaining water, and there will be left a light pulp. Spread it a third of an inch thick on folded linen, and apply it when of the temperature of a warm bath. To preserve it moist, occasionally drop warm water on it.
2596. Linseed-Meal Poultice.—"Scald your basin, by pouring a little hot water into it; then put a small quantity of finely-ground linseed-meal into the basin, pour a littlo hot water on it, and stir it round briskly until you have well incorporated them; add a little more moal and a little more water; then stir it again. Do not let any lumps remain in tho basin, but stir the poultice well, and do not be sparing of your trouble. What you do next, is to take as much of it out of the basin as you may require, lay it on a piece of soft linen, and let it be about a quarter of an inch thick."—Abernathy,
2597. Mustard Poultice.—Mix equal parts of dry mustard and linseed-meal in warm vinegar. When the poultice is wanted weak, warm water may bo used for the vinegar; and when it is required very strong, mustard alone, without any linseed-meal, is to be mixed with warm vinegar.
2598. An ordinary Blister.—Spread a little blister compound on a piece of common adhesive plaster with the right thumb. It should be put on just thickly enough to conceal the appearance of the plaster beneath. the part from which a blister has been taken should be covered till it heals over with soft linen rags smeared with lard. •
Baths and Fomentations.
■2599. All fluid applications to the body are exhibited either in a hot or cold form; and the object for which they are administered is to produce a stimulating effect over the entire, or a part, of tho system ; for the effect, though differently obtained, and varying in degree, is the same in principle, whether procured by hot or cold water.
2600. Heat.—There aro three forms in which heat is universally applied to tho body,—that of the tepid, warm, and vapour bath; but as the first is too inert to be worth notice, and the last dangerous and inapplicable, except in public institutions, we shall confine our remarks to the really efficacious and always attainable one —tho
7601. Warm and Hot Bath.—These baths are used whenever there is congestion, or accumulation of blood in the internal organs, causing pain, difficulty of breathing, or stupor, and are employed, by their stimulating property, to cause a rush of blood to the surface, and, by unloading the great organs, produce a temporary inflammation in the skin, and so equalize the circulation. The effect of the hot bath is to increase the fulness of the pulse, accelerate respiration, and excite perspiration. In all inflammations of the stomach and bowels, the hot bath is of the utmost consequence; the temperature of the warm bath varies from 92° to 100°, and may be obtained by those who have no thermometer to test the exact heat, by mixing one measure of boiling with two of cold water.
2602. Fomentations are generally used to effect, in a part, the benefit produced on the whole body by the bath; to which a sedative action is occasionally given by the use of roots, herbs, or other ingredients; the object being to relieve the internal organ, as the throat, or muscles round a joint, by exciting a greater flow of blood to the skin over the affected part. As the real agent of relief is heat, the fomentation should always be as hot as it can comfortably be borne, and, to insure effect, should be repeated every half-hour. Warm fluids are applied in order to render the swelling which accompanies inflammation less painful, by the greater readiness with which the skin yields, than when it is harsh and dry. They are of various kinds; but the most simple, and oftentimes the most useful, that can be employed, is "Warm Water." Another kind of fomentation is composed of dried poppyheads, 4 oz. Break them to pieces, empty out the seeds, put them into 4 pints of water, boil for a quarter of an hour, then strain through a cloth or sieve, and keep the water for use. Or, chamomile flowers, hemlock, and many other plants, may be boiled, and the part fomented with the hot liquor, by means of flannels wetted with the decoction.
2603. Cold, when applied in excess to the body, drives the blood from the surface to the centre, reduces the pulse, makes the breathing hard and re produces coma, and, if long continued, death. But when medicinally used, it excites a reaction on the surface equivalent to a stimulating effect; as in some