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amongst ancient animals antiquities found appears arrow-heads Auvernier belong bones bottom bronze age bronze implements burnt charcoal chiefly chisels civilisation clay colour consist covered crannoge discovered drawn Plate earthenware vessels Ebersberg edge Estavayer excavations fact fastened feet long flat flax flint fragments hafting hammer handle hatchets Helvetii hole huts inches long inhabitants iron island jadeite kind knives lake dwellings lake of Bienne lake of Neuchatel lake-bottom lake-dwelling large number late Colonel Schwab lines material Meilen mentioned ments metal Moosseedorf Moringen mould nearly nephrite Nidau objects ornamented peat perforated period pieces pile dwellings pins platform portion pottery present probably Professor quantity relic bed relic-bed remains remarkable rings Robenhausen Roman round serpentine settlement shape shore side similar skull specimens spindle-whorls stag's horn station Steinberg stone age stone celts surface Switzerland swords teeth terramara thick upper Wangen whole wild wood wooden
Seite 497 - At the first, the piles which bear up the platforms were fixed in their places by the whole body of the citizens ; but since that time the custom which has prevailed about fixing them is this : They are brought from a hill called Orbelus, and every man drives in three for each wife that he marries. Now, the men have all many wives apiece, and this is the way in which they live. Each has his own hut, wherein he dwells, upon one of the platforms, and each has also a trap-door giving access to the lake...
Seite 485 - ... favorable to the pests, but rather to those conditions fatal to their natural enemies; relieved of the restraint exercised by their enemies, the species at once develop in myriads and destroy the crops of the farmer. DESTRUCTIVE INSECTS CLASSED ACCORDING TO METHODS OF FEEDING. Destructive insects may be divided into two classes, according to the nature of the mouth parts. This is especially important from an economic point of view. The grasshopper, being provided with jaws, can be killed by poisons....
Seite 474 - ... and roof project about two feet beyond the walls at each end, so as to form a kind of porch, in which there are benches for the accommodation of the family. That part of the floor which is allotted for the fire-place, is enclosed in a hollow square, by partitions either of wood or stone, and in the middle of it the fire is kindled.
Seite 8 - Probably in some cases .... fresh piles were driven in for this purpose, which did not go quite down to the bottom of the lake. ... Of course these piles would mark out the extent of the dwellings themselves, and in one or two favourable instances we have thus the ground plan of a settlement; but we have more than this: the size of the house is further marked out by boards, forced in firmly between the piles, and resting edgeways on the platform, thus forming what at the present day we should call...
Seite 645 - The circumference of the circle was formed by upright posts of black oak, measuring from 6 to 8 feet in height ; these were mortised into beams of a similar material, laid flat upon the marl and sand beneath the bog, and nearly 16 feet below the present surface. The upright posts were held together by connecting cross-beams, and [said to be] fastened by large iron nails ; parts of a second upper tier of posts were likewise found resting on the lower ones.
Seite 497 - Each has his own hut, wherein he dwells, upon one of the platforms, and each has also a trapdoor giving access to the lake beneath; and their wont is to tie their baby children by the foot with a string, to save them from rolling into the water. They feed their horses and their other beasts upon fish, which abound in the lake to such a degree that a man has only to open his trap-door and to let down a basket by a rope into the water, and then to wait a very short time, when he draws it up quite full...
Seite 498 - The Dahoman king is sworn never to lead his army where canoes may be required ; these Iso, therefore, have built their huts upon tall poles, about a mile distant from the shore. Their villages at once suggest the Prasian lake dwellings of Herodotus, and the crannoges of Ireland and the Swiss waters. The people are essentially boatmen ; they avoid dry land as much as possible, and though said to be ferocious, they are civil enough to strangers. In June, 1863, 1 moored my little canoe under one of...
Seite 496 - Aeribus &c.' xxxvii. It runs thus : — ' Concerning the people on the Phasis (now Rioni), that region is marshy and hot, and full of water, and woody ; and at every season frequent and violent rains fall there. The inhabitants live in the marshes, and have houses of timber and of reeds constructed in the midst of the waters ; and they seldom go out to the city or the market, but sail up and down in boats made out of a single tree-trunk ; for there are numerous canals in that region.
Seite 662 - The examination of the interior would, of course, unfold the process of the construction. We therefore made several perpendicular openings ; and these invariably led us down to the shell-marl, showing first a stratum of large, loose stones, with vegetable mould and sand ; next (about eighteen inches above the marl), peat, black and compact ; and beneath this, the remains of reeds and small wood. This faggot-like wood presented itself abundantly all round the edges of the island, and in the same relative...
Seite 648 - ... clusters of stakes in other portions of the island, some of which appear to have been placed with regard to a particular arrangement. A, the central oblong portion, consists of a platform of round logs, cut in lengths of from 4 to 6 feet, chiefly of alder timber.