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ESSAYS AND LETTERS,
on

COMMERCIAL AND POLITICAL SUBJECTS.

OBSERVATIONS CONCERNING THE INGREASE OF
MANKIND, PEOPLING OF COUNTRIES, &c.

Written in Pennsylvania, 1751.

1. TABLEs of the proportion of marriages to births, of deaths to births, of marriages to the number of inhabitants, &c. formed on observations made upon the bills of mortality, christenings, &c. of populous cities, will not suit countries; nor will tables, formed on observations made poull settled...old court- " " ' tries, as Europe, suit new countries; to Américh. : ; , ; 2. For people increase in proportion, to the number of marriages, and that is greater; in proportion to the ease and convenience of supporting a family. When families can be easily supported, more persons marry, and earlier in life. ... • * : * * * * * * : * : 3. In cities, where all trades, occupations, and offices are full, many delay marrying till they can see how to bear the charges of a family; which charges are greater in cities, as luxury is more common : many live single during life, and continue servants to families, journeymen to trades, &c.

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Hence cities do not, by natural generation, supply
themselves with inhabitants; the deaths are more
than the births.
4. In countries full settled, the case must be
nearly the same, all lands being occupied and im-
proved to the height; those who cannot get land,
must labour for others that have it; when labour-
ers are plenty, their wages will be low ; by low
wages a family is supported with difficulty ; this
difficulty deters many irom marriage, who therefore
long continue servants and single. Only, as the ci-
ties take supplies of people from the country, and
thereby make a little more room in the country,
marriage is a little more encouraged there, and the
births exceed the deaths.
5. Great part of Europe is fully settled with hus-
bandmen, manufacturers, &c. and therefore cannot
now much increase in people. America is chiefly
occupied by Indians, who subsist mostly by hunting.
But as the hunter; of ań.shen, requires the greatest
quantity of land from *tence to draw his subsist-
enee, (the husbandman subsisting on much less, the
gardener orstiți loss, and the manufacturer requiring
..least of all) the Europeans found America as fully
'settled as i. well: $outo be by hunters; yet these,
having iarge otracts; were easily prevailed on to
part with portions of territory to the new comers,
who did not much interfere with the natives in
hunting, and furnished them with many things they
wanted. -
6. Land being thus plenty in America, and so

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