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Nov. 16, 1732. On board the frigate Ann, Capt. Thomas mustered the passengers on board, and computed the freight of them to 91 heads.
Aug. 11, 1733. Read a letter from Mr. Oglethorpe, with an account of the death of sev. eral persons in Georgia, which he imputed to the drinking of rum. Resolved that the drinking of rum in Georgia be absolutely prohibited, and that all which shall be brought there sball be staved.
Oct. 16, 1734. Read an indenture for binding William Ewen as servant to the trustees for two years. That 50 acres of land be given to said William Ewen when his time is out (Mr. Ewen afterward became governor of Georgia.]
May 5, 1735. One thousand cwt. of copper farthings to be sent to Georgia.
April 4, 1737. A law was read against the use of gold and silver in apparel and furniture in Georgia, and for preventing extravagance and luxury.
Nov. 9, 1737. Received from Major William Cook 16 different sorts of vine cuttings from France for the use of the colony.
Dec. 7, 1737. Several letters were read from Mr. Williamson at Savannah complaining of the Rev. John Wesley having refused the sacrament to his wife, with affidavit of the latter thereupon, and two presentments of the Grand Jury of the Rev. John Wesley for said refusal, and for several other facts laid to his charge.
May 16, 1739. Received a bottle of Salitrum seeds, being a remedy for the bloody flux for the use of the colony. Read a commission to the Rev. George Whitefield to perform all religious and ecclesiastical offices at Savannah, Georgia.
June 27, 1739. That the seal of the corporation be affixed to the Trustees' answer to the Representation from Savannah of the 9th of Dec., 1738, for altering tenure of lands, and introducing negroes in Georgia.
Jan. 16, 1739–40. Lieut. Delegel, Capt Dymond and Mr. A spourger asked by the trust. ees their opinion about the climate of Georgia-declared they thought it very healthy, and that in the hottest weather there are fine breezes in the middle of the day. As to the good. ness of the soil, “there was a great quantity of good land, called mixt land.” Lieut. Delegel said that the white Mulberry tree grows wild as well as the black. Capt. Dymond said that no vegetable thrives faster in any part of the world than the Mulberry tree in Georgia. Mr. Aspourger said that he had seen the family of Camuse winding silk. Capt. Dempsey said that the wild vines grow abundantly in Georgia ; that the grapes are very sweet, and that these vines are capable of great improvement by engraftment. Mr. Robert Millar, botanist, said that he believed Indigo would grow very well in Georgia, and that it may be sown and raised in four months in Georgia, whereas in most other places the climates are not proper for it above three months.
Capt. Dymond being questioned about Cotton, declared that it thrives very well in Georgia ; that he has brought home with him very good pods of it, and that it was planted on the island of St. Simon, by Mr. Horton.
Capt. Dymond, Lieut. Delegel and Mr. A spourger declared that they had all seen the prickly pear shrub in Georgia, and the Cochineal Fly upon it; that there are great numbers of those trees, which grow wild in the southern part of the province, and that the islands are full of them; that they have taken the fly between their fingers, and though green upon the tree it dyes the fingers (if squeezed) with a deep red color. Lieut. Delegel said the dye of it could not easily be washed off with soap.
Capt. Dymond being asked by the trustees about the timber in the province, said that he had seen very good and fit for masts, and that Captain Gascoigne's carpenter told him there was timber fit for masts for the largest men-of-war; that the timber grows very high at some distance up in the country; that the trees grow very near rivers, which are navigable, and down which they may be floated. Lieut. Delegel said that the trees for masts are very tall, twenty miles up in the country from St. Simon's. Capt. Shubrick said that he had seen very fine knee timber growing near the sea. Capts. Dymond and Shubrick declared that the sea-coast of Georgia is capable and secure for navigation as any coast in the world.
Capt. Mapey told the trustees that since the establishment of Georgia the price of lands has been greatly raised in Carolina, and the plantations there increased; that Georgia is a fine barrier for the Northern provinces, and especially for Carolina; and is also a great security against the running away of negroes from Carolina to Augustine, because every negro, at his first appearance in Georgia, must be immediately known to be a runaway, since there are no negroes in Georgia.
JOURNEY THROUGH THE SOUTHERN STATES IN THE TIME OF THE REV
Watson, in his “Men and Times of the Revolution," has left a valuable record of a journey which he made in the years 1777-78 through the southern states. He was then a youth of nineteen years of age, and in the employment of John Brown, an eminent merchant of Providence, the founder of Brown University. We make the extract in an abridged form. The southern states were then very thinly settled, and society but in a forming condition :
“At York the congress was at that time assembled after its dispersion from Philadelphia. Protected by Washington, whose forces interposed between them and the British army, they held daily secret sessions. Here we procured passports for our southern journey. We entered Maryland on the 5th of October, and passed through Hanover and Fredericksburg into Virginia, over the Potomac at Newland's ferry. We found the country, through a wilderness region, infested by a semi-barbarian population. We liberated an unfortunate traveler assailed by one of these wretches, who, in his technical language, swore he “would try the strength of his eye-ball strings.' Soon after entering Virginia, and at a highỉy respectable house, I
was shocked, beyond the power of language to express, at seeing, for the first time, young negroes of both sexes, from twelve even to fifteen years old, not only running about the house, but absolutely tending table, as naked as they came into the world, not having even the poor apology of a fig-leaf to save modesty a blush. What made the scene more extraordinary still, to my unpracticed eye, was the fact that several young women were at table, who appeared totally unmoved at the scandalous violation of decency. I find custom will reconcile us to almost everything
Proceeding on our journey from Leesburg, night overtook us in the midst of a wild and secluded region. Å wretched ordinary, filled with a throng of suspicious characters, afforded us the only refuge; but as the moon was just rising, we chose to press forward through the woods rather than to encounter its hospitalities. We traveled thus until a late hour in the night, amid stately forests of tall, venerable pines, our three carriages in a line, and man Tom, our servant, in advance. Suddenly Tom came galloping back in a terrible fright. "What is the matter, Tom ?" we cried.
" Oh, massa, I see the d-1 just this minute flying in dem woods!" Mr. Scott, being ahead, stopped and exclaimed. “What can it be! Don't you see it moving in the air among those trees ?". We distinctly saw the object of Tom's terror. Well,” says Scott, "let it be a d—1, or a d-d tory, or what, I'll find out." He dismounted, pistol in hand, and dashed into the wood, calling upon Tom to follow. They had not proceeded far when Tom whirled about, and was in full career toward us, applying whip and spur at a merciless rate, his hat off, and his naked head in a line with the horse's mane. Mr. Scott pressed forward with due caution toward the terrific object, which still seemed to float in the air. We were all impatience and anxiety for the fate of our gallant companion. In a moment more he made the old forest ring with his powerful voice. - "I have got the d-1, or some dead tory, fast by the leg; a man in gibbets !” After this absurd scene, we advanced five miles further through the woods to a small tavern, where we found rest and comfort. Here we learned that the cause of our alarm was a negro hung in chains for the murder of his master.
As we approached Fredericksburg, we passed many elegant plantations, whose owners appeared to enjoy the splendor and affluence of nabobs." About two miles from the town, on the north bank of the Rappahannock, we examined the extensive factory belonging to Colonel Hunter, for the manufacture of small arms, bar iron, steel, files, etc. Fredericksburg is situated on the Rappahannock, and contains about 8,000 inhabitants. At this place the mother of our Washington resides, and was pointed out to me. She is a majestic and venerable woman.
On the 17th of October we reached Williamsburg. Here I separated from my traveling companions. This city contains three hundred and twenty dwelling houses, principally built of wood, on one street three-fourths of a mile in lenyih
At Williamsburg I associated myself with a Captain Harwood, who was proceed. ing also to Charleston. We passed the little village of Jamestown, on James River, interesting only from its early associations and venerable ruins; and next reached Cobham and then Suffolk, where we found ourselves in the hands of the civil authorities, on a complaint which had been lodged against us upon a suspicion of our being spies. My exact and curious inquiries had again excited jealousy of our character. We were compelled to go before a magistrate two miles out of town, exhibit our passports, take the oath of abjuration, and pay the fees of office.
Proceeding from Suffolk to Edenton, North Carolina, we passed over a spacious, level road, through a pine forest, which, beginning in this district, extends quite across North Carolina. We traveled near the north border of the great Dismal Swamp, which, at this time, was infested by concealed royalists and runaway negroes, who could not be approached with safety. They often attacked travelers, and had recently murdered a Mr. Williams.
We entered North Carolina late in the day, availing ourselves of that hospitality so characteristic of southern manners, and threw ourselves upon the kindness of Mr. Granby, a wealthy planter and merchant. He informed me that, previous to the Revolution, Washington and two other gentlemen had contemplated opening a canal through the Dismal Swamp, for the purpose of drawing off the water and reclaiming the land for cultivation.
Edenton is situated on the Albemarle Sound. It is defended by two forts, and contained one hundred and thirty-five dwellings and a brick court-house. The town was nearly overrun by the busy sons of commerce, from its being protected against the access of an enemy by the difficult navigation of a shallow water.
At this place we crossed the sound, twelve miles, and entered a romantic creek, up which we sailed some distance before landing. After landing, we traveled eleven miles to Colonel Blount's where we arrived late at night, in Egyptian dark
From Colonel Blount's we proceeded to Bath, on Pamlico Sound. rived late in the day in Bath, after traveling over a most sterile and desolate sandy plain. The dreariness was scarcely relieved by the appearance of a house, except a few miserable tar-burner's huts. We crossed Pamlico Sound in an open ferry-boat, a distance of five miles. After landing, we traveled the whole day amid a gloomy region of sands and pines. The road was spacious and in a direct line. The majestic perpendicular pines, apparently towering to the clouds, innparted an imposing and solemn aspect to the scenery. The only relief from this inonotony, and the cheerless and painful silence, we found was noticing the watchful and timid deer grazing in the woods. The few inhabitants scattered here and there in the forest, subsist by the chase, burning tar and collecting turpentine.
It was nearly dark when we reached the river Neuse, which having crossed, we again mounted our horses and proceeded on to Newbern, the capital of North Carolina, groping our way in the dark, along unknown roads, and drenched by the heavy rains.
On our arrival, excessively wearied, and needing repose and shelter, we wandered in pursuit of quarters, from street to street, and were turned from tavern to tavern every house being filled by French adventurers. At one of these taverns, kept by one T we were repulsed by the landlord with so much rudeness as to produce a severe quarrel in the piazzi, where we stood soliciting quarters. Newbern was the metropolis of North Carolina, situated at the confluence of the Neuse and Trent Rivers, and contained about one hundred and fifty dwellings. It was defended by a strong fort and an armed ship. Previous to the war it exported corn, naval stores, beeswax, hams and deer-skins, to a considerable amount.
The next morning Harwood proceeded to a barber's shop to be shaved. I soon after started in pursuit of the same barber. I had not gone far before I met Harwood, his pace somewhat quickened, and with one side only of his face shaved, He soon informed me that the barber had been impertinent, and that he had knocked him down and left him sprawling on the foor. We agreed that to avoid trouble he should push on, and that I should follow. He was soon on his way through the streets of the capital of North Carolina, in the ludicrous predicament I have described. I left Newbern soon after upon Harwood's track, and
crossed the Trent by a rope ferry seventy feet wide. I journeyed the entire day alone, through a wilderness of pines, over a flat, sandy country, with scarcely an inhabitant to be seen. Toward the close of the day I found myself entangled among swamps, amid an utter wilderness, and my horse almost exhausted in my efforts to overtake Harwood. As night closed upon me, I was totally bewildered, and without a vestige of a road to guide me. Knowing the impossibility of retracing my steps in the dark, through the mazes I had traversed, I felt the absolute necessity of passing the night in this solitary desert. Feeling no apprehension that my horse would wander far from me, I turned him to shift for himself. I then placed my box under the sulky, and with my pistols fresh primed on one side, and my hanger on the other, I drew around me my grego, and, prostrated on the ground along with these, my only companions, half asleep and half awake, I passed the night in no trifling apprehension of falling a prey to wild beasts before morning.
At length, to my inexpressible satisfaction, the eastern horizon began to kindle up, and gradually to brighten more and more into the full blaze of day. I found my faithful horse true to his allegiance, and within reach. I harnessed up, and pressed with as much speed as possible out of this dreary retreat of solitude and desolation. My movements were somewhat accelerated by observing a large bear stepping slowly along at a little distance from me. After several miles traveling I regained the road, and in the course of the forenoon overtook Harwood.
We crossed the Neuse River, and passed over a continuous pine barren to Wilmington, on Cape Fear River. This was a compact town, ten miles from the sea, and is surrounded by sand-hills. It was defended by two forts, and two brigs of sixteen guns each. "It formerly exported large quantities of naval stores, pork, furs, etc., which it received by the river from the fertile country in the interior. The killing of deer by torch-light was a favorite amusement of the inhabitants of this regior.
On leaving Wilmington we crossed the Cape Fear River, which is here two hundred yards wide, and navigable by vessels of twenty feet draught At Brunswick nearly all the houses had been deserted from apprehension of the enemy. From this place to Lockwood's Folly, twenty-two miles, is an unbroken wilderness; not a house, not even a wild tar-burner's, was presented to our view the whole distance. Fortunately forewarned, we had prepared ourselves with supplies to encounter this desert. At night we encamped at a wretched hovel, without floor or furniture.
The next day we crossed Little River, the country continuing to exhibit the same dreary and desolate aspect. The ensuing morning we passed a dangerous wash, at the north entrance of Long Bay. Suddenly the ocean and several ships burst upon our view. The contrast was a great relief to our minds and eyes after traveling so many days over a waste of sand.
We rode along this bay for sixteen miles on the edge of the surf, upon a hard, firm beach. The swell roared and curled upon the shore, and, as we advanced, the variety of sea-birds starting on the wing, and a school of porpoises rolling up their black backs on the surface of the sea, amused us as we passed along this beautiful scene. Sand hillocks ran parallel with the shore on our right, over which land birds were continually hovering. We were alarmed and surprised as we entered on the circuit of this bay, to observe, as we thought for the moment, several men, with horses and carriages, at a distance, swimming in the sea. We were soon, however, relieved by noticing an exhalation in that direction, which had produced the mirage. About half way across the beach we met a group of travelers, who proved to be General McIntosh and suit, going to the north to join the army.
We mutually stopped to exchange civilities and learn the news. Our minds had for several days been depressed in reflecting upon the critical condition of our national affairs. Gracious God! how were we astonished and transported with joy on hearing from the general that Burgoyne and his whole army were prisoners of war! In confirmation of the intelligence, he presented us a handbill, printed at Charlestor, containing the articles of capitulation. We involuntarily took off our hats and gave three hearty cheers in concert with the roaring of the surge. All con
sidered this glorious event as deciding the question of our eventual independence. In triumph we carried the joyous news to the hospitable seat of William Alston Esq., one of the most respectable and affluent planters in South Carolina. We arrived at the close of the day, but were received with open arms and entertained in the most suinptuous style. With music and his best madeira we celebrated the great event we had announced, in high glee, to a late hour of the night.
We had been cautioned to be on our guard against the attacks of runaway negroes, in the passage of swamps near Wingan Bay. As we entered the second swamp, fourteen naked negroes, armed with poles, presented themselves in the attitude of hostility, across the road. Harwood seized one of my pistols and charged them at full speed, making the woods resound with his thundering voice. I pressed forward close to his heels in my sulky, armed with the other pistol. They threw down their rails and dashed into the woods, and we passed on without further interruption.
As evening closed in we embarked in a good ferry-boat, manned by four jolly, well-fed negroes, to cross Wingan Bay, a distance of four miles. The evening was serene, the stars shone brightly, and the poor fellows amused us the whole way by singing their plaintive African songs in cadence with the oars. We reached Georgetown in the evening. It stands on the Wingan River, and is the second place of importance in the state. After leaving Georgetown we passed the Black River, and, crossing a second ferry, traveled over Santee island.
At length, on the 18th of November, 1777, the city of Charleston presented itself to our view. We left our horses and crossed Cooper's River in a yawl. I was delighted with the view of this splendid city, and the shipping in its harbor. After a seventy days' journey from Providence, having traveled 1,243 miles, it was to me almost like the entrance of the Israelite into the promised land. I performed the the whole route either on horseback or in a sulky.
In the intervals of business, I mingled with delight in the elegant and gay society of this refined metropolis, under the wing of Mr. Russell, the consignee of Mr. Brown, a gentleman of New England origin, but occupying a distinguished position in the mercantile community of Charleston.
Among the females of Charleston we observed many elegant, accomplished women, but generally of sallow complexions, and without that bloom that distinguishes the daughters of the north. "Perhaps no city of America exhibits, in proportion to its size, so much splendor and style as Charleston. The rich planters of the state live in almost Asiatic luxury, and usually, before the Revolution, educated their sons in Europe.*
Having arranged my affairs in Charleston, I determined, in company with a Mr. Bloomfield, of Boston, and Mr. Clark, of New Haven, to extend my tour to the south as far as prudence should warrant. In pursuance of this plan we left Charleston on the 29th of January, 1788.
The road to Ashley River is delightful. We passed many elegant seats, with fine gardens and grounds. The road in some places is shaded by lofty trees, from which we were sweetly serenaded by the music of beautiful birds, offering up, we could believe, their evening praises to our common Benefactor.
On this river are situated the choicest plantations, and the most elegant and numerous country-seats, in the state. The extensive marshes bordering upon this and adjacent streams, had recently been converted into highly productive rice plantations, to which culture they are well adapted. In the evening of this day we were much annoyed by the quarrel of two overseers in an adjoining room, who soon gave us a fair (or rather foul) specimen of a genuine Georgia gouging-match. They rushed upon each other with the fury and ferocity of bull-dogs, and made every effort to gouge out each other's eyes. We at length succeeded in separating them.
In the morning, as we were about leaving the inn, an old French officer rode
*Before the Revolution about one hundred and forty ships were annually freighted at Charleston, Georgetown and Beaufort, and principally at the former, with rice, indigo, tobacco, skins and naval stores ; about seventy thousand casks of rice, and thirty thousand deer-skins, were yearly exported.