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to release him. One of his friends was instructed to say that he should be pardoned, if he would write a noto to Lord North, and express his sorrow for what he had done. "Pardon !' exclaimed Laurens, indignantly. I have done nothing to require a pardon, and I will never subscribe to my own infamy and the dishonor of my children.' He never could be induced to make the least concessions ; and finally, when public clamor for his release became too vehement to be longer disregarded, the ministry had him admitted to bail* on security procured by themselves, and he was discharged before the allotted time of trial." Lord Shelburne was then premier, and he solicited Mr. Laurens to remain in Europe, and assist in the pending negotiations for peace. Laurens complied; and in November, 1782, he signed the preliminary treaty between the United States and Great Britain. Soon after that event he returned home, suffering much from the effects of his rigorous confinement. His constitution was shattered beyond recovery, and he steadily refused the honors of official station frequently offered him by his grateful countrymen. His health gradually failed, and on the 8th of December, 1792, he expired when almost sixty-nine years of age. The following remarkable injunction, expressed in his will, was literally complied with: 'I solemnly enjoin it upon my son, as an indispensable duty, that as soon as he conveniently can after my decease, he cause my body to be wrapped in twelve yards of tow-cloth, and burnt until it be entirely consumed, and then, collecting my bones, deposit them wherever he may think proper.'
William Moultrie, a distinguished general of the revolution, emigrated from England at a very early age. In 1760 he distinguished himself in the Cherokee war. He also gained great eclat by his gallant defense of Fort Moultrie, on Sullivan's Island, in 1776. In 1779 he gained a victory over the British at Beaufort; and, at the siege of Charleston, was second in command. After the revolution he was repeatedly elected governor of the state. He published memoirs of the war, in the south, and died in 1805.
Francis Marion was born near Georgetown, South Carolina, in 1732. He was quite diminutive at the time of his birth, but his life shows the superior
ity of mind over the body. He was, perhaps, the ablest and most successful partisan officer of the revolution. He died at his residence, about three miles below Eutaw Springs, Feb. 29, 1795.1
After the defeat of Gates, in 1780, the cause of American liberty in South Carolina was sustained with firmness by
Generals Marion, Sumter, and others. GENERAL MARION'S RESIDENCE. Marion's cavalry were so destitute of
weapons that they were obliged to cut their swords from the saws of saw-mills. With his small force he harassed the British and tories, and continually surprised and captured parties of the enemy. He was so successful in concealing himself in woods and marshes that the enemy were never able to attack or to discover him. From these dark retreats he sallied forth upon the foe, with such secrecy and celerity in his movements, that he received the appellation of the "Old Fox, Marion." In one of his sallies, he released one hundred and fifty continen
*On one oocasion, when he was requested to write to his son, John, then on a mission to France, and advise him to leave that country, Mr. Laurens replied, “My son is of age, and has a will of his own. If I should write to him in the terms you request, it would have no effect; he would only conclude that confinement and persuasion had softened me. I know him to be a man of honor. He loves me dearly, and would lay down his life to save mine ; but I am sure he would not sacrifice his honor to save mine, and I applaud him." That son was worthy of such a father.
fThe engraving of Marion's residence, and those of the battle-fields of Cowpens and King's Mountain, are from Lossing's Field-book.
tal troops, who were taken prisoners at Camden. His repeated and successful excursions kept alive the spirit of resistance, and his high fame as a partisan was never tarnished by any violation of the laws of war or of humanity. The annexed spirited verses, by Bryant, are deservedly popular.
SONG OF MARION'S MEN. Our band is fow, but true and tried,
And woodland flowers are gather'd Our leader frank and bold;
To crown the soldier s cup. The British soldier trembles
With merry songs we mock the wind When Marion's name is told.
That in the pine-top grioves, Our fortress is a good groen wood,
And slumber long and sweetly
On beds of oaken leaves.
Well knows the fair and friendly moon We know its walls of thorny vines,
The band that MARION leadsIt glades of reedy grass,
The glitter of their rifles, Its safe and silent islands
The scampering of their steeds. Within the dark morass.
Tis life to guide the fiery barb
Across the moonlight plain ; Woe to the English soldiery
'Tis life to feel the night-wind That little dread us near !
That lifts its tossing mane. On them shall light at midnight
A moment in the British camp A strange and sudden fear:
A moment-and away
Before the peep of day.
Grave men there are by broad Santee,
Grave men with hoary hairs, A mighty host behind,
Their hearts are all with MARION, And hear the tramp of thousands
For MARION are their prayers. Upon the hollow wind.
And lovely ladies greet our band
With kindliest welcoming,
And tears like those of spring.
For them we wear these lusty arms, And share the battle's spoil.
And lay them down no more, The woodland rings with laugh and shout Till we have driven the Briton As if a hunt were up,
Forever from our shore. David Ramsay, M. D., & revolutionary patriot, was a native of Pennsylvania and in 1773, when twenty-three years of age, emigrated to Charleston, where he rose to eminence in his profession. In 1782 he was elected to congress, and in 1785 was president pro tem. He wrote several historical works, the most noted of which was his history of the revolution in South Carolina. He was eminent for his great enterprise, for purity and philanthropy, and was a bright example of all the Christian virtues. He died in 1815, of a wound received in the street from a maniac.
Joel Poinsett, an eminent statesman, was born in South Carolina, in 1779. He was minister to Mexico in the administration of John Q. Adams, and secretary of war in that of Van Buren. He died in 1851.
George Mc Duffie, the co-worker and friend of Calhoun and Hayne, and a zealous defender of the peculiar institution of the south, was born in this state about the year 1792. He was a representative in congress from 1821 until 1835, when he was elected governor of the state. In 1841 he was elected to the United States senate, but ill health, partly the result of a duel, occasioned his resignation. He died in 1851.
Robert Y. Hayne, one of the most brilliant statesmen of South Carolina, was born in the vicinity of Charleston, in 1791, and studied law in the office of the celebrated Langdon Cheves. In the year 1823 he was elected to the United States senate. His course in the senate rendered him extremely popular at home, and he was a member of the South Carolina convention, which was called by the legislature, for reviewing the tariff laws of Congress. The results of the deliberations of the conventi the celebrated ordinance of nullification, which was reported to that of Hayne, as chairman of the committee to
whom it had been referred, in November of 1832. A month later he was elected governor of the state. General Jackson issued a proclamation, denouncing these proceedings of South Carolina, but Governor Hayne stood firm, and the threatened danger of a bloody issue was arrested by " the compromise act." While in the senate he was a party in the great debate with Daniel Webster, the most celebrated that ever occurred in that body. Governor Hayne died in 1841, in the fiftieth year of his age. His private life was richly adorned with all the social and domestic virtues, and in his public career no one doubted the eminent purity of his patriotism.
William Lorondes was born in South Carolina, in 1780. He was a member of congress from 1812 to 1822, and part of the time chairman of the committee of ways and means. Resigning, from ill health, he died at sea the same year, at the early age of forty-two years. He possessed a mind of the first order, and stood in the very front rank of American statesmen. Peter Parley, who once heard him in his place in congress, gives the following reminiscence:
“Soon after Lowndes arose, and there was a general movement of the members from the most remote parts of the room toward him. His appearance was remarkable. He was six feet two inches high-slender, bent, emaciated, and evidently of feeble frame. His complexion was sallow and dead, and his face almost without expression. His voice, too, was low and whispering. And yet he was, all things considered, the strong man of the house ; strong in his various knowledge, his comprehensive understanding, his pure heart, his upright intentions, and, above all, in the confidence these qualities had inspired. Everything he said was listened to as the words of wisdom. It was he who gave utterance to the sentiment that the office of president of the United States was neither to be solicited nor refused. I was unable to hear what he said, but the stillness around—the intent listening of the entire assembly—bore testimony to the estimation in which he was held. I never saw him afterward. About two years later, he died on a voyage to England for the benefit of his health, and thus, in the language of an eminent member of congress,' were extinguished the bright
est hopes of the country, which, by a general movement, were looking to him as the future chief magistrate of the nation.'"
Washington Allston, who has been styled the "American Titian," was born in South Carolina, in 1780, and died at Cambridge, Mass., in 1843, where most of his life had been passed. This gifted painter and poet has left an eminent reputation as an artist. It has been said of him that no man ever possessed a more exquisite appreciation of the beautiful.
The palmetto, which appears so conspicuously on the arms of South Carolina, is a tree of slow growth, not attaining its maturity till after a period of some fifty or sixty years. On the islands these trees grow to the hight of thirty or forty feet. They are peculiar to the low, sandy shores of the southern states. The wood is spongy, and the best known for cannon-shot, as it is so fibrous and tough that it will receive a ball and close over the hole ready to bury another. The one
represented in the engraving is in Bay street, in PALMETTO TREE, CHARLESTON.
Charleston, near the post-office. It is about
twenty-two feet in hight, and of fifteen years growth. The fort on Sullivan's Island, so effective in the defense of Charleston in 1776, was constructed of palmetto logs, in sections, and filled in with sand.
Hugh S. Legare, an accomplished scholar and lawyer, was born in Charleston in 1797. In 1832 he was appointed charge d'affairs to Belgium. From 1837 to 1839 he was a representative in congress; and from 1841 until his death in 1843, attorney general of the United States. His fine taste as a writer, his eminent ac
quirements as a scholar, and his learning and eloquence as a lawyer, were widely appreciated.
Langdon Cheves was born in the Abbeville district, South Carolina, in 1776; was admitted to the bar, and, for a time, was atttorney general of the state. He was a representative in congress from 1811 to 1816, and was speaker during the second session of thirteenth congress. For a time he was president of the United States bank. Resigning his trust, he retired to private life, and died in 1857.
James Gadsden was born at Charleston, in 1788, and was educated at Yale. He was aid of General Jackson, in the Seminole war. In 1853 he was sent as minister to Mexico, where he made from Mexico the celebrated “Gadsden purchase," for ten millions of dollars—now the territory of Arizona, and the richest silver bear ing district known on the globe. He died in 1858.
HUGUENOT COLONISTS. Huguenot is an appellation given to the reformed or protestant Calvinists of France. The name had its rise in 1560, but authors are not agreed as to the origin or occasion of its being used. Some derive it from a French and faulty pronunciation of the German word edignossen, signifying confederates, and originally applied to that valiant part of the city of Geneva which entered into an alliance with the Swiss cantons, in order to maintain their liberties against the tyrannical attempts of Charles III, duke of Savoy. These confederates were called Eignots; whence Huguenots.
These people underwent a series of persecutions which hardly have a parallel During the reign of Charles IX, and on August 24, 1572, happened the massacre of St. Bartholomew, in which it is computed that thirty thousand Huguenots porished in various parts of France. In 1598, Henry IV passed the famous edict of Nantes, which secured to the Protestants the free exercise of their religion. The formal revocation of this important act did not take place till the year 1685. For some time previous, the Huguenots had been gradually robbed of one privilege after another, and scarcely retained the shadow of their rights. The revocation was intended as a final or death-blow to Protestantism.
The revocation of the edict of Nantes was followed by rigorous enactments, These, with those put in force before, caused a vast number of the most virtuous people in France to leave their native country and find refuge elsewhere. It is
supposed that within a short time eight hundred thousand protestants left France and sought an asylum in foreign lands. Some fled to America. Quite a number came to New England—to Boston. A colony was located in Oxford, in Massachusetts. Some went into the provinces, and located themselves at New Rochelle, and elsewhere. "One hundred and seventy families, besides private individuals, settled in South Carolina, and a large portion of them on the south side of the Santee River, where they laid out a town to which they gave the name of 'Jamestown.' Others fixed their residences in Charleston, and its vicinity. There was a settlement of them in Berkeley county, which they called the Orange Quarter,' and afterward the parish of St. Dennis. A few families settled at St. John's Berkeley."
At the period of the revocation of the edict of Nantes, the English, who at this time had a parental feeling for their young colonies, encouraged the Huguenots to migrate to America, particularly cultivators of land, of which they posBessed here such an abundant extent. The band of Huguenot settlers, although at first much unjust prejudice existed against them, was a great acquisition to the infant colony of South Carolina. They
were before the English in many of the arts, and better understood the cultivation of land. In the course of a few years the antipathy of the English melted away, intermarriages took place, and the most perfect harmony existed between them and the French refugees.
The four early congregations first formed in South Carolina professed the doctrines, and worshiped according to the forms, of the church of Geneva. After the act of assembly, in 1706, by which the church of England gained a legal settlement in the colony, three of these congregations, conforming to the new order of things, became Episcopalian. The Huguenot church in Charleston, however, maintained its original distinctive features. Its founder was the Rev. Elias Prioleau, a descendant of the Prioli family, which, in 1618, gave a doge to Venice. The following is extracted from the “ Huguenots in France and America," a work published in Boston, by Munroe & Co., in 1852:
“ The French Calvinistic church in Charleston adhered to its pecular worship. It was built about 1693. The time of worship was regulated by the tide, for the accommodation of the members, who, many of them, came by the river from the settlements round. We can hardly imagine anything more picturesque than these little boats, borne on the water and filled with noble and daring beings, who had endured danger and suffering, and risked their lives, for the spiritual life of the soul. Often the low chant was distinguished amidst the dashing of the oars, and sometimes an enthusiastic strain swelled on the ear, like those that proceeded from the lips of the martyrs when the flames curled around them.”
Many illustrious names of Huguenot origin stand recorded in the annals of American history. “Three of the nine presidents of the old congress, which conducted the United States through the revolutionary war, were descendants of French protestant refugees, who had migrated to America in consequence of the revocation of the edict of Nantes. The persons alluded to were Henry Laurens, of South Carolina ; John Jay, of New York; and Elias Boudinot, of New Jersey. The ancestors of General Marion, so distinguished in revolutionary history, were Huguenots. The first child born in New York was a daughter of George Rapaeligo, in 1625, a descendant of Huguenot ancestors, who had fled from the Sto Bartholomew massacre."