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retired from the siege, and nothing was heard from them for some time. Many persons within the fort supposing that they had left the vicinity, attempted to make good their retreat to Ninety-Six, a fortification some sixty or seventy miles distant. This unfortunate party had proceeded but a few hundred yards from the spot when they fell into an ambuscade of the enemy, who massacred the whole number excepting one. Among those who were killed was a Jew named Savadore, who was reconnoitering the country with the view of making a purchase.
The only vestige of the fort which now remains is an old well which the inmates were forced to dig, although within a few yards of the river, as they · could not venture outside of the walls but at the imminent hazard of their lives.
The Seneca River is within a few hundred yards of Col. Calhoun's residence, passing round the base of the hill on which the fort formerly stood. It commences about two miles above the Fort Hill plantation, being formed by the junction of the Keowee and Twelve Mile rivers. This last river, Twelve Mile, is not named in reference to its length, but, according to tradition, from the following circumstances: An Indian woman who acted as express to Ninety-Six had to cross a number of streams on ber route. About
a mile from her point of departure she had to pass a stream, this was named One Mile creek; the second stream passed was twelve miles distant, this was called Twelve Mile river; the others in succession were Eighteen, TwentyThird and Twenty-Six Mile creeks, which correspond very nearly with the distance of these streams from her point of departure. There is a tradition that the Seneca Indians from the North pushed their conquests south as far as this river, when they were defeated and driven back by the Cherokees. Hence the name of the stream.
Joustruh 1841 l. ebathome
We conclude this notice of Fort Hill by inserting here the beautiful eulogium to the memory of its once eminent occupant by Daniel Webster in the U. S. Senate:
The eloquence of Mr. Calhoun, or the manner of his exhibition of his sentiments in public bodies, was part of his intellectual character. It grew out of the qualities of his mind. It was plain, strong, terse, condensed, concise; sometimes impassioned, still always severe. Rejecting ornament, not often seeking far for illustration, his power consisted in the plainness of his propositions, in the closeness of his logic, and in the earnestness and energy of his manner. These are the qualities, as I think, which have enabled him through such a long course of years to speak often, and yet always command attention. His demeanor as a senator is known to us all—is appreciated, venerated by us all. No man was more respectful to others; no man carried himself with greater decorum, no man with superior dignity.
Sir, I have not in public or in private life known a more assiduous person in the discharge of his appropriate duties. He seemed to have no recreation but the pleasure of conversa tion with his friends. Out of the chambers of congress he was either devoting himself to the acquisition of knowledge pertaining to the immediate subject of the duty before him, or else he was indulging in some social interviews in which he so much delighted. His colloquial talents were certainly singular and eminent. There was a charm in his conversation not often found. He delighted especially in conversation and intercourse with young men. I suppose that there has been no man among us who had more winning manners in such an intercourse and conversation with men comparatively young than Mr. Calhoun. I believe one great power of his character in general was his conversational talent. I believe it is that, as well as a consciousness of his high integrity, and the greatest reverence for his talents and ability, that has made him so endeared an object to the people of the state to which he belonged.
Mr. President, he had the basis, the indispensable basis, of all high character, and that was, unspotted integrity, unimpeached honor and character. If he had aspirations, they were high, and honorable and noble. There was nothing groveling or low or meanly selfish that came near the head or heart of Mr. Calhoun. Firm in his purpose, perfectly patriotic and honest, as I am sure he was, in the principles that he espoused and in the measures that he defended, aside from that large regard for that species of distinction that conducted him to eminent stations for the benefit of the republic, I do not believe he had a selfish motive or selfish feeling. However, sir, he may have differed from others of us in his political opinions or his political principles, those principles and those opinions will now descend to posterity under the sanction of a great name. He has lived long enough, he has done enough, and he has done it so well, so successfully, so honorably, as to connect himself for all time with the records of his country. He is now an historical character. Those of us who have known him here will find that he has left upon our minds and our hearts a strong and lasting impression of his person, his character, and his public performances, which while we live will never be obliterated. We shall hereafter, I am sure, indulge in it as a grateful recollection that we have lived in his age, that we have been his contemporaries, that we have seen him, and heard him, and known him. We shall
delight to speak of him to those who are rising up to fill our places. And when the time shall come that we ourselves shall go, one after another, to our graves, we shall carry with us a deep sense of his genius and character, his honor and integrity, his amiable de portment in private life, and the purity of his exalted patriotism.
The annexed is a south-western view of the ancient Stone Church, situated in the forest about two miles north-east from Fort Hill and about three from Pendleton village. It is the oldest and the first house erected for public worship in the upper country of South Carolina. Gen. Andrew Pickens, the revolutionary patriot, resided two miles from this church and about the same distance from Fort Hill. The treaty of Hopewell, concluded Nov. 28, 1785,
South-western View of the Ancient Presbyterian Church near Pendleton. with the Cherokees, was formed on Gen. Pickens' plantation. The Stone Church has been recently repaired, and is occasionally used as a place of public worship by various denominations. In the graveyard near the church the remains of Gen. Pickens, of Gen. Anderson, and other distinguished persons, are interred. The following inscription is on the monument of Gen. Pickens:
Gen. Andrew PICKENS was born 13th September, 1739, and died 17th August, 1817. He was a Christian, a patriot and soldier. His character and actions are incorporated with the history of his country. Filial affection and respect raise this monument to his memory.
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES, MISCELLANIES, ETC. Sir Nathaniel Johnson, the successor of James Moore, in 1703, as governor of South Carolina, was a man of military skill, and when Carolina was invaded by the French and Spaniards in 1706 he displayed great judgment in the measures he took for its defense. He first introduced the culture of silk in South Carolina; this was in 1703. It was principally owing to his influence that the first establishment of the Episcopal Church was effected in the province; a majority of the inhabitants then were dissenters. He died in 1713.
William Bull, M. D., born in South Carolina, was the son of William Bull, lieutenant-governor of the province in 1738; it is supposed that he was the first American who obtained a degree in medicine. He studied medicine under the celebrated Boerhaave. After his return from Europe he held various public offices, being speaker of the house of representatives and lieutenant-governor for many years. When the British troops evacuated South Carolina in 1782, he accompanied them to England, and died in London in 1791.
Thomas Heyward, Jr., a signer of the declaration of independence, was born in St. Luke's parish, S. C. His father, Col. Heyward, one of the wealthiest planters
in the province, spared no espense
in the education of wa
his son, and sent him to England to complete his stud
ies. Soon after his return he commenced the practice of law. He was among the earliest who resisted the oppression of the mother country. He remained in congress until 1778, when he was appointed a judge in the courts of South Carolina. He also held a military commission, and when Charleston was captured he was made prisoner. He died in March, 1809, at the age of 63.
Thomas Lynch, Jr., a signer of the declaration of independence, was born in St. George's parish, S. C. He was a descendant of an ancient Austrian family, na
tives of the town of Lintz, who removed to England, and from thence to Ire
land. His father, who had great possessions, gave his son a superior education. He entered the University of Cambridge, England, and studied law in one of the inns of the Temple. He commenced his public life in Charleston in 1773, and became quite popular. His health having become shattered by exposure while a captain in the army, he was obliged to resign his seat in congress. On his return Mr. Lynch, then about thirty years of age, embarked with his wife for the West Indies, hoping he could find a neutral vessel in which he could procure a passage to Europe. The vessel in which he sailed is supposed to have foundered at sea.
Arthur Middleton, a signer of the declaration of independence, was born at Middleton Place, S. C., in 1743. His father, a wealthy planter, sent his son to Eng
land to be educated, as was then the custom of the time. At the age of twelve years he was placed in the celebrated school at Hackney,
and after remaining four years at Cambridge he graduated at that University with distinguished honors. He then took a tour in Europe, and spent some time at Rome, where he became quite proficient as a painter. On his return he was active in the cause of
Thomas Lynch Jur."
his country, and was sent a delegate to the general congress at Philadelphia. In 1779, when South Carolina was invaded by the British, his property was exposed to their ravages; much of his immense estate was sacrificed, and he was sent a prisoner to St. Augustine. He died Jan. 1, 1778, leaving a widow with eight children.
Edward Rutledge, à signer of the declaration of independence, was born in Charleston in 1749. He studied law with an elder brother, and finished his edu
cation at the Inner Temple in London.
He was member of the first congress. When Charleston was invested in 1780, Mr. Rutledge, at the head of a corps of artillery, while
endeavoring to throw troops into the city, was taken prisoner and sent to St. Augustine. After the British evacuated Charleston, Mr. Rutledge resumed the practice of his profession. In 1798 he was elected governor of the state. He was a sufferer from hereditary gout, of which disorder he died in January, 1800, aged 50. His eloquence was of a high grade, being insinuating and conciliatory.
John Rutledge, an eminent patriot of the revolution, was a native of Ireland. He was a member of the first congress of 1774, and in 1776, when the temporary constitution of South Carolina was adopted, he was appointed president and commander-in-chief of the colony. He was in 1779 chosen the first governor of the state, and in 1796 was appointed chief justice of the United States. He died in 1800 at an advanced age.
Andrew Pickens was born in Paxton township, Pennsylvania, in September, 1739. In 1752 he removed with his father to the Waxhaw settlement in South Carolina. He was one of the most active military partisans of the south; and distinguished himself in various actions. After the close of the revolutionary war he became a member of the legislature, and was elected to congress. He died in August, 1817.
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney was born in Charleston in February, 1746. His father (Chief Justice Pinckney) took him and his brother Thomas to Europe to be educated at a very early age. He commenced the practice of law in 1770, and when the revolutionary war broke out he entered the continental service as cap tain. He was active in the defense of Charleston in 1776 and in 1780. When the city was surrendered he became a prisoner, and suffered much from sickness and cruel treatment. In 1796 he was minister to the French republic. While in this office he uttered that noble sentiment: "Millions for defense, not one cent for tribute.” For about twenty-five years he lived in elegant retirement, and died Aug. 16, 1825, in the 80th year of his age.
Charles Pinckney and Thomas Pinckney were both revolutionary patriots, and both governors of South Carolina, and both embassadors to foreign courts. The former died in 1824, and the latter in 1828.
Henry Laurens, a revolutionary patriot of Huguenot descent, was born in Charleston, in 1774, and was bred a merchant. He was a member of the contiDental congress in 1777, and was chosen its president. In 1780 he sailed for Holland, as minister plenipotentiary, to negotiate a treaty with that power. “The vessel he was in was captured by an English frigate. Mr. Laurens cast his papers into the sea, but, as they did not sink immediately, they were recovered, and disclosed the fact that Holland had already been in negotiation with the revolted colonies. That discovery led to a declaration of war by Great Britain against Holland. Laurens was taken to London and imprisoned in the tower about fourteen months, under a charge of high treason. For some time he was not allowed the solace of conversation, books, pen, ink, paper, or the receipt of letters. That rigor was abated, yet his confinement made terrible inroads upon his constitution. At length public sentiment expressed its displeasure-because of his treatment, and the ministry, fearing retaliation on the part of the Americans, desired an excuse