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troops, and charged with fixed bayonets; and the militia instantly followed the example. By these sudden and unexpected charges, the British, who had considered the fate of the day decided, were thrown into confusion, and driven from the ground with great slaughter. Howard and Washington pressed the advantage, which they had respectively gained, until the artillery and a great part of the infantry had surrendered. So sudden was the defeat, that 250 horse, which had not been brought into action, Aed with precipitation. The first battalion of the 71st, and two British light infantry companies, laid down their arms to the American militia. Upward of 300 of the British were killed or wounded, and above 500 taken prisoners; 800 muskets, two field pieces, two standards, 35 baggage wagons, and 100 dragoon horses, fell into the hands of the conquerors. Of the Americans, 12 men only were killed, and 60 wounded. Congress, in honor of the good conduct of Gen. Morgan, presented him a gold medal; to Lieut. Cols. Washington and Howard, medals of silver; and to Col. Pickens, a sword.”


View at King's Mountain Battle-ground. The view annexed is from the foot of the hill whereon the hottest of King's Mountain fight occurred. The north slope of that eminence is seen on the left. The simple monument, in memory of Ferguson and others, by which a man is standing, is seen in the central part. The large tulip-tree on the right, is that on which 10 tories were hung. This spot is about mile and a half south of the North Carolina line.

Of those who submitted through fear, or from attachment to the British cause—Maj. Ferguson, a British officer, was appointed commander. He

was dispatched, by Cornwallis, into the western part of North Carolina. Here his force was augmented to 1,400 men. An enterprise against this party was concerted by the commanders of the militia in the adjacent part of the two Carolinas and Virginia. By great exertion, about 3,000 men were assembled at Gilbert-town. About 1,600 riflemen were selected and mounted on their fleetest horses, soon overtook the retreating army, Oct. 7, 1780.

"They came up with the enemy at King's Mountain, where Ferguson, on finding that he should be overtaken, had chosen his ground, and waited for an attack. The Americans formed themselves into three divisions, led by Cols. Campbell, Shelby, and Cleveland, and began to ascend the mountain in three different and opposite directions. Ferguson, falling with great boldness and impetuosity on the

first assailants with fixed bayonets, compelled them to give way; but before one division could be dispersed, another came up, and poured in a heavy fire. Against the second body of assailants, the bayonet was again used with success; but before any material advantage could be gained, a new enemy presented himself in another quarter. Ferguson again successfully used the bayonet; but both the corps, which had been repulsed, now returning to the charge, a very galling fire was kept up against him on all sides. The action having been continued in this manner nearly an hour, Maj. Ferguson received a mortal wound, and instantly expired. The survivors ended the contest by submission. In this sharp action, 150 of Ferguson's party were killed on the spot, and about the same number wounded; 810, of whom 100 were British troops, were made prisoners; and 1,500 stand of excellent arms were taken."

“No battle during the war," says Lossing, "was more obstinately contested than this; for the Americans were greatly exasperated by the cruelty of the tories, and to the latter it was a question of life and death. It was with difficulty that the Americans, remembering Tarleton's cruelty at Buford's defeat, could be restrained from slaughter, even after quarter was asked. In addition to the loss of men on the part of the enemy, mentioned in the report, the Americans took from them 1,500 stand of arms. The loss of the Americans in killed, was only 20, but they had a great number wounded. Among the killed were Col. Williams and Maj. Chronicle. Col. Hambrite was wounded. Maj. Chronicle and Maj. Ferguson were buried in a ravine at the northern extremity of the battle hill, where the friends of the former erected a plain monument, a few years ago, with inscriptions upon both sides. The monument is a thick slab of hard slate, about three feet high, rough hewn, except where the inscriptions are. The following is a copy of the inscriptions:

North side.—Sacred to the memory of Maj. WILLIAM

CHRONICLE, Capt. JOHN Marocks, WILLIAM Robi, and Col Ferguson avu

JOHN BOYD, who were killed here fighting in defense of Officer bolongue to

America, on the seventh of Oct. 1780. South side.-Col. his Britannic majesty

FERGUSON,* an officer belonging to his Britannic majesty, washeré defeated was here defeated and killed.

On the morning after the battle, a court-martial was held, and several of the tory prisoners were found guilty of murder and other high crimes, and hanged. Col. Čleveland had previously declared that if certain per sons, who were the chief marauders, and who had forfeited their lives, should fall into his hands, he would hang them; 10 of these men were suspended upon a tulip-tree, which is yet standing-a venerable

giant of the forest. This was the closing scene of MONUMENT ON KING'S MOUNTAIX.

the battle on King's Mountain, an event which com

pletely crushed the spirits of the loyalists, and weakened, beyond recovery, the royal power in the Carolinas. Intelligence of the defeat of Ferguson destroyed all Cornwallis' hopes of tory aid.”



The celebrated Eutaw Springs, memorable as being the scene of a bloody conflict in the revolution, are in Charleston District, near the Orangeburg line, about 60 miles north west from Charleston, and present a curious spectacle. The spring rises through a small opening in the cam, only a few

* Maj. Patrick Ferguson was a Scotchman, a son of the eminent jurist, James Ferguson, and nephew of Patrick Murray (Lord Elibank). He entered the army in Flanders, at the age of 18 years. He came to America in the spring of 1777, and was active in the battle on the Brandywine, in September of that year. He was active on the Hudson in 1779, and accompanied Sir Henry Clinton to South Carolina. He so dis. tinguished himself at the siege of Charleston in 1780, that he was particularly mentioned by the comman. der-in-chief. He was on the high road to military fame, when he was slain on King's Mountain. He was a major in the British army, and lieutenant-colonel of the tory militia.

inches in diameter, and immediately forms a basin a few feet deep and about 150 paces in circumference. Thence it penetrates through a ridge of porous limestone, or concretion of large oyster shells. After traversing its subterraneous way some 30 rods, it re-appears upon the other side, boiling and bubbling up through a variety of passages, where it forms the head of Eutaw creek, which, running for about two miles, finds its way into Santee River.

The battle of Eutaw, Sept. 8, 1781, may be considered as closing the revolutionary war in South Carolina. Lord Rawdon having returned to Eng. land, the command of the British troops, in South Carolina, devolved upon Lieut. Col. Stewart. Many skirmishes and movements took place during the summer. The British having evacuated all their posts to the northward of the Santee and Congaree, and the westward of Edisto; finally, on the approach of Gen. Greene, took post at Eutaw Springs.

“On the 8th of September, at four in the morning, Gen. Greene advanced with 2,000 men, to attack them in their encampment. His army moved from the ground in the following order: The South and North Carolina militia, commanded by Gens. Marion and Pickens, and by Col. Malmedy, composed the front line; the continental troops, from North Carolina,

Virginia, and Maryland, led on by Gen. Sumner, Lieut. Col. Campbell

, and Col Williams, composed the second line. The legion of Lieut. Col. Lee covered the right flank; and the state troops of South Carolina, under Lieut. Col. Henderson, covered the left. Lieut. Col. Washington, with his cavalry, and Capt. Kirkwood with the Delaware troops, formed a corps de reserve. As the army advanced, the van fell in with two parties of the British, about four miles from the camp of Eutaw, and was briskly attacked; but the ene my, on receiving a heavy fire from the state troops, and a charge with the bayonet from the infantry of the legion, soon retired. On notice of the approach of the Americans, Lieut. Col. Stewart, who commanded the British army, immediately formed the line of battle. It was drawn up obliquely across the road, on the hights near Eutaw Springs. The right flank was covered by a battalion, commanded by Maj. Majoribanks, the left of which approached the road, and was concealed by a thick hedge. The road was occupied by two pieces of artillery, and a covering party of infantry. The front line of the Americans continuing to fire and advance, the action soon became general. In the heat of the engagement, Col. Williams and Lieut. Col. Campbell, with the Maryland and Virginia continentals, were ordered to charge with trailed arms; and nothing could exceed the intrepidity with which these orders were executed. The ops rushed on in good order through a tremenduous fire of artillery and musketry, and bore down all be fore them. Lieut. Col. Campbell, while leading on his men to the decisive charge, received a mortal wound. On inquiring, after he had fallen, who gave way, and being told, that the British were fleeing in all quarters, he said, 'I die contented,' and immediately expired. A part of the British line, consisting of new troops, broke, and fled; but the veteran corps received the charge of the assailants on the points of their bayonets. The hostile ranks were a short time intermingled, and the officers fought hand to hand; but Lee, who had turned the British left flank, charging them at this instant in the rear, their line was soon completely broken, and driven off the field. They were vigorously pursued by the Americans, who took upward of 500 of them prisoners. The enemy, on their retreat, took post in a large three story brick house, and in a picketed garden; and from these advantageous positions renewed the action. Four six pounders were ordered up before the house; but the Americans were compelled to leave these pieces and retire. They formed again at a short distance in the woods; but Gen. Greene, thinking it inexpedient to renew the desperate attempt, left a strong picket on the field of battle, and retired with his prisoners to the ground from which he had marched in the morning. In the evening of the next day, Lieut. Col. Stewart, leaving, 70 of his wounded men and 1,000 stand of arms, moved from Eutaw toward Charleston.

The loss of the British, inclusive of prisoners, was supposed to be not less than 1,100 men. The loss of the Americans, in killed, wounded, and missing, was 555.

Congress passed a vote of thanks to every corps in the army; and a resolution for presenting to Maj

. Gen. Greene, “as an honorable testimony of his merit, ! British standard, and a golden medal, emblematic of the battle, and of his victory.


East view of Furman University, at Greenville. GREENVILLE, one of the handsomest villages in South Carolina, is at the N. terminus of the Greenville and Columbia Railroad, in the N. W. section

of the state, 110 miles N. W. of Columbia, and 225 miles from Charleston. Its situation is elevated and healthy, which renders it a favorable resort for persons who reside in the lower country. Paris Mountain, at a distance of nine miles N. from Greenville, Table Rock 25 miles, and Cesar's Head 30 miles in a N. W. direction from the village, are places of resort during the warm

season of the year. The Furman University is a flourishing institution quite recently established in this place, having five or six professors. The University buildings are situated about half a mile E. from the village, on a picturesque eleva

tion surrounded with CHICK'S SPRINGS.

mantic and beautiful scenery.



Reedy River, a fordable stream, is seen in the lower part of the annexed engraving; on the left appear the flour mills which are put in operation by the beautiful cascade which, at this place, flows over an immense bed of rocks.

The first settlers of Greenville were mostly from Virginia and North Carolina. In 1813, there were but four or five families on the spot: those of Judge Thompson, Capt. Jeremiah Cleveland, George Washington Earle, Mrs. Wickliffe, and Capt. Roger Loveland, who came in 1813. The first house of worship erected in the place, was for all denominations, as all contributed to its erection. The Episcopalians built their first church in 1836; the Methodists next. The Baptists and Presbyterians held the first building. Rev. Wm. Johnson appears to have been the first Baptist clergyman : the first Presbyterian, the Rev. S. S. Giallard; their first church was erected in 1851.

Chick's Spring, about 10 miles from Greenville, is a place of considerable resort during the warm season. The buildings seen on the high elevation in the distance beyond the forest trees, were erected by Dr. Chick, for the accommodation of visitors. The spring itself, over which a roof is erected, is at the bottom of the valley, in the foreground, on the left.

The annexed is a north-eastern view of the home of John C. Calhoun at Fort Hill, 4 miles from the ancient village of Pendleton, S. C., and about 130 miles from Columbia, being in the extreme north-western section of the state. Mr. Calhoun resided here for about thirty years. The building was erected principally by him, by adding to an old mansion house built shortly after the first settlement of this part of the country. It is large and commodious, though not exactly in the style of modern architecture. The small structure seen on the extreme left contains his library. The house is beautifully situated on an elevation rising from the picturesque region of Seneca valley. From the portico several fine residences of wealthy proprietors in the vicinity are to be seen. In the distance appear mountainous regions of North Carolina and Georgia. The Blue Ridge, about forty miles distant, is discernable, embracing the celebrated Whiteside and Table Mountains, which rise to an elevation of between four and five thousand feet above the level of the ocean.

Mr. Calhoun, during the intervals of his public life, spent much of his time in agricultural pursuits, and no one stood higher as a practical farmer or planter than he among his neighbors. The Fort Hill residence and es. tate, consisting of upward of eleven hundred acres, is now owned and occu. pied by his eldest son, Col. Andrew Pickens Calhoun, who has resided here for several years, and the appearance of his young family shows that they live in the most healthy section of the state. One of his sons, though almost an infant in years, bears in his countenance a striking resemblance to his grandfather the statesman during the latter period of his life. Col. Calhoun, who is the president of the South Carolina State Agricultural Society, has converted the Fort Hill lands from a cotton plantation to a fine stock and grain estate. He has a large herd of Devon cattle, and is introducing some of the best kind of the same blood from abroad. Col. C., besides the Fort Hill estate, has a large cotton plantation in Alabama.

The place derived its name from there having been here anciently a stock. ade, called Fort Rutledge, on a hill near Mr. Calhoun's residence. This fortification was a place of refuge for the inhabitants during the Indian war in this region shortly after the close of the revolutionary contest. It is related that after the Cherokees had besieged the fort for some time without success, they had recourse to the following stratagem to draw out its inmates: They

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