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teemed, his friends loved, his family reverenced him. His memory is embalmod as the model of all the amiable affections which spring from a heart that never did nor wished evil to any one.
Sacred to the memory of the Hon. HENRY WM. DE SAUSSURE, for 29 years one of the chancellors of South Carolina, and 25 years presiding judge of the court of appeals. A youthful soldier of the revolution, director of the mint of the United States by the appointment of Washington. He served in the convention which formed the constitution of the state ; was for many years an efficient member of the legislativo counsels, and was distinguished for his untiring zeal for education and learning. His eminence as a jurist, his faithful devotion to duty as a magistrate, are recorded in the archives of his country, and have won for him the respect and gratitude of its citizens. His children, in reverence for his virtues, his paternal kindness and exemplary piety, consecrate to his memory this monument. He was born in Prince William Parish, Beaufort District, on the 16th of Aug., 1763, and died in Charleston on the 27th of March, 1839.
The approach to the city of Columbia from the south-west is effected by a massive bridge over the Congaree, of which the above is a representation; the piers and abutments are of solid granite in large blocks, raised twenty-eight feet above the river. The river is one thousand three hundred feet wide; its bed is a solid rock, and the carriage way to the bridge is upward of 1,300 feet long. The city is one mile distant from the bridge, between which is the railroad depot, the terminus of several railroads in this section of the state. On the extreme right is seen a portion of the canal, over which a small bridge is thrown. This canal, three or four miles in extent, was constructed to avoid the great falls of the Congaree, which formerly obstructed the commercial interests of the city; it is not now in use. Before the construction of railroads this bridge was a crossing place of much importance to travelers. Over the entrance, on the Columbia side of the river, is placed the following:
To the memory of William Briggs, who planned and executed the Columbia and Saluda bridges, this monument is erected by the Bridge Company, 1828.
Camden is a flourishing town on the eastern bank of the Wateree, on a plain about a mile from the river, at an elevation above it of about one hundred feet, 33 miles N. E. from Columbia and 142 N. by N. W. from Charleston, with which it is connected by railroad. The river is navigable to this place for boats of sixty or seventy tuns. The soil of the surrounding country is fertile, but liable to be overflowed. Cotton and corn are produced in
abundance. The place is well built; some of the churches, of which there are four or five, are elegant. Its trade is considerable. The De Kalb mills and a cotton factory are in its suburbs.
Camden is the oldest inland town in the state, having been settled in 1750. It was laid out into squares in 1760, chartered in 1769, and had a regular police and was thriving before the revolution. That event for a time destroyed its prosperity. It fell into the hands of the British, was made a fortification, and destroyed by them when they were compelled to abandon it. Camden is celebrated in revolutionary history as the scene of two important battles—that between General Gates and Lord Cornwallis, in 1780, in which Gates was defeated
with great loss, known as the battle of Camden, and that between General Greene and Lord Rawdon, called the battle of Hobkirk's Hill, fought in April of the succeeding year, in which the Americans met with a reverse, although their loss in killed was but 18 men.
In 1825 General Lafayette laid the corner-stone of the monument to the memory of Baron De Kalb. It is situated upon the green in front of the Presbyterian Church, on DeKalb-street. It is of marble, having a large granite base, the whole being about fifteen feet in hight. The following inscription is on its sides:
Here lie the remains of Baron De Kalb, a German by birth; but in principle a citizen of the world. In gratitude for his zeal and services, the citizens of Camden have erected this monument. His love of liberty induced him to leave the Old World to aid the citizens of the New in their struggle for INDEPENDENCE. His distinguished talents and many virtues weighed with Congress to appoint him MAJOR GENERAL in their revolutionary army. He was second in command in the battle fought near Camden, on the 16th of August, 1780, between the British and Americans, and there nobly fell covered with wounds while gallantly performing deeds of valor in rallying the friends and opposing the enemies of his adopted country.
After the capture of Charleston dispositions were made by the enemy to secure obedience in the interior country. For this purpose a considerable force was sent to Camden, where the British commander, Lord Rawdon, had collected stores and took up his quarters. To avoid being treated as enemies, the greater part of the inhabitants either gave their parole as prisoners or took the oath of allegiance to the king. Sir Henry Clinton afterward discharged those who had given their parole as prisoners, and then called upon all to embody as militia in the British service. Indignant at such conduct, which left them the only alternative of fighting for or against their country, great numbers again took up arms for the cause of liberty.
One party of patriots who had taken refuge in North Carolina chose Col. Sumpter, of South Carolina, as their leader. At the head of these he soon returned to his own state, attacked and defeated several scattered detachments of the enemy, and thus reanimated the drooping spirits of his country.
This spirit was cherished by the approach of a northern army under Gen. Gates, who had been sent to replace Gen. Lincoln in the chief command. Several corps of continental troops and militia having formed a junction were now conducted by Major-General Baron De Kalb into South Carolina. The account below of the action which soon ensued is from Holmes' Annals:
BATTLE OF CAMDEN, Lord Cornwallis hearing that Gen. Gates was approaching Camden, hastened to this place to reinforce Lord Rawdon. Gen. Gates, after a tedious march through a country of pine barrens, sand-hills and swamps, reached Clermont, thirteen miles from Camden. Here he was joined by Gen. Stephens with a large body of Virginia militia. The American army now amounted to 3,663, but of this number 900 only
were continental infantry, and 70 cavalry. The British force under Cornwallis consisted of 1,700 infantry and 300 cavalry. On the night of Aug. 15th he advanced with his army to attack the Americans in their camp at Clermont. They at the same hour began to move toward Camden. The advanced parties met in the night and engaged. The British being successful in several skirmishes, it had a disastrous effect on the spirits of the militia.
On the morning of the 16th of August, 1780, the enemy advanced to the attack. At the first onset the militia fled from the field. The regular American troops, though left alone, maintained the conflict with great bravery against superior numbers, and for a short time had the advantage, but they were finally overpowered, and the flight became general. Baron De Kalb, while exerting himself with great bravery at the head of a regiment to prevent the loss of the battle, received eleven wounds, and soon after expired. In this engagement the British lost 500 men in killed and wounded. The loss of the Americans could not be ascertained, as no returns of militia were made after the action. British authors state the loss about 2,000, while the American make it but seven or eight hundred. They, however, lost their artillery wagons and 2,000 stands of arms.
The fugitives were pursued by Tarleton's legion with relentless fury. When all were killed, captured or dispersed, he took the route toward Col. Sumpter's camp. This officer, on hearing of the defeat of Gates, retreated to the Catawba ford. Supposing he was beyond danger, he halted that his troops might repose. His sentinels slept at their posts, and Tarleton's legion rode into the American camp before preparations could be made for defense. Between three aud four hundred were killed or wounded, and the remainder dispersed in the woods, and the three hundred prisoners he had taken were released. Gen. Gates, after the action at Camden, retreated to Charlotte, and from thence to Hillsborough, in North Carolina, with the remnant of his forces.
Cornwallis, after the victory at Camden, again supposing the state to be subdued, adopted severe measures to repress all opposition to the royal cause. He directed that all who once having submitted, had given aid to the American troops, should have their property confiscated and imprisoned; and that all who had once borne arms with the British, and afterward joined the Americans, should suffer death. Several persons were executed in consequence of these orders, and many were reduced to poverty and distress. T'he slaves on the plantations, in these times of confusion and distress in the country, instead of aiding in its defense, by a variety of means, threw their little influence into the opposite scale.
The defeat of Buford occurred the May previous to the battle of Camden. This event took place on Waxhaw Creek, near the North Carolina line, about 45 miles northerly from Camden. The narrative of this event is from Lossing's Field Book.
The regiment of Col. Abraham Buford was massacred by Tarleton on the 29th of May, 1780. Sir Henry Clinton took possession of Charleston on the 12th, and immediately commenced measures for securing the homage of the whole state. He sent out three large detachments of his army. The first and largest, under Cornwallis, was ordered toward the frontiers of North Carolina ; the second, under Lieut. Col. Cruger, was directed to pass the Saluda, to Ninety-Six; and the third, under Lieut. Col. Brown, was ordered up the Savannah, to Augusta. Soon after he had passed the Santee, Cornwallis was informed that parties of Americans who had come into South Carolina, and had hurried toward Charles. ion to assist Lincolu, were as bastily retreating. Among these was Col. Buford. His force consisted of nearly 400 continental infantry, a small detachment of Washington's cavalry, and two field pieces. He had evacuated Camden, and, in fancied security, was re. treating leisurely toward Charlotte, in North Carolina. Cornwallis resolved to strike Bu.
ford, if possible, and, for that purpose, he dispatched Tarleton, with 700 men, consisting of cavalry and mounted infantry. That officer marched 105 miles in 54 hours, and came up with Buford on the Waxhaw. Impatient of delay, he had left his mounted infantry behind, and with only his cavalry, he almost surrounded Buford before that officer was aware of danger. Tarleton demanded an immediate surrender upon the terms granted to the Americans at Charleston. Those terms were humiliating, and Buford refused compliance. While the flags for conference were passing and repassing, Tarleton, contrary to military rules, was making preparations for an assault, and the instant he received "Buford's reply, his cavalry made a furious charge upon the American ranks. Having received no orders to defend themselves, and supposing the negotiations were yet pending, the continentals were utterly dismayed by this charge. All was confusion, and while some fired upon their assailants, others threw down their arms and begged for quarter. None was given ; and men without arms were hewn in pieces by Tarleton's cavalry; 113 were slain ; 150 were so maimed as to be unable to travel ; and 53 were made prisoners, to grace the triumphal entry of the conqueror into Camden. Only five of the British killed, and 15 wounded. The whole of Buford's artillery, ammunition, and baggage, fell into the hands of the enemy. For this savage feat, Cornwallis eulogized Tarleton, and commended him to the ministry as worthy of special favor. It was nothing less than a cold blooded massacre ; and Tarleton's quarter became proverbial as a synonym to cruelty. The liberal press, and all right-minded men in England, cried shame!
Map of the Seat of War in the South. After the battle, a large number of the wounded were taken to the log meeting-house of the Waxhaw Presbyterian congregation, where they were tenderly nursed by a few who had the boldness to remain. With the defeat of Buford, every semblance of a continental army in South Carolina was effaced. This terrible blow spread consternation over that region, and women and children were seen flying from their homes to seek refuge from British cruelty in more distant settlements. Among the fugitives was the widowed mother of Andrew Jackson, the seventh president of the United States, who, with her two sons, Robert and Andrew, took refuge in the Sugar Creek congregation, at the house of the widow of the Rev. J. M. Wilson, near Charlotte. This was the first practical lesson of hatred to
tyranny which young Jackson learned, and it doubtless had an abiding influence upon his future life."'*
BATTLE OF COWPENS. The successes of the British upon the capture of Savannah and Charleston encouraged them to invade North Carolina. Gen. Gates, after his defeat,
rendezvoused at Hillsboro; and toward the end of the year 1780 advanced to Charlottetown. At this place he transferred his command to Gen. Greene, whom congress had sent to take charge of the southern army. His whole force consisted of about 2,000 men, of whom more than half were militia. Nearly onehalf of these he sent under Gen. Morgan into the western section of South Carolina, where a British
party, aided by the tories, were BATTLE GROUND AT COWPENS.
plundering and ravaging the conntry without restraint. When Morgan had entered into the district of NinetySix, Lord Cornwallis dispatched Lieut. Col. Tarleton with about 1,100 men, to drive him from this station and “push him to the utmost.”. Morgan began a retreat, but being soon convinced that he could not escape he determined to hazard a battle, at a place called Cowpens, near Pacolet River. Tarleton had two field pieces and a superiority of infantry, in the proportion of five to four, and of cavalry of three to one. The account of this conflict, Jan. 17, 1781, is from Holmes' Annals:
“Gen. Morgan had drawn up his men in two lines. The front line was composed entirely of militia, placed under the command of Col. Pickens, and was advanced a few yards before the second, with orders to form on the right of the second when forced to retire. Maj. M’Dowell, with a battalion of the North Carolina volunteers, and Maj. Cunningham, with a battalion of Georgia volunteers, were advanced about 150 yards in front of this line.' The second line consisted of the light infantry and a corps of Virginia riflemen. The cavalry, under Lieut. Col. Washington, were drawn up at some distance in the rear of the whole. The British, led to the attack by Tarleton himself, advanced with a shout, and poured in an incessant fire of musketry. The militia, though they received the charge with firmness, were soon compelled to fall back into the rear of the second line; and this line, in its turn, after an obstinate conflict, was compelled to retreat to the cavalry.
At this juncture, Lieutenant-Colonel Washington made MONUMENT AT COWPENS. a successful charge on Captain Ogilvie, who, with about forty dragoons, was cutting down the retreating militia; LieutenantColonel Howard then, almost at the same moment, rallied the continental
**The massacre of Buford's regiment fired the patriotism of young Andrew Jackson, and at the age of 13 he entered the army, with his brother Robert, under Sumpter. They were both made prisoners, but even while in the power of the British the indomitable courage of the after man appeared in the boy."