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1838 Mr. Tomlinson excavated the mound at the bottom; after proceeding horizontally 111 feet, he found two skeletons in a grave or vault, which had

been excavated into the earth before the mound was commenced. Another

excavation was made at the top of the VIXX14X mound downward. About half way

down a second vault was found. In it was discovered a singular hieroglyphical stone, a copy of which is annexed of the size of the original. Mr. Henry R. Schoolcraft, the antiquarian, says: “These characters are in the ancient rock alphabet of sixteen right and acute angled single

strokes, used by the Pelasgi and other early Mediterranean nations, and which is the parent of the modern Runic as well as the Bardic."

Charleston, the county seat for Kanawha county, is a flourishing village on the north bank of the Kanawha River, 308 miles west of Richmond, and 46 east of the Ohio River. The first house of worship was built by the Methodists, the second by the Presbyterians in 1830, and the third by the Episcopalians in 1835. Population about 2,000.

The Kanawha salt works commence on the river near Charleston, and extend on both sides for about fifteen miles; and the amount of salt now manufactured is about 2,500,000 bushels annually, giving employment to several thousand persons. The salt water is obtained by boring through a formation of rock from 300 to 500 feet deep, and the water rises in copper or tin tubes, which exclude the fresh water, to the level of the surface of the river along its margin. It is then raised forty feet to the top of the bank, by forcing-pumps moved by steam-engines. The bituminous coal which abounds in the vicinity is used for evaporating the water. A late traveler in the Kanawha Valley gives some valuable items:

The valley of the Kanawha, above Charleston, is at present the most profitable farming country in western Virginia. The strip of bottom land on the river is narrow, heing sometimes on one side of the river and then on the other, but always exceedingly rich and adapted to almost every kind of product. The best farms here are held at $100 per acre, and pay a large interest on that price.

The various manufacturing operations on this portion of the Kanawha, of salt, coal oil, coal mines, etc., are suficient to absorb so large an amount of farming products as to enable those who attend to the cultivation of their farms properly to realize very handsome returns. There are more evidences of good farming in the distance of twenty miles above Charleston than in any spot I have seen in Virginia.

As to the value or amount of coal in this region, I should say there is coal enough in the valley of the Kanawha to supply the whole world for fifty years if coal could be had from no other source.

I saw nothing of Charleston, as I arrived there in the night and left before light the next morning; The people, however, on the river all speak of it as a "right smart little place. It has about 2,000 inhabitants, and is the medium and center of a large trade. They suffer greatly, however, from the frequent and often long failure of the Kanawha to allow their boats to arrive. I learned since I was there they ran entirely ashore for tea, coffee, sugar, molasses, etc., and were obliged to send teams down the river some distance to meet the boats which were coming up with the articles, but had stuck fast on the rocks.

Point Pleasant is a small village at the junction of the Kanawha with the Ohio. It is noted as the site of the most bloody battle ever fought with the Indians in Virginia—the battle of Point Pleasant—which took place in Dunmore's war, Oct. 10, 1774. The Virginians, numbering 1,100 men, were under the command of Gen. Andrew Lewis. The Indians were under the celebrated Shawnee chieftain Cornstalk, and comprised the flower of the Shawnee, Wyandot, Delaware, Mingo and Cayuga tribes. The action lasted from sunrise until sunset, and was contested with the most obstinate bravery on both sides. The Virginians at length were victorious, but with a loss of more than 200 of their number in killed and wounded, among whom were some of their most valued officers. This event was made the subject of a rude song, which is still preserved among the mountaineers of western Virginia:

Let us mind the tenth day of October, By which the heathen were confounded,
Seventy-four, which caused woe,

Upon the banks of the Obio.
The Indian savages they did cover
The pleasant banks of the Ohio.

Col. Lewis and some noble captains

Did down to death like Uriah go,
The battle beginning in the morning, Alas! their heads wound up in napkins,
Throughout the day it lashed sore,

Upon the banks of the Ohio.
Till the evening shades were returning down
Upon the banks of the Ohio.

Kings lamented their mighty fallen

Upon the mountains of Gilboa, Judgment precedes to execution,

And now we mourn for brave Hugh Allen, Let fame throughout all dangers go,

Far from the banks of the Ohio.
Our heroes fought with resolution
Upon the banks of the Ohio.

O bless the mighty King of Heaven

For all his wondrous works below, Seven score lay dead and wounded

Who hath to us the victory given, Of champions that did face their foe, Upon the banks of the Ohio.

Ceredo is a new town planted by Eli Thayer, of Massachusetts, and settled by New England emigrants. It is on the Ohio River, in Wayne county, 5 miles above the mouth of the Big Sandy, the dividing line between Virginia and Kentucky. A late traveler says:

Wayne county contains much excellent land that is level or nearly so, and easy of cultivation, but by far the larger portion is quite hilly. The hills are more abrupt and cone-like than in many other counties in western Virginia, but even on the highest of these hills the soil is excessively rich and productive. On the very top of one of the highest hills in Wayne county was raised this season as fine corn as I saw in Virginia. The best use, however, to which these rich hills can be put is the growing of fruit. I saw wild grape vines three inches in diameter at the base, with branches running to the very top of the highest trees. Frost never troubles the most delicate fruits on the hills, while the bottom lands are occasionally visited with frosts which interfere with the successful cultivation of various kinds of fruits so admirably adapted to this soil and climate. A few nurseries have already been planted which are doing exceedingly well. But little has been done of late in the way of peach growing, though every effort in this line has proved a great success. The peach crop from one orchard was sold last year on the ees for $5,000. This region of country is better adapted to stock raising and the dairy business than anything else, and for these purposes it has no superior, if, indeed, its equal can be found.

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES, MISCELLANIES, ETC. Pocahontas, the daughter of Powhattan, the Indian chief of Virginia, was born about the year 1595. She became warmly attached to the English, and on several

occasions rendered them important services. She saved the life of Capt. John Smith in 1607, and two years afterward revealed the plot of the Indians to exterminate the colonists. In 1612 she was seized by Capt. Argal and detained for the purpose of obtaining favorable terms of her father. While with the English she received the offer of marriage from Thomas Rolfe, an Englishman of good character, which was accepted with the consent of her father. By this event peace was restored, which continued for many years. In 1616 she accompanied her husband to England, and was received with much attention at court. She remained in Eng. land about a year, when she sickened and died at Gravesend, as she was on the point of embarking for America. Lady Rebecca (as Pocahontas was called in England) left an only son, from whom some of the most distinguished families in Virginia trace their descent.

Capt. John Smith, the principal founder of Virginia, was born in Lincolnshire, England. He was early distinguished for his daring spirit and love of adventure. He left home at the age of fifteen, and went to France and the Netherlands. For two years he studied military tactics, and then traveled to seek adventures. On a voyage from Marseilles to Naples the Roman Catholic sailors, believing the young English heretic to be a Jonah, threw him into the sea to calm a tempest by which they were overtaken. He swam to the shore and proceeded to Alexandria, and finally to Austria, where he entered the imperial service in the war against the Turks. At the siege of Ragall he killed three Turkish champions in succession. He was afterward taken prisoner, but escaped to Russia, and from thence returned to Austria, where he embarked with a French captain for Morocco. At the Ca naries he was engaged in a sea-fight with the Spaniards, and then returned to his native country. His restless spirit led him to seek for adventures in the New World. Here, after the excrcise of much valor and the endurance of many hardships, he planted the Virginia colony on a firm basis, and then returned to Eng. land. He died in London in 1631, at the age of 72.

George Washington, commander-in chief of the American armies during the rer. olutionary war, and first President of the United States, was born in Westmoreland

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county, on the 22d (11th O. S.) of February, 1732. He received but few advantages in his early school education. Having acquired some knowledge of mathemat ics he became a practical surveyor. His military abilities were first made use of by Governor Dinwiddie, in 1753. In 1789 he was unanimously elected the first President of the United States. Having firmly resolved to return to private life Washington published, in Sept., 1796, his "Farewell Address to the People of the United States." On Friday, Dec. 13th, 1799, while attending to some improvements on his estate, he was exposed to a slight rain; in consequence he was seized the same night with an inflammatory affection of the wind-pipe, which was soon after followed by a fever. He gradually sunk until Saturday night, at half past eleven, on Dec. 14th, when he expired without a struggle, in the 68th year of his age.

Peyton Randolph, first President of the American Congress, and a descendant of Pocahontas, was born in Virginia in 1723, and sent to England for education. In 1756, when 33 years of age, he was made king's attorney for Virginia. In 1766 he was speaker of the house of burgesses. "He was elected a delegate to the first continental congress, which assembled in Carpenter's Hall, Philadelphia, on the 5th of September, 1774. Charles Thompson recorded on that day: "The congress proceeded to the choice of a president, when the Hon. Peyton Randolph, Esq., was unanimously elected." This vote made him really the first President of the United

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States, for then and there our Union had its birth.” He was again chosen president when another congress met at the same place in May following, but feeble health compelled him to resign the office, fourteen days afterward, when John Hancock was chosen to fill his place. Mr. Randolph resumed his seat in congress early the following autumn; and on the 22d of October, 1775, he died at Philadelphia, from the effects of apoplexy, in the 53d 'year of his age.” Carter Braxton, a signer of the declaration of independence, was born at New

ington, King and Queen's county. He was one of the wealthiest men in his native county. In December, 1775, he was chosen a dele

gate to the continental congress, to fill the vacancy occasioned by the death of Peyton Randolph. He died Oct. 10, 1797, in the 61st year of his age.

Benjamin Harrison, a signer of the declaration of independence, was born at Berkeley, on James River. His personal merits, joined to his wealth and family

connections, gave him great influ.

He filled several important stations in the state and in congress. He died of gout in

the stomach, two days after his re-election as governor in April, 1791. He married in early life a relative of Mrs. Washington. They had a numerous offspring, seven of whom lived to a mature age. One of the number was the late President of the United States, William Henry Harrison.

Richard Henry Lee, a signer of the declaration of independence, was born in Westmoreland county, Jan. 20, 1732, near the time and place of Washington's

birth. He was educated in England; returned to Virginia at the age of 19, and ap

plied himself to literary pursuits. He was elected to the house of burgesses at the age of twentyfive. When in congress, Mr. Lee, was one of the committee of correspondence," appointed in 1788. He was able to obtain important information of the movements of the British Parliament by frequent letters from his brother Arthur Lee, a distinguished literary character in London, and an associate with the leading men of the realm. On the 7th of June, 1776, Mr. Lee introduced the important resolution declaring the colonies free and independent. He continued in public life until his bodily infirmities compelled him to retire. He died in 1794, in his 64th year.

Thomas Nelson, Jr., a signer of the declaration of independence, was born at Yorktown, Dec., 1738. As was the custom of the times with the wealthy families

of Virginia and the Carolinas, young Nel

to England be educated. He returned to America in 1761. He was a delegate to the continental congress until 1777, when, seized with an alarming illness,

he was obliged to resign his seat. In 178] Virginia became the theater of important warlike operations, when Mr. Nelson, having been elected governor, acted both as governor and as commander-in-chief of the militia of the state. By great exertions and personal expense he was able to keep the inilitia together until the capture of Cornwallis. Soon after this event he resigned his office and retired to private life. He died Jan. 4, 1789.

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Francis Lightfoot Lee, a signer of the declaration of independence, was born in Westmoreland county, in 1734. His father dying when he was of an early age,

he was placed under the

care of Dr. Craig, a Scotch Lee clergyman of piety and

learning. Having caught the spirit of his brother Richard Henry Lee, he

was sent a delegate to the continental congress, in which body he continued until 1779, when he retired in a great measure from public life. He died in 1797, in the 63d year of his age.

George Wythe, a signer of the declaration of independence, was born in Eliza beth county. Being left with a large fortune and the control of his own actions,

at the age of twenty-one he left study and sought only his own personal gratifica tion. He continued this course for about ten years, when a sudden change was

wrought in all his conduct, and he ever afterward pursued a course of virtue and usefulness. He filled various public offices, and notwithstanding the constant demand upon his time, he taught a private school free to those who chose to attend it. Among other pupils was his negro boy, whom he taught Latin, and was preparing to give him a thor ough education when both he and the boy died, it is supposed by poison introduced into their food by a near relative of Mr. Wythe. He died June 8, 1800, in the 81st year of his age.

Henry Lee, the cminent cavalry officer of the revolution, was born in Virginia in 1756, and was educated at Princeton. He entered the army in 1776, when his skill in discipline soon attracted the notice of Washington. He was commander of the celebrated Lee's Legion which performed such gallant service in the army of the south under Greene. From 1791 to 1794 he was governor of Virginia He was appointed by Washington commander of the forces to suppress the Whisky insurrection. In 1799 he was a member of congress, and was selected by that body to deliver an eulogy on the death of Washington, on which occasion he originated and applied to the character of that great man that never to be forgotten sentence -"First in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen." His "Memoirs of the War in the South" is a work of much merit. He died in 1818, in consequence of injuries received some years previously from a mob in Balti.

Patrick Henry, a celebrated patriot and orator, was born in Hanover county, May 20, 1736. His education was obtained at a common school, and he rose to dis

tinction by the superiority of his genius. In 1765 he was elect ed to the house of bur gesses, and by some reso

lutions he in troduced in reference to the stamp act he obtained the honor of being the first in commencing the opposition to the measures of the British government which terminated in the revolution. In 1774 he was elected a member of the continental congress. On the retreat of Lord Dunmore, in 1776, he was appointed the first republican governor of Virginia, and was afterward repeatedly re-elected to that office. He retired from the bar in 1794, and died June 6, 1799. Mr. Henry was a sincere Christian. In his will ho left the following testimony respecting the Christian religion: "I have now disposed of all my property to my family. There is one thing


May 1786



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