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and justice. A native of Virginia, the deceased became a citizen of this State. Here he filled many high offices before 1817, then selected by the President of the United States to be one of the Commissioners to South America. On his return he was appointed District Judge of the United States, and in 1824 Chancellor of Maryland.
To the memory of ANDREW PARKER, late a private in Brev't Major Gardner's Company A, 4th Artillery, who died at Ft. Severn, Md., on the 18th of March, 1845. Erected by his comrades.
To him the buglė's thrilling sound
May call to arms in vain;
He'll never march again.
FREDERICK CITY is situated on Carroll creek, a branch of Monocacy River, 75 miles N. W. of Annapolis and 43 N. N. W. of Washington. The city is regularly laid out, with wide streets crossing each other at right angles. It is handsomely and compactly built, and has a number of fine private residences. It has several scientific and literary institutions. St. John's College, chartered in 1850, and several other Catholic institutions, are located here. Besides the county buildings, it has ten churches, some of them spacious and of fine architecture, two extensive foundries, several large tanneries, and about 7,000 inhabitants. The valley of the Monocacy is remarkable for its beauty of position, its rich agricultural resources and mineral wealth.
South-Eastern View of Frederick City. The above shows the appearance of Frederick City as it is entered by the railroad connecting with the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad three miles distant. The large building on the extreme right is the Ladies' Academy of the Visitation of the B. V. M., erected in 1853. The tall steeple a little to the left is that of the new Catholic Church : the Novitiate S. J., a large structure, stands on the opposite side of the street from it. The New Evangelical Lutheran Church is seen in the central part. The spires of the Presbyterian and the German Reformed Churches appear on the left. Frederick is the depot of this rich district, and is, in point of wealth and elegance, the second city of Maryland. Frederick was laid out in 1745, by Mr. Patrick Dulany. Its streets were intended to run due north and east, but from the clumsiness of the wooden instrument used in the survey this object was not accomplished. During the French and Indian wars, Frederick was one of the frontier towns, and a kind of military post. The barracks erected in 1752 still remain. The Court House, built in 1752, and the City Hall and
Market, built in 1769, are still used. The following inscriptions are copied from monuments in the ancient grave-yard :
In memory of Gen. ROGER NELSON, who died 7th June, 1815, aged 56 years. He lived more for his country than himself. He was engaged amongst others in the battle of Eutaw, Guilford, Camden, and was present at the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown. He bore upon his body the scars of sixteen wounds received during his services in the Revolutionary war. Many years of the after part of his life were spent in both branches of the Legislature of Maryland, and in the Congress of the United States, and in his declining years 'he served as one of the Judges of the Sixth Judicial District of Maryland. As a husband and father, he is held in most affectionate remembrance.
Sacred to the memory of Dr. Philip Thomas, who died 25th April, 1815, aged 67. Tenderly affectionate as a husband and father, sincere and ardent as a friend, a devoted patriot of '76, great and bumane as a physician, just and honorable in all his transactions, such was the character of the lamented deceased. For more than forty-five years he was laborious and zealous in his profession. As a father and friend to the sick, his humanity knew not the distinction between the rich and poor. He lived in communion with the P. E. Church, of which he was a zealous supporter, and relied for salvation upon the merits of Jesus Christ.
Sacred to the memory of Dr. William Adams, born and educated in Ireland. For 75 years a citizen of the State of New York, came on visit to this city Aug. 11th, 1829. Died Jan. 20th, 1830, aged 100 years. Beside him lies a descendant of the fourth generation aged 1 day.
Cumberland The engraving represents Cumberland as it is entered from the south-east npon the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. On the left is shown the deep and narrow valley, by which the Potomac finds a passage through Will's Mountain. The Court House, the Catholic and the Episcopal Churches, and the Academy, all on Fort Hill, are seen in the central part. The Delaware and Cumberland Canal, coal-boats, etc., appear in the foreground. The point of the mountain on the left is in Virginia-on the right in Maryland.
CUMBERLAND, on the north bank of the Potomac River, is situated at the west terminus of the Ohio and Chesapeake Canal, and at the commencement of the National road, leading to the Mississippi. It is 179 miles by railroad from Baltimore, 165 W. N. W. of Annapolis, and 134 N. W. of Washington. The village contains the county buildings of Alleghany county, several fine buildings connected with the public works, and a number of handsome churches. Population about 7,000. Cumberland is situated in the mountainous region of the narrow strip which forms the western part of Maryland.
It occupies the site of Fort Cumberland, and the mountain scenery is picturesque, varied and beautiful. Being on the line of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, it is a great thoroughfare; it is the general center of the great mit. ing regions of the vicinity, and a center from which diverge all the great routes of travel between the eastern and western states, and middle portion of the Union. The coal of this region is semi-bituminous—suitable for ocean steamships. Great quantities are brought to Baltimore and elsewhere. The Cumberland Coal and Iron Company is an amalgamation of several companies, and was organized by the legislature of the state in 1852; it now holds about 12,000 acres of mineral lands, and has a working capital of about $5,000,000.
Hagerstovon is located in the midst of a flourishing agricultural district; is about 100 miles N. W. of Annapolis, and about the same distance from Washington. It is a well built town, having about 4,000 inhabitants. It has 2 banks, and 7 weekly papers are issued. The Franklin Railroad connects the town with the railroads of Pennsylvania.
Havre de Grace, at the confluence of Susquehanna River with the Delaware Bay, is 64 miles N. E. of Annapolis. Population about 1,400. The Baltimore and Philadelphia Railroad passes through this place, and crosses the Susquehanna by a steam-ferry.
Ellicott's Mills, on the Patapsco River and Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, is 15 miles west of Baltimore. Population about 1.400. The whole vicinity is one scene of productive industry, and here is the greatest center of fouring mills in the Union.
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES, ETC. Samuel Chase, a signer of the declaration of independence, was born April 17, 1741, in Somerset county, Md. His father was an Episcopal clergyman, who gave
his son an excellent education. At the age of twenty years, Mr. Chase was chosen a member of the provincial assembly, and was soon distinguished for his opposi.
tion to the tyranny of the mother country. He was one of the three commissioners who
vere appointed to a mission to Canada, to gain over that province to the American cause. In 1796, being nominated by President Washington, he was appointed a judge of the supreme court of the United States. He died July 19, 1811.
William Paca, a signer of the declaration of independence, was the son of a wealthy planter on the eastern shore of Maryland, and was born in 1740. He
graduated at Philadelphia College, and afterward attached himself to the study and practice of the law. He was sent to the continental congress, where, at first, he
was embarrassed by the opposition of his constituents to independence; they soon afterward withdrew their restrictions from the votes of their delegates. Mr. Paca was appointed chief justice of the state of Maryland about the beginning of 1778, and for one year held the office of governor. He died in 1799.
George Calvert, Lord Baltimore, was descended from a noble family, and was born in Yorkshire, and educated at Oxford, England. He was knighted by the king in 1617, and was soon after made secretary of state. In 1624 he resigned the seals to the king, confessing himself to be a Roman Catholic; but notwithstanding this, he continued in favor with the monarch, and was created Lord Bal
Charles Tanell fleredlin
timore in 1625. He twice visited Newfoundland, where the king granted him a large tract of land; but finding his property in that region was exposed to plunder by the French vessels, he abandoned it for the neighhorhood of Virginia, when Charles I granted him a patent for Maryland. He died at London, in 1632, and his son, who inherited his enterprising spirit, planted a colony there of about 200 families. The proprietorship of Maryland continued in the descendants or relatives of Lord Baltimore, with some interruptions, until the revolution.
Thomas Stone, a signer of the declaration of independence, was born in Ma. ryland, in 1743, and at the age of twenty-one, it is believed, first commenced
the practice of law at Annapolis. He was elected one of the five delegates from Maryland to the first general congress, in 1774. In 1784, Mr. Stone was ap
pointed president of congress, pro tem pore; on its adjournment, he retired to his constituents and resumed the duties of bis profession at Port Tobacco, the place of his residence, where he died, Oct. 5, 1787. Charles Carroll
, of Carrollton, a signer of the declaration of independence, was porn in Maryland, Sept. 20, 1737. At only eight years of age his father, being a
catholic, took him to France, and entered him as a student in the Jesuit College at St. Omers. At the
age of seventeen be commenced the study of law at Bourges, and afterward he continued his studies at Paris and London. In 1765, he returned to Maryland, a finished scholar and gentleman. At the commencement of the revolution, Mr. Carroll advocated the American cause with much zeal. Early in the spring of 1776, he was sent, with Dr. Franklin and Samuel Chase, on a mission to Canada to induce that province to join the American cause. He died at Baltimore, Nov., 1832, in the ninety-sixth year of his age, being the last survivor of the fifty-six who signed the declaration of independence . When he signed that instrument he added to his na
name, "of Carrollton,” that the British ministry might not mistake for him his cousin of the same name in case they should have occasion to hang the authors of this act of treason to the crown.
John E. Howard, a soldier of the revolution, was born in Maryland, in 1752. He entered the service as a captain of one of those bodies of militia, called flying camps. In 1777, he joined the army of Washington, in New Jersey. He was in the battles of Germantown and Monmouth. In 1779, he was commissioned as Lieut. Col. of the 5th Maryland regiment. He greatly distinguished himself under Gen. Morgan, at the battle of Cowpens, and afterward at Guilford, where he was wounded. In 1788, he was chosen governor of Maryland. When, in 1814, Baltimore was threatened by the enemy, he was prepared to take the field. He died Oct. 12, 1827, at the age of seventy-five.
William Smallwood, a general in the revolutionary war, was a native of Maryland. He was appointed a brigadier in the Continental army in 1776, and in 1780, a major general. He was in the battle of Long Island, where his command, composed mostly of young men of the most respectable families of Maryland, suffered severely. He was in the battles of Brandywine and Germantown; succeeded William Paca as governor of Maryland, and died in 1792.
William Wirt, the statesman and author, was born of German parentage, at Bladensburg, in 1772, and was early left an orphan. He was educated as a lawyer, and practiced in Virginia, where he was, in 1802, appointed chancellor of its eastern district. In 1803–4, his beautiful essays, under the name of the British Spy, were issued. In 1807, he gained great eclat in the trial of Aaron Burr, by his speech upon the character of Blannerhassett. In 1818, he was appointed by
President Monroe, attorney general of the United States, an office he held through three presidential terms. In 1832, he was the anti-masonic candidate for president of the United States, for which he received the electoral votes of only one state-Vermont. He died in 1834, aged 64 years. His Life of Patrick Henry is widely known. In early life, Mr. Wirt contracted dissipated habits, from which he was said to have been redeemed by listening to a sermon preached by the blind preacher, James Waddell, whose memory he has perpetuated in his British Spy.
William Pinkney, the statesman and diplomatist, was born in Annapolis, in 1764, and was bred to the law. In 1796, he was appointed a commissioner under Jay's treaty, and resided in London eight years. In 1805, he was appointed attorney general of Maryland, and the next year sent as minister to England, to treat concerning the impressment of American seamen. In 1811, he returned to America, and was appointed attorney general of the United States; in 1816, he was sent as minister to the courts of Russia and Naples. In 1820, he was elected to the United States senate, from Maryland, and died in 1822, aged 57, leaving a high reputation for brilliancy of talents and unwearied industry.
Samuel Smith, an officer of the revolution, distinguished for his gallant defense of Fort Mifflin, was born in Lancaster county, Pa., in 1752. He was educated as a merchant, and when a young man traveled extensively in Europe. In 1776, he obtained a captaincy in Smallwood's Maryland regiment, and eventually rose to the rank of general by his meritorious conduct in some of the most trying scenes of the war. In the war of 1812, he served as major general of militia, and had command of forces assembled for the defense of Baltimore. He was an enterprising merchant, and contributed largely to the commercial advancement of the city of his adoption. For 16 years he represented Baltimore in Congress, and for 23 years, Maryland in the senate of the United States. He died in 1839, in his 87th year. He was distinguished for his persevering business habits, energy of char acter, and earnestness in debate. At the age of 85 years he quelled a mob in Baltimore, by appearing in their midst bearing the American flag, and calling upon all peaceably disposed citizens to assist him in sustaining law and order.
Francis Scott Key was born in Frederick county, Aug., 1779. His father was an officer in the revolutionary war, and a descendant of some of the oldest settlers in the province. Francis, his son, was educated at St. John's College, Annapolis, and studied law at that place with his uncle. In 1801, he commenced practice at Fredericktown. He afterward removed to Washington, D. C., where he became district attorney of the city, and remained there until his death, Jan. 11, 1843. Mr. Key was the author of the “Star Spangled Banner," and a few other songs, and some devotional pieces. His poems were written without any view to publication, for the gratification of his friends.
Edgar Allan Poe, a wayward child of genius, was descended from an ancient Maryland family, and was born in Baltimore, in 1811, and died there in 1849, at the hospital, from an attack brought on by his habits of intemperance. His celebrated poem, The Raven, is an enduring monument to his memory in the literary world.
Otho Holland Williams, a distinguished general of the revolution, was born in Prince George county, in 1748. He was a major at Fort Washington, and gained great credit by the manner in which his men withstood the attack of a Hessian regiment at the time of the capture of the fort. He was then taken prisoner, and be ing exchanged, he was placed at the head of the sixth Maryland. In the campaigns of the south, under Gates and Greene, he was adjutant general of the Amer. ican army, and behaved with great distinction at the disastrous battle of Camden, and on other occasions. Previous to the disbanding of the army, he was appointed brigadier general. He died in 1794.
Nathan Towson, major general in the United States army, was born in Maryland, in 1784. In the war of 1812, he showed skill and valor in the battles on the Niagara frontier, under Brown, Ripley and Scott, at which time he was an officer of artillery. He died at Washington city, in 1854, at the age of 70. “In private life he was amiable, and his character without spot or blemish."