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The boat was anchored—says Judge Taney, in a letter prefixed to a volume of Mr. Key's poems—in a position which enabled him and his companions to see distinctly the flag of Fort McHenry on the deck of the vessel. He remained on deck during the night, watching every shell from the moment it was fired until it fell, listening with breathless interest to hear if an explosion followed. While the bombardment continued, it was sufficient proof that the fort had not surrendered. But it suddenly ceased, some time before day; and as they had no communication with any of the enemy's ships, they did not known whether the fort had surrendered, or the attack had been abandoned. They paced the deck for the remainder of the night in painful suspense. As soon as it was light enough to discern objects at a distance, their glasses were turned to the fort, uncertain whether they should see there the stars and stripes or the flag of the enemy. At length the light came, and they saw that "our flag was still there." “The Star-Spangled Banner" was commenced on the deck of the vessel in the fervor of the moment when the enemy were seen retreating to their ships; some brief notes were written on the back of a letter; for some lines he was obliged to rely on his memory, and the whole was finished in the boat on the way to the shore, and written out, as it now stands, at the hotel, on the night he reached Baltimore, and immediately after he arrived. “This outburst of the patriot and poet's heart thrilled through the souls of his brethren; they took it up: it swelled from millions of voices, and “ The Star-Spangled Banner," written by a son of Maryland, within sight of the battle-fields won by the citizen soldiers of Maryland—within sound of their victorious cannon still ringing in their ears — became the proud national anthem of the whole Union."
THE STAR-SPANGLED BANNER.
0! say can you see by the dawn's early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming-
O'er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming !
Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes,
As it fitfully blows, now conceals, now discloses ?
That the havoc of war and the battle's confusion
Their blood has washed out their foul footsteps' pollution.
Between their loved homes and the war's desolation,
Praise the power that hath made and preserved us a natiok
Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,
The following account of the Mob in Baltimore, in 1812, is from Grimshaw's United States. Gen. James M. Lingan, who was killed on the occasion, was a valued officer of the revolution. He was in the battle of Long Island, and at the surrender of Fort Washington was taken prisoner, and shared in the sufferings of the horrid prison ship. After the war, he was appointed by Washington collector of the port of Georgetown. The Gen. Lee, who suffered by this mob so severely as never to recover from it to the day of his death, was the famous commander.of Lee's legion, so celebrated in the campaigns of the south in the revolution. He was, after the war, governor of Virginia. To distinguish him from other eminent Virginians of the same name, he was usually called “ Light Horse Harry.”
“A few days after the declaration of war, the town of Baltimore was seriously disturbed. Some harsh strictures on the conduct of government having appeared in a newspaper of that city, entitled the Federal Republican,” the resentment of the opposite party was shown by destroying the office and press of that establishment. The commotion excited by this outrage had, however, in a great measure subsided, and the transaction was brought before a criminal court for investigation. But events more alarming and tragical shortly afterward succeeded. On the 26th of July, Mr. Hanson, the leading editor of the obnoxious journal, who had deemed ic prudent to leave the disordered city, returned, accompanied by his political adherents; among whom was Gen. Henry Lee, of Alexandria. Determined to recommence the paper, by first printing it in Georgetown, in the District of Columbia, and then transmitting it to Baltimore for distribution, a house was for this purpose occupied in Charles-street, secured against external violence, and guarded by a party well provided for defense. On the 28th, papers were accordingly issued. These contained severe animadversions against the mayor, police, and the people of Baltimore, for the depredations committed on the establishment in the preceding month, and were generally circulated throughout the city.
In the course of the day it became known that Mr. Hanson was in the new office in Charles-street, and it was early whispered that the house would be assailed. A number of citizens who espoused his opinions, went, therefore, to the house, and joined in its protection. Toward the evening, a crowd of boys collected; who, after using opprobious epithets to those within, began to throw stones at the windows; and about the same time, a person on the pavement, endeavoring to dissuade the youths from mischief, was severely wounded by something ponderous thrown from the house. They were cautioned from the windows to desist; but still continued to assail the place with stones. Two muskets were then fired from the upper story; charged, it was supposed, with blank cartridges, to deter them from further violence; immediately the crowd in the street greatly increased; the boys were displaced by men; the sashes of the lower windows were broken, and attempts made to force the door. Muskets, in quick succession, were discharged from the house; some military arrived to disperse the crowd; several shots were fired in return; and at length a Dr. Gale was killed by a shot from the office door. The irritation of the mob was increased. They planted a cannon against the house, but were restrained from discharging it by the timely arrival of an additional military force, and an agreement that the persons in the house would sur: render to the civil authority. Accordingly, early in the following morning, having received assurances on which they thought themselves safe in relying, they surrendered, and were conducted to the county jail, contiguous to the city. The party consisted of about twenty persons; among whom were Gen. Lee, Gen. James Lingan, and Mr. Hanson.
The mayor directed the sheriff to use every precaution to secure the doors of the prison, and the commander of the troops to employ a competent force to pre
serve the peace. In the evening everything bore the appearance of tranquillity; and the soldiers, by the consent of the magistrate, were dismissed. But, shortly after dark, a great crowd of disorderly persons reassembled about the jail, and man an intention to force it open. On being apprised of this, the mayor hastened to the spot, and with the aid of a few other gentlemen, for a while prevented the execution of the design ; but they were at length overpowered by the number and violence of the assailants. The mayor was carried away by force; and the turnkey compelled to open the doors. A tragedy ensued, which can not be described; it can be imagined only by those who are familiar with scenes of blood. General Lingan was killed; eleven were beaten and mangled with weapons of every description, such as stones, bludgeons, and sledge hammers, and then thrown as dead, into one pile outside of the door. A few of the prisoners fortunately escaped through the crowd: Mr. Hanson, fainting from his repeated wounds, was carried by a gentleman (of opposite political sentiments), at the hazard of his own life, across the adjoining river, whence he with difficulty reached the dwelling of a friend.
No effectual inquisition was ever made into this signal violation of the peace, nor punishment inflicted on the guilty. The leaders, on both sides, underwent trials: but, owing to the inflammation of public feeling, they were acquitted."
The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, 379 miles in length, extending from the waters of the Chesapeake, at Baltimore, to those of the Ohio, at Wheel
ing, is one of the greatest works of engineering skill on the continent. This im. portant undertaking owes its origin to the far-reaching sagacity of Philip E. Thomas, a Quaker merchant of Baltimore, who lived to see its completion, although nearly thirty years had elapsed from the time of its commencement. At that period, Baltimore city was worth but $25,000,000, yet it unhesitatingly embarked in an enterprise which cost 31,000,000. The first stone was laid on the 4th of July, 1828, by the venerable Charles Carroll, of Carrollton, who pronounced it, next to signing the declaration of indepen
dence, the most important Tray RUN VIADUCT, B. &0. RAILROAD.
act of his life. This elegant structure is of cast iron, 600 feet in length, and "This was at a very early 150 feet above the level of the stream.
period in the history of railways; and during the progress of the work, from year to year, old theories were exploded and new principles introduced, increasing in boldness and originality as it advanced. Its annual reports went forth as text books; its workshops were practical lecture rooms, and to have worthily graduated in this school, is an honorable passport to scientific service in any part of the world. In its struggles with unparalleled difficulties—financial, physical, legislative and legal—the gallant little state of Maryland found men equal to each emergency as it arose, and the
development of so much talent and high character in various departments, should not be esteemed the smallest benefit which the country has derived from this great enterprise."
“The line of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, traversing the Alleghanies, has already become somewhat classic ground. The vicinity of Harper's Ferry, old Fort Frederick, Cumberland, and other portions along the Potomac River, have long been known to the world for their imposing scenery, as well as for their historical interest. It is beyond Cumberland, however, that the grandest and most effective views on this route are presented. The Piedmont grade; Oakland, with its inviting summer atmosphere; Valley River Falls; the Monongahela, and other attractive points, inspire wonder in all who witness them.
Nor should the grand scientific features of the Baltimore and Ohio Road be overlooked. To say nothing of its unique and most successfully planned grades (by which an elevation of nearly three thousand feet above tide is reached), there are its numerous splendid bridges of iron, and brick, and stone; its massive build. ings of all kinds; its solidly arched tunnels, and numerous other features, devel. oping the greatest skill and ingenuity upon the part of the strong minds which wrought them. The longest finished tunnel in America is Kingwood Tunnel, 261 miles from Baltimore; it is four fifths of a mile in length, and cost more than a million of dollars!
Our engraving of "Tray Run Viaduct,'” says Leslie's Pictorial, from which this is copied, " is from an accurate and faithful drawing, made upon the spot, by Mr. D. C. Hitchcock, our artist, who has also been engaged in taking numerous views on this attractive route for the London Illustrated News. Appropriate to our notice of the Tray Run Viaduct, we may quote the following paragraphs from the * Book of the Great Railway Celebration of 1857, published by the Appletons :
Cheat River is a rapid mountain stream, of a dark coffee colored water, which is supposed to take its hue from the forests of laurel, hemlock and black spruce in which it has its rise. Our road crossed the stream at the foot of Cranberry grade by a viaduct. This is composed of two noble spans of iron, roofed in on abutments, and a pier of solid freestone taken from a neighboring quarry. Arrived at this point, we fairly entered theCheat River valley,' which presents by far the grandest and most boldly picturesque scenery to be found on the line of this road, if indeed it is not the finest series of railroad views on our continent. The European travelers in our party were as much enraptured by it as were those of us who have never visited the mountains, lakes and glens of Scotia or Switzerland. For several miles, we ran along the steep mountain side, clinging, as it were, to the gigantic cliffs, our cars like great cages suspended—though upon the safest and most solid of beds—midway, as it were, between heaven and earth. At one moment the view was confined to our immediate locality, hemmed in on every side, as we were, by the towering mountain spurs. At the next, a slight curve in the road opened to view fine stretches of the deep valley, with the dark river flowing along its bottom, and glorious views of the for. est-covered slopes descending from the peaks to the water's edge. Amazed at the grandeur of the ever-varying scenery of this region, a French gentleman is said to have exclaimed in ecstacy, Magnifique! Zere is nossing like zis in France!' The engineering difficulties, overcome in the part of the road within the first few miles west of Cheat River bridge, must have been appalling, but for us the rough places had been made smooth as the prairie levels. After crossing this river itself, at Rowlesburg, the next point was to ascend along its banks the • Cheat River hill.' The ravine of Kyer's run, a mile from the bridge, 76 feet deep, was crossed by a solid embankment. Then, after bold cutting along the steep, rocky hill side, we reached Buckeye hollow, which is 108 feet below the road level, and finally came to Tray run, which we crossed at a hight of 150 feet above its original bed by a splendid viaduct, 600 feet long, founded on a massive base of masonry piled upon the solid rock below. These viaducts are of iron--designed by Mr. Albert Fink, one of Mr. Latrobe's assistants--and are exceedingly graceful, as well as very substantial structures. When we reached the west end of the great Tray run viaduct, the cars halted, and the company alighted for a better view of the works. A walk of a few feet brought us to the brow of the precipice overlooking the river, nearly 300 feet below. The view from this spot, both of the scenery and the grand structure which so splendidly spanned the immense mountain ravine, was truly inspiring. From our great elevation the stream appeared to be almost beneath our feet, an illusion promptly dispelled when the strongest and longest armed among us failed to throw a stone far enough to drop in its bed. With the entire train full of guests, the band also, alighted here, and taking position near the cliff, struck up the popular air of Love Not,' in sweet harmony with the emotions inspired by the scene. The
sun had just retired behind the distant mountain top at the head of the valley, casting a lengthened shadow over the place, and leaving us quite alone in the grand and stupendous solitude, all things combining to impress us deeply with the influence of the solemn poetry of nature, whose · sanctum sanctorum' we seemed to have invaded. The shrill note of the stern whistle recalled us to the realities of our position, and we reluctantly resumed our seats, to be whirled along on our westward journey.
The following inscriptions are from a work entitled "Memoirs of the Dead, and Tomb’s Remembrancer," published in Baltimore, 1806:
To the memory of Patrick Allison, Doctor of Theology, founder and first Pastor of the church of the Presbyterians in the city of Baltimore, who died on the 21st day of Aug., 1802, aged 62 years. P.
In memory of the Rev. Berton RIGGIN, who fell a victim to the epidemic in Sept., 1799, in the 40th year of his age, and 12th of his ministry. He was an agreeable companion, useful and acceptable in the inistry, and died in full assurance of that rest that remains for the people of God.
With songs let us follow his flight,
And mount with his spirit above,
And lodg'd in the Eden above. M. Here lies what was mortal of Joseph Rawlins, who fell asleep on the 31st day of Jan., 1795, in the 64th year of his age, and rests beneath this stone, in full assurance of being awakened again at the last day, by the fixed decree and power of God, to appear before his dread tribunal, and from a well grounded faith in the all-sufficient merits of Jesus Christ, expects pardon for his sins, and to have his vile body changed and made like the glorious body of Christ, and to be admitted into his heavenly mansions, there to dwell in his presence in the fullness of bliss and happiness to all eternity. E.
Sacred to the memory of William Hawkins Wood, and Anna MARIA Wood, who departed this life Nov. 3, 1795, and Nov. 4, 1802. William aged 5 months, and Anna Maria 11 months and 16 days.
Bold infidelity, canst thou reply,
The first two inscriptions below are from tablets within the first Presbyterian Church; those that follow are from monuments in the Green Mount Cemetery:
To the memory of JAMES INGLISH, second minister of this church, who suddenly departed this life on Sunday the 15th of Aug., 1819, aged 42 years. This Congregation in respectful manifestation of their affection have inscribed this tablet.
To the memory of WILLIAM Nevins, D.D., third minister of this church, who departed this Life after a lingering illness on Monday the 14th of Sept., 1835, in the 39th year of his age. In grateful memory of his ministry, and of their affectionate remembrance, this congregation have placed this Tablet.
Com. John D. DANIELS, Columbian navy, born Dec. 19, 1783, died Oct. 29, 1855. Requiescat in pace. Amen.
In memory of Gen. Wm. H. Winder, born Feb. 18, 1775, died May 24, 1824. A candid ear and a guileless tongue, his motto and his character.
JAMES O. Law, born March 14th, 1809, died of ship fever in the service of the destitute, June 6, 1847.—Commissioned Capt. Independent Grays, March, 1837, mayor of Baltimore, major of the 53d Regiment M. v. As a magistrate, just and firm, as a soldier, gallant and beloved.--Commissioned major 52d Regiment, Sept., 1842. He lived a cherished citizen. His death illustrated the active benevolence which had adorned his life. The officers and men of his regiment have erected this monument to his memory.