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and displayed the same amiable qualities which had rendered his father respected and beloved. On the occurrence of the revolution in England, in 1688, the government of Maryland was assumed by King William, and in 1691, Sir Leonel Copely was appointed governor. Among the first acts of the new government was the removal of the capital from St. Mary's to Prov. idence, thence after known as Annapolis.
In 1715, the government was again restored to the family of the proprietary, who continued to exercise authority until the American revolution. In 1740, Maryland contributed 500 volunteers and £7,500 to the disastrous expedition against the Spanish main. In 1748, the province contained about 130,000 inhabitants, of whom 94,000 were white, and 36,000 colored per
The great staple export was tobacco; in 1747, 5,000 hogsheads were exported, and for many purposes, tobacco was the currency of the province. In 1732, tobacco was made a legal tender at one penny per pound, and Indian corn at 20 pence per bushel. The boundary disputes of Maryland are somewhat celebrated. It was contended that the original grant to Lord Baltimore covered all the territory bordering the Atlantic and Delaware Bay, between 38° and 40° north latitude, including the whole of Delaware and a considerable strip of Pennsylvania. A part of this tract was afterward granted by the duke of York to William Penn. This occasioned many disputes between the two colonies. In 1750, commissioners were appointed to determine the line. The "scientific gentlemen” employed in this important service were Messrs. Mason and Dixon, from whom this celebrated boundary received its name. They began at the angle formed by the intersection of the boundary line between Delaware and Maryland with that between Pennsylvania and Maryland, and proceeded westward 130 miles, when their operations were suspended, by fear of the hostilities of the Indians. At the end of every mile they set up a stone, with the letter"P"and the arms of Penn engraved on the north side, and “M,” with the escutcheon of Lord Baltimore on the south. In 1782-3, a continuation was made of “ Mason and Dicon's Line” to its western terminus.
After the revolution commenced, delegates were chosen to frame a constitution and state government. The elections took place in Nov. 1776, and the new legislature convened in Annapolis, Feb. 5, 1777. Thomas Johnson was chosen the first constitutional governor of Maryland.
“Throughout the revolutionary war, the services of the Maryland troops were marked by gallantry and efficiency. In the first considerable action after that of Bunker Hill, the “ Maryland line” signalized its valor, and took a high position among the several corps of the continental army. They were under the command of Col. Wm. Smallwood, who afterward became major general, and one of the most distinguished officers whose achievements in the struggle illustrate the bravery of his native state. In the battle of Long Island, and in those of Harlem Hights, White Plains and Fort Washington, the Maryland regiments were conspicuous for their courage and discipline; nor were they less so in the memorable actions at Trenton and Princeton. With the exception of actions in the campaign against Burgyne, indeed, there was no prominent battle of the war, from Brooklyn Hights to Yorktown, in which the Marylanders did not take an active and honorable part; and under every commander-Washington, Lafayette, DeKalb and Greene—they earned special notice and applause for gallantry and good conduct. The number of troops furnished by Maryland during the war was 15,229 regulars, and 5,407 militia ; and the expenditures of the
state amounted to $7,568,145 in specie, a large portion of which was raised by the sale of confiscated British property within the state. On the 230 Dec., 1783, the brilliant drama of the revolution was closed by Washington's resignation of his commission. This event took place at Annapolis, in the presence of Congress, the state legislature, many officers who had served through the war, and a crowd of deeply interested spectators. The ceremony constitutes a scene in American history, second in importance only to the reading of the declaration of independence."
The Catholics of Maryland, who had been under the jurisdiction of a vicar appointed by the bishop of the Roman Church in London, saw fit to conform the regulation of their church affairs to their altered condition. In 1787, in pursuance of the request of the clergy of this order in the state, the Rev. John Carroll became by appointment from Rome, spiritual superior. In 1790, he was appointed bishop of the whole United States, as the diocese, of which Baltimore was the center, was the only one then existing. In 1810, on the division of his see into several bishoprics, he was made an archbishop.
In the war of 1812, Admiral Cockburn, commanding the British naval forces, committed a series of outrages on the shores of Chesapeake Bay. In the spring of 1813, the villages of Frenchtown, Havre de Grace, Fredericktown and Georgetown were plundered and burnt by his orders; and in Aug., 1814, occurred the expedition of Gen. Ross against the city of Washington. The Battle of North Point, near Baltimore, was fought Sept. 13, 1814 : the British lost about 400 men, the Americans about half that number. The evening of the next day the enemy commenced a bombardment of Fort McHenry, the work chiefly relied on for the defense of Baltimore. The attack was gallantry repelled, and the enemy retired on board their shipping.
Maryland, one of the original thirteen states, is very irregular in its form, lying between 38° and 39° 44' N. lat., and between 75° 10' and 79° 20' W. long. It is bounded north by Pennsylvania, east by Delaware and the Atlantic, south and west by Virginia. The state is divided by Chesapeake Bay into two sections, called the Eastern and Western Shore. These two divisions, exclusive of the bay, contain nearly 6,000,000 of acres, of which about 2,800,000 are improved. The western shore is about double the area of the eastern. About 60 square miles of its original territory have been taken off by the grant of the District of Columbia to the United States. The Eastern Shore of Maryland is generally of a low and sandy surface, and though not remarkably fertile, produces fine wheat and Indian corn. western section of the state is more elevated and fertile, gradually rising toward the north-west, where it is quite mountainous, being crossed by a part of the Alleghany chain, reaching from Pennsylvania to Virginia. This part of the state is rich in coal and iron.
“ Maryland was one of the earliest among the United States to enter with zeal upon a system of internal improvements; and it is believed that a portion of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad was the first in America used for the purposes of ordinary travel and transportation. This state, as well as Pennsylvania, displayed more enterprise than caution in projecting her earlier works of intercommunication, and involved herself in a heavy debt, particularly in the construction of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, and which has never been completed beyond Cumberland (184 miles), nor yielded a remunerating income in tolls. Maryland has loaned and expended more than
$15,000,000 in aid of railroads and canals, which are now likely to become richly remunerative.”
The constitution of Maryland has been twice revised since the American revolution—in 1833 and 1851. The governor is now elected by the people for four years. The senate consists of 22 members, elected for four, and the house of representatives for two years. The state is divided into three districts, from which the governor must be chosen in rotation. Maryland is divided into eight counties. Population, in 1790, 341,548; in 1840, 470,019; in 1850, 583,034 ; of which number, 79,077 were free colored, and 90,368 were slaves.
Battle Monument Square, Baltimore, north view, The Battle Monument appears in front; the building next on the right is Barnum's City Hotel; the Gilmore House and part of the Court House are also shown.
BALTIMORE, one of the first cities in the United States in population and commercial importance, is situated on the north side of a bay formed by the Patapsco river, about 12 miles from its entrance into Chesapeake Bay, and about 200 miles from the ocean by ship channel. It lies 38 miles N. E. from Washington, 98 from Philadelphia, and 28 N. from Annapolis. The city has an area, over which it is compactly built, of about two miles east and west, and a mile and a half north and south. It is admirably situated, both for foreign and internal trade, having a good harbor, being in a central
position in regard to the Atlantic states, and having direct communication with the Great West by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The ground on which the city is built is uneven, having several gentle elevations, which give it a fine drainage and commanding sites for public and private edifices. The streets are laid out with much regularity, and cross each other at right angles; of these, Baltimore street is the principal, being 82 feet wide and two miles long, running east and west through the center of the city.
Baltimore contains upward of 140 churches, or places of public worship, many of which are elegant and costly edifices. The Catholic Cathedral, at the corner of Cathedral and Mulberry streets, is an imposing structure, built of granite, in the form of a cross, 190 feet long, 177 broad at the arms of che cross, and 127 high from the floor to the top of the cross that surmounts the dome. It has the largest organ in the United States, with 6,000 pipes and 36 stops. It is ornamented with two paintings, one, " The Descent from the Cross,” was presented by Louis XVI; the other, "St. Louis burying his officers and soldiers slain before Tunis,” was presented by Charles X, of France. The city is also well provided with educational, literary and benevolent institutions. The University of Maryland was incorporated in 1812, and has a faculty of arts and sciences, of physic, of theology and law. The Loyola College has twenty professors and instructors. The Maryland College of Pharmacy was incorporated in 1841. The Washington Medical College was founded in 1827. St. Mary's College, an esteemed Catholic institution, was founded in 1799. McKimm's free school is a prosperous institution under the control of the Society of Friends. The Maryland Hospital for the insane is on an eminence in the western part of the city. The
Mount Hope Hospital,” and the “ Baltimore Infirmary,” are under the control of the Sisters of Charity. In the western part of the city is the “ Aged Widow's Home.” There are also two orphan asylums and a house of Refuge. The Peabody Institute was founded in 1857, by a munificent gift of $300,000 from George Peabody, a London banker of American birth. The scheme embraces, 1. An extensive free library. 2. Public lectures, and distribution of prizes to pupils of the high schools. 3. An academy of music. 4. A gallery of art. 5. Rooms for the Maryland Historical Society,
Baltimore has superior advantages for manufacturing purposes. Jones' Falls and Patapsco River afford immense water power, which is extensively employed for flouring mills. Numerous cotton and other mills are in operation, and one of the largest establishments in the United States is located here. The city is well supplied with wholesome water from the public fountains, and from the elevated part of Jones' Falls, from whence water is obtained, and conducted by pipes through the city. The industrial employments of the citizens are varied and extensive. The population of Baltimore, in 1790, was 13,530; in 1850, 169,054; and in 1860, 218,612.
Baltimore, from the prominence of its monuments, is sometimes called the “ Monumental City.” The Battle Monument, designed by M. Godefroy, stands in Calvert street, near Fayette street, upon what was once the site of the “old court house," now Monument Square. It has an Egyptian base, which is surmounted by a column representing a fasces, upon the bands of which are placed in bronze letters, the names of those who fell at the battle of North Point. On each angle of the base are griffins, and the lower part of the column is ornamented with basso relievos, representing part of the occurrences of the 12th of Sept., 1814; the whole being crowned by a statue of the city, with the eagle at her side, holding a laurel wreath suspended in
her uplifted hand. The entire hight of the monument is 52 feet, 2 inches. The following is on the south side, at the base of the column :
Battle of North Point, 12th September, A. D. 1814, and of the Independence of the United States, the thirty-ninth.
On the north side.—Bombardment of Fort McHenry, 12th September, A. D. 1814 ; and of the Independence of the United States, the thirty-ninth.
The names on the column are the following, viz: James Lowry Donaldson, adjutant of 27th regiment, Gregorius Andre, lieutenant 1st rifle battalion, Levi Clagett, 3d lieutenant of Nicholson's Artillerists. John Clemm, Daniel Wells, jr., Wm. Ways,
R. R. Cooksey, 8. Haubert, Benjn. Neal,
Wm. McClellan, T. Burneston,
John R. Cox,
C. Fallier, H. G. McComas, John Jepson,
J. Dunn, John C. Boyd, J.M. Marriot, of John, Uriah Prosser, J. Craig
The Armistead monument is erected in the gothic niche of the building in the rear of the city spring, a cool, sequestered spot about 500 feet north of the Battle Monument. It has the following inscription :
Col. GEORGE ARMISTEAD, in honor of whom this monument is erected, was the gallant defender of Fort McHenry during the bombardment of the British fleet on the 13th September, 1814. He died universally esteemed and regretted, on the 25th of April, 1818, aged 39 years.
The Washington monument, at the intersection of Charles and Monument streets, is a most imposing structure of white marble. It is 1764 feet in hight, on a base 50 feet square and 20 feet high, and is surmounted by a colossal statue of Washington, 16 feet high. As the monument stands on an eminence 100 feet above tide, the total elevation of the entire structure above the level of the river, is 3124 feet. The statue on the summit, representing Washington resigning his commission, weighs 16 tuns, and cost $9,000. It was sculptured by Signior Andre Causia, and was placed there Oct. 19, 1829. The whole monument, including the statue, was designed by
bert Mills, architect, and cost $200,000. It is ascended by a spiral staircase from within, and from its summit a beautiful and varied prospect is obtained. There are four gates to the inclosure: the inscription over each of the four doors is as follows:
“ To George WASHINGTON, BY THE STATE OF MARYLAND.” On the sides of the base are the following inscriptions : on the south, “Born 22d of Feb., 1732. Died 14th Dec., 1799." On the East, “ Commander-in-chief of the American Army, 15th June, 1775. Commission resigned at Annapolis 23d Dec., 1783." On the West, “President of the United States, 4th March, 1789. Retired to Mt. Vernon, 4th March, 1797."
In 1662, 28 years after the founding of St. Mary's, Charles Gorsuch, a member of the Society of Friends took up and patented 50 acres of land on Whetstone Point, the first land patented within the present limits of Baltimore. Its extremity is occupied by the bastions of Fort McHenry, and its long and level plain has been used for a chief review ground for Baltimore militia. In 1663, the land on either side of Hartford Run, was taken up under the name of “Mountenay's Neck," a title which became one of great notoriety, owing to the perilous suits in ejectment, that subsequently arose among the owners and claimants of the adjoining property.
Other patentees followed Gorsuch and Mountenay, and the cultivation of this